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Acknowledgements and thanks Thanks to Jennifer Nisbet who wrote the publications, Career and Life Planning Workbook and Job Search Guide, on which this workbook is based. Our thanks go also to Christine Adams, Anna Alston, Mary Guthrie, Anne Milne, Clare Riding, Ian Tawse and Jo Ward for their additional material and work on the book, and to other colleagues for comments, editorial suggestions and other production help. Produced by the Student Services Communications Team Copyright © 2006 The Open University While every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this book is up to date at the time of going to press, the material in it may be altered or amended. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United Kingdom by Thanet Press Ltd, Margate ISBN 978-0-7492-1258-2
This book consists of six sections that take you in a progressive series of steps through the process of career review and choice, and applying for jobs:
01 Knowing yourself 7
1.1 What am I like? 8 1.2 What work would suit me? 13
Information and activities which help you build up a file of your skills and experience, interests and achievements, weaknesses and strengths. This will help you to discover career opportunities that are likely to match your strengths and circumstances.
04 Getting the job 57
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 What do employers look for in graduates? 57 Matching vacancies 59 Application forms 62 The curriculum vitae (CV) 65 The covering letter 78 The interview 81 Other selection techniques 87
02 Exploring possibilities 35
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Planning your strategy 35 Graduate-level jobs 36 Creative job search 38 Finding vacancies 38 Building a network of contacts 43
This will guide you through some important areas. It discusses what employers look for and how to tell exactly what skills vacancy adverts are seeking. This section also shows you how to produce high-quality application forms, CVs and covering letters, and discusses how to perform to your best ability in interviews and other selection procedures.
This section suggests how and where you might find information to help in the process.
05 Equality and diversity issues 93
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Age 94 Criminal record 95 Disability or additional requirements 96 Gender/sex 98 Race 100 Sexuality and sexual orientation 101 Religion or belief 102
03 Making decisions and taking action 47
3.1 Making decisions about your life 47 3.2 Goals, restrictions and resources 48 3.3 Plan of action 52
How to move forward – this section gives you an opportunity to look at your ‘framework of choice’, to consider the restrictions and resources in your life, and to create a ‘plan of action’ for managing change and making things happen.
Explores a range of issues related to equality of opportunity.
06 The next steps 105
6.1 Open University Careers Advisory Service 105 6.2 Open University study materials 106 6.3 Other sources of help 107
Further sources of help – useful organisations, websites and resources.
You could take a relatively informal approach. perhaps when you’re not in the midst of your studies. but you might want to dip into different areas at different stages of your career planning and job seeking. but it also complements information on our careers website. interests. but you could become distracted by the mechanics of the process. agencies. You’ll certainly find it helpful to get comments and opinions from people who know you well. • Will my age be a problem in changing career? Look at Sections 2. The best place to start is with yourself. To begin with. with a careers adviser or perhaps through your appraiser at work or your line manager. skills. and the more time and effort you put into them. support and encouragement. the more productive they’ll be.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook How to use this book Use this workbook to help you to: • Take stock • Review your career and life • Evaluate your aptitudes.ac. and you might well need to return to them as your ideas develop. • I know what I want to do but don’t know how to achieve it Look at Sections 2. so the clearer you are about your own characteristics. Time It’s difficult to foresee exactly how much time you’ll need. 4 and 5. and to define what you’re really looking for. This book focuses on you because although organisations. Ways of working Give some thought now to how you might work with these materials before you begin. Activities We encourage you to take time over the activities suggested in this book. It is you who will be in the work situation. make a note of the recommended sections: • I don’t know where to begin Look particularly at Section 1. make sure it’s one you’re comfortable with. Career planning has to be a recurring process – you can’t do it once and for all. working with a partner or friend. The website for the Careers Advisory Service is at: www. putting your CV together or preparing for an interview. then settle back secure in the knowledge that you won’t have to do it again. They’re likely to be helpful when you reach the stage of completing application forms. they can act as a sounding board and suggest different ways of looking at things. and • Begin to plan how you might achieve it. Working through the activities at your own pace gives you scope for quiet reflection. This is a reference source that can stand on its own. so that you can build a sound foundation for later steps in reviewing your career. completing application forms. If you have particular concerns If you recognise concerns of your own – you may find more than one – in this list. The workbook outlines the practical steps needed for looking for a job. This book invites you to recognise your own qualities and abilities. you might prefer to tackle the process in stages. Working with others can give you ideas. positive and constructive you are. Keep your activities as you work through them. Whatever approach you decide on. designing a curriculum vitae (CV) and presenting yourself at interviews.open.uk/careers 5 . The more open minded. 4 and 6.uk/careers We recommend working through the workbook sections in order.ac. • I need to find a job in a particular geographical area Look at Section 2. planning a strategy. find some of them particularly time consuming. • How should I use the internet in looking for jobs? Look at Section 2. Working through the activities should be challenging but rewarding.open. values and personal needs • Decide what you want to achieve. • How should I update my CV? Look at Section 4. the more precisely you can specify what you want and communicate it to employers. You might find it useful to link up with another person or a small group. visit our website at www. the most important influence on your career and life planning is you. or set up a more formal relationship. people and materials are all useful resources. the basis of our original plans inevitably shifts. 3. You may To find out more. As we make changes and as circumstances change around us. they can’t make things happen for you Remember.
ac. visit our website at www. that some of the activities (and others) are also available online on the Careers Advisory Service website at: www.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Knowing yourself In this section 1. At intervals you’ll be asked to ‘pause for thought’ and note down your responses. The activities in this section ask you to think about a series of questions as a beginning to your career review. They offer different ways of considering what you’re like and what you can do. your education.uk/careers Here you will find links to lots of different activities and resources to assist in career planning and job seeking.uk/careers 7 . however.2 What work would suit me? 13 Remember that you may have potential that has yet to be developed. The section starts by asking you to look back. You may find that some seemingly unchangeable things can be changed. The questions are: • Who am I? What were my early influences and decisions? • What are my main achievements? • What roles do I play in life? • What have I learnt in my spare time? • How big a part of my life is work? • What work experience have I had? • What roles do I play at work? • What sort of person am I to work with? • What am I good at.uk To find out more. Try to keep an open mind when considering future possibilities.ac.open. after exploring them. Note. Some of these resources and links are provided by The Open University and some by external agencies such as Graduate Prospects www. and learnt how you cope with things and respond to different tasks and challenges.open.ac. less well-paid work. so that you can learn new skills or take up more enjoyable. This is the first step in the career-review process. training.1 What am I like? 8 1. You might be able to reduce your mortgage by moving to a smaller house or a cheaper area. Your past has shaped you through your family background. You’ve gained knowledge and skills from your experiences. as far as work is concerned? • What do I really want from work? • How well does my present (or last) job meet my needs? • What kind of work would I like to do? You may like to try out some of these activities in writing using this section. for example. there’s good reason to. and reject them only if.prospects. This section will help you to develop your self-awareness. work and leisure activities. take a clear view of your career and life. and consider the questions ‘What am I like?’ and ‘What can I do?’ It will help you to review your life and work experience and the skills and qualities that have grown out of them. This kind of self-knowledge is the soundest basis for making decisions about your future.
and to discover aspects of yourself that you might want to develop or change. noting any thoughts or ideas that occur to you: • What does the lifeline say about you and how you’ve lived your life? • Are there recognisable themes that have run through your life? • Is the pattern generally up or down? Is it steady or changeable? What sorts of incident were associated with the highs and lows? Are the highs generally associated with your own choices and the lows with the unexpected? Are there some experiences you cope with easily and others that really throw you? • Are there any lessons to be learnt? For instance. children.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. A third recognised someone else as consistently and unobtrusively acting as a mentor. Pause for thought Would someone who knows you well have drawn your lifeline differently? What would that person have said? 8 To find out more. consider it as a whole. Moved House HIGH POINT Secondary School Qualified (production engineer) Marriage Son Became management trainee (part time study.1 In this activity you’re going to draw a ‘lifeline’. Diploma) Daughter Bought flat (Improvement Grant) Bought house – garden-mortgage! Changes in company policy (new job. such as education. Activity 1. project engineering) NOW Hospital (appendix removed) Left School (apprenticeship) Promotion (problems due to lack of experience Father died Moved sideways (into sales and marketing) Company hit hard time (redundancy) LOW POINT The lifeline exercise can result in a lot of emotions coming to the surface as you review your experiences.1 What am I like? 1. Put them in the form of a diagram like the one here. You may find it useful to talk through any difficult emotions with someone you trust. You’ll be asked to refer back to your lifeline later on. this activity revealed to one person that all her high points were associated with praise from others and her low points with geographical moves.uk/careers .1 Who am I? What were my early influences and decisions? The two activities in this section will help you to develop an overview of your career so far. and to consider how your early history contributed to it. Example When you’ve drawn a lifeline that reflects your experiences.1. retirement and so on. to help you think about the pattern of your life. Another noted that all his positive job changes followed disappointments in his private life. Think about the feelings aroused by each experience and answer these questions. and he saw that each disappointment motivated him towards a change and offered opportunities.ac. This activity can help you to gather insights that can influence your future choices. marriage.open. visit our website at www. showing high and low points at different times of your life. Note down key events.
the area and house you lived in. The activity may take some time.open. family lifestyle. perhaps. Looking back. the subjects you were good at and enjoyed. experiences you had. 3 Schooling List the schools you went to. 4 Teenage years What activities were you good at or did you enjoy? How did your friends see you? What were you like as a teenager? What did you want to be? 1 Family influences If applicable. To find out more. was one of your parents a mechanic or another a teacher? 5 Any further education or training What did you do? How did you choose it? How did you get on? What prompted you to begin studying with the OU? 2 What do you remember about your early childhood? For example. your role in the family.ac. For instance. You may see themes appearing. could you have made different choices? Make a note of any insights you’ve gained through remembering and reflecting.uk/careers 9 . say something about any occupational influences on you. how you got on with other children. why and how you arrived at where you are today. Make notes under the headings below. visit our website at www. school sports or activities you took part in. and you might want to return to it later to change or add points. concentrating on your childhood and school life. Maybe you had various abilities but developed one rather than another – sporting ability rather than artistic talent. what your parents expected of you. Pause for thought Now spend some time considering what your notes say about you – what you’re like. with dates. Some of this information will be useful when you put your CV together (see Section 4). activities you participated in.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. how your teachers saw you. how you saw your teachers.2 This activity brings out some of the early themes from your lifeline. such as strong aspects of your personality or talents.
passing all your exams first time may say that you’re an excellent student.1. For example.2 What are my main achievements? The activity in this section can help you to recognise skills and qualities that you might not always be conscious of.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1.uk/careers . They could be workrelated or to do with relationships. My achievements 1 2 3 4 5 What they say about me 1 2 3 4 5 Pause for thought Which of the skills or qualities you’ve listed could be used in a work situation? What kind of work? The chances are that you’ve highlighted ‘transferable skills’ and qualities that would be welcome in many kinds of work. visit our website at www. Set them out in the table below.open. things you do in your spare time. note the achievements you’re most proud of and what they say about you. 10 To find out more. recent or a long time ago.ac. passing your driving test on the fifth attempt may say a lot about your staying power and determination. Activity 1. It can be a particularly useful approach if you haven’t had much formal experience like paid work – it’s easy to assume that skills gained outside work somehow don’t count.3 Looking back at your lifeline.
1. You may be a parent (cook.4 Now complete the table below. delegating. Each role demands different skills. and so on. My main roles 1 2 3 4 5 Pause for thought Looking at all your roles. Again. visit our website at www. you have needed to develop skills of budgeting. How do you feel about them? Which do you most enjoy using? How could you use them in work? To find out more. are you surprised at the number of things you do and take for granted every day? Look at the skills you’ve listed.open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. time management. this is a particularly useful exercise if you have little work experience to draw on. Circle the ones that are particular strengths. You may be an employee (team leader. listener or organiser). You may take part in voluntary work (counsellor.3 What roles do I play in life? Another way of looking at your skills is to consider the roles you’ve played in your life. cooking. you need skills of learning. you’ve developed not only practical skills but planning and organising skills as well. working group member. communication and keeping to schedules. you develop skills of briefing and dealing with people as well as those of managing meetings. time management. gardener and household manager).ac. As a student. If you enjoy DIY. project manager). If you are a parent. as many skills are learnt outside paid work. By chairing meetings of a club.uk/careers 11 . Activity 1.
uk/careers . what would you now say are your main strengths and weaknesses? They can be skills.open. Remember that strengths can be built on for the future and weaknesses can be reduced by your efforts.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. personal characteristics or interests. although you may not have financial responsibilities at work you might be treasurer to your local darts team or do the audit for the youth club funds.5 My main activities outside work are (or have been) 1 2 3 4 5 Review Think about what you’ve done so far in this section.1. they need not be barriers to the future. It’s easy to forget that leisure activities can give us as many skills and abilities as work. Activity 1. abilities. My main strengths 1 2 3 4 5 6 My main weaknesses 1 2 3 4 5 6 12 To find out more. but your spare-time activities could help you to demonstrate skills and qualities.ac. visit our website at www. What have you learnt about yourself? Bringing some of your answers together.4 What have I learnt in my spare time? What hobbies do you have or have you had in the past? You may not turn your hobby into a career. What are the possibilities in your interests? Swimming? DIY? Photography? Have you held positions of responsibility in any of them? What have you contributed to your household for instance? Can you see any interests or hobbies that might be helpful to future work plans? For example.
This is something that varies from person to person.ac. even workaholic. If you have a more central score You keep a balance between work and leisure.uk/careers 13 . it’s time to think about work. think about your approach to activities or projects.open. you need to be clear about how important work is to you. have little concern about getting on in your career. and might be seen as ‘laid back’. If you don’t have much experience of paid work.1 How big a part of my life is work? Before considering what you want to do. visit our website at www.2 What work would suit me? Now that you’ve spent some time considering the skills and qualities you’ve developed through experience. for example. The next activity can help you to think about this. You have some concern about doing well and making progress. you would always put work first and aim high in your achievements.2. 1. but you don’t let work rule your life. for example if you scored –20. You might be highly ambitious. If you scored +20. You may have found yourself in a post that takes over and leaves little time for family life. 1 I always aim high in my work 2 My ambition isn’t necessarily to get to the top 3 I set myself difficult goals to achieve 4 I don’t like to let work disturb my social life 5 I want to do well at whatever I’m doing 6 Being a success in life isn’t too important to me 7 I like being seen as dedicated to my job 8 I don’t like to aim too high 9 Work always comes before pleasure 10 People wouldn’t describe me as very ambitious Pause for thought Think about the way you scored in this activity. At the lower end of the scale. or you may prefer something that can give you a better balance between work and home life. the stronger your ambition.6 Rate each of the following statements Use this scale – try to avoid choosing 3 if you can: 5 4 3 2 1 Always true Usually true Neither true nor untrue Usually untrue Always untrue Add up your scores From the odd-numbered questions From the even-numbered questions Take the ‘even’ score away from the ‘odd’ score (even if it produces a minus score) What did you score? If you have a plus (+) score The higher your score. or you might avoid positions that regularly eat into your leisure time. Activity 1. How does this feel? Is it right for you or would you like to change this aspect of your life? To find out more.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. you would put your social life before work. You might even be seen as ‘workaholic’! If you have a minus (–) score You don’t see work as the most important aspect of your life.
4 Did you have to deal with any difficulties? 5 Which tasks or activities did you find most appealing. Did you volunteer or were you directed into it? If you had some choice. with dates.uk/careers .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. delivering ‘Meals on Wheels’. but it’s easy to take yourself for granted and not recognise the wide range and high level of skills and abilities you have.2. Do you see any patterns? Can you see particular strengths or areas of difficulty? Do you enjoy some things more than others? Do others turn to you for help with particular things? 14 To find out more. helping readers at school. 2 For each job. unpaid or voluntary) by noticing how you feel about different tasks and respond to work situations.2 What work experience have I had? Most people would agree that work experience is very important when considering future directions.7 1 List the jobs you’ve had. either through formal appraisal or from informal comments and reactions. or how well you perform particular activities in comparison with other people. note the range of tasks or activities you had to do. and will be useful when preparing for interviews (see Section 4). Many will be ‘transferable skills’ that you can use in other situations. If you have limited or no experience of paid employment. make a similar list of unpaid or voluntary experience for example. visit our website at www. note how it came about. You may also have learnt from others. The next activity helps you to explore your experience. enjoyable or rewarding? Why? 6 What were your particular achievements? 7 How did you get on with the other people? 8 What was your style of working? 9 Were you known for particular things? 10 What were you most proud of? 11 What were the things you disliked or found frustrating? Pause for thought Look back at what you’ve written.ac. The activity may take some time. fundraising for a charity or involvement in a conservation project. what factors seemed important in deciding to take it up? 3 For each job. You will have learnt a huge amount through work (whether paid. Activity 1.open. and you might want to come back to it later.
cross it out. visit our website at www.3 What roles do I play at work or elsewhere? This activity should help you to become aware of the skills and experience you’ve developed through the typical roles you play at work.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. Activity 1.uk/careers 15 . Does it sound like you? If it comes to you easily. All the words describe positive qualities. To find out more. Work through each role in the list.8 Some work roles and areas of competence are listed below. If you’re not sure or if it’s only partly true. Circle any that describe you particularly.open. apply this to whatever activity has taken up a lot of your time. if it isn’t a usual role for you. If work hasn’t been a major part of your life.ac. completing an application form or attending an interview (which you will cover in more detail in Section 4).2. leave it blank. put a tick beside it. INITIATE IMPLEMENT MONITOR MAINTAIN IMPROVE CONTROL ALLOCATE SELECT DEVELOP CREATE ENHANCE DELEGATE SEEK ORGANISE SOLVE DECIDE LIAISE COORDINATE EXPLORE INVESTIGATE LINK SELL PLAN TEACH COMMUNICATE HARMONISE CHECK CAMPAIGN PERSUADE MEASURE SUPERVISE CHOOSE GUIDE MAKE TRAIN EVALUATE Pause for thought Look at the roles you’ve ticked. Can you think of any specific activities or actions at work or in non-work activities that show that they describe you? What evidence can you give to prove them? How do you feel about them? Which do you most relish carrying out? You’ll find this list useful when you come to preparing a CV.
act independently (s) More practical than theoretical (t) Determined (f) Sympathetic.uk/careers . not easily upset (f) Tend to influence people (s) Ambitious to get on at all costs (f) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Average 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Less 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 To find out more.open.ac. Activity 1. come in top (f) Like persuading.4 What sort of person am I to work with? Your personality affects your style of operating in the workplace and the way you respond to situations. More Plan ahead and keep to it (t) Stickler for detail or accuracy (t) Easy mixer. negotiating (s) Tend to worry. circling your position on the scale. show feelings (f) Happy to be in charge of others (s) Prefer traditional ways of action (t) Equable. Try to use the full range of ratings from 5 (much more so than most) to 1 (much less so than most).2. Again. socially confident (s) Pessimistic (f) Energetic (f) Solitary (s) Like lots of change and variety (t) Very much affected by events or people (f) Go my own way. think more generally about your life if your workplace experiences are limited. deciding how you compare with other people.9 Work through the following descriptions. visit our website at www. get anxious (f) Like deadlines and timetables (t) Usually take a leading role (s) Good with complex ideas or data (t) Demonstrative. caring for others (s) Always like to win.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1.
open. A work situation that suits a very sociable person won’t suit someone who prefers to work alone. but you do need to take your own traits into account.ac. You can group them into those to do with relating to people and social situations (s). If you think about your colleagues you’ll be aware how they differ from each other. some people are at ease giving a presentation while others find it very nerveracking. Where did you score the most highly? Or did you score evenly across the three categories? For instance. The better you know yourself. There’s no right or wrong personality. Pause for thought What have you learnt about your typical way of operating? What kind of work situation would be likely to suit you? To find out more.9 continued Now look over your ratings. one is a stickler for detail while another is not too concerned about fine accuracy.uk/careers 17 . While one is reserved. another is very chatty and communicative. visit our website at www. and to do with your drives and emotions (f). the more opportunities you create for finding a situation that will suit you.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. to do with your approach to work tasks (t).
visit our website at www. it’s helpful to reflect on your past as you approach a decision that will significantly affect your life. but do use any other information you can get. needs and values. as it affects the work or the parts of a particular job that you can perform best. relation or a careers adviser. rather than simply thinking through these questions. projects you’ve tackled successfully. Some people have been taught or have learnt particular skills for themselves – competence in a computer language. Your discoveries might be to do with your skills and abilities or your attitudes.ac.5 What am I good at as far as work is concerned? This section should help you to think about your aptitudes – what you can do and how well you can do it.2. as it enables you to recognise the talents you have and also to see whether there are gaps you want to work on. through taking psychometric tests (which are discussed in more detail in Section 4) or from your own perceptions of how well you cope with different tasks. Consider your answers so far. etc. You may have learnt more about your personality. or perhaps you used or developed a skill you already had. You may have begun to gain more insights or realisations about your own nature. others a photographic memory. This question is of particular interest to employers. You can learn about your aptitudes from other people’s comments. Some people have a creative imagination. initiatives you’ve put into practice. ambitions. Others have specialist knowledge.open. What have you learnt? It can help. It’s useful to know this. as you learn through your own study. Review As you may be discovering. such as accounting standards or employment law. by trial and error.10 Look back at your list of achievements and what they say about you. Perhaps you had to learn a new technique. by going on training courses. Now list some of your work/voluntary/domestic achievements. others are skilful with statistics. for example. It’s also important for you to know what you’re good at. 18 To find out more. The next activities are based on your own knowledge. but it’s not a necessary connection. to have someone else with whom to talk through your answers – perhaps a friend.uk/careers . It’s also useful as evidence when you’re completing a CV or attending an interview. You might discover that your strengths are grouped in some areas rather than others. by reading and so on. You can be good at something without particularly enjoying it. temperament or way of dealing with the world. There’s generally some connection between what we can do well and what we enjoy doing. by observing others. Activity 1. Then think about the knowledge and abilities you needed to apply in order to achieve the result.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. What I achieved 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge/abilities used 1 2 3 4 5 Pause for thought Examine and reflect on what you’ve put under the headings. You should also remember that you’ll go on developing as you cope with different demands.
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. reliably perform better than average Good level. often referred to as ‘employability’ or ‘transferable skills’.open. generally able to do it quite well Reasonable level. words flowing easily 4 Drawing people out. Be as honest as you can both in admitting lack of skill and in acknowledging your competence. visit our website at www. Try to use the full range of ratings. outstanding performance High level. Consider how well you can carry out each one in comparison with other people. just acceptable skills Very basic level. Rate each of the following statements Use this scale – try to avoid choosing 3 if you can: 6 5 4 3 2 1 Very high.ac. taking in what others say and checking your understanding of the information 2 Clear verbal expression.11 This activity will help you to assess your skills in more detail. ability to convey information without confusion 3 Fluent speech. matching style to purpose 9 Structuring reports and other written communications logically 10 Using a wide vocabulary accurately and appropriately 11 Speaking (accent and pronunciation) in a way that’s acceptable in a wide range of social situations 12 Spelling and grammar Total score To find out more. The activity is grouped into skills which are of particular importance to employers. giving a presentation 6 Using the telephone effectively: few misunderstandings 7 Reading efficiently: readily taking in written information 8 Writing effectively. not usually adequate No significant level of skills Communication Rating 1 Listening.uk/careers 19 . to encourage them to speak 5 Commanding an audience.
encouraging. getting the best out of others 7 Counselling: helping with personal problems 8 Negotiating: mediating. dealing with conflict 9 Interviewing.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Dealing with people 1 Showing sensitivity to the feelings and needs of others. assessing or appraising 10 Persuading. changing others’ views 11 Consulting and building agreements 12 Acting assertively (not aggressively) Rating Total score Financial activities 1 Understanding book-keeping 2 Preparing a budget 3 Using a spreadsheet 4 Understanding VAT and taxation 5 Producing a cash-flow forecast 6 Producing annual accounts 7 Carrying out a cost–benefit analysis 8 Interpreting management accounts 9 Working knowledge of volume and expenditure-related variances 10 Operating PAYE 11 Understanding types.ac. uses and sources of loan finance 12 Operating costing system Rating Total score 20 To find out more.open. motivating.uk/careers . teaching or coaching others 4 Delegating and managing others 5 Leading a work group. chairing a meeting 6 Encouraging. taking account of this in dealing with them 2 Getting on with a variety of people and building up working relationships 3 Instructing. visit our website at www.
working out implications 4 Applying critical ability in recognising potential weakness or problems 5 Making logical use of facts or information 6 Using mental arithmetic. visit our website at www. hand-eye coordination 10 Understanding physical sciences 11 Understanding engineering 12 Maintaining or repairing complex equipment Rating Total score To find out more.ac. estimating orders or probability 7 Flow-charting 8 Rational decision-making 9 Carrying out analysis and evaluation 10 Researching and gathering information 11 Carrying out mathematical operations 12 Carrying out stock or inventory control Rating Total score Technical/practical 1 Competence in using tools and technical equipment 2 Understanding data-processing equipment 3 Applying craft or technical ability 4 Aptitude for diagnosing mechanical or electrical faults 5 Constructing or assembling materials or equipment 6 Understanding current technical developments 7 Using laboratory equipment 8 Dealing with tangible. practical problems 9 Using manual dexterity.open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Thinking and analysis 1 Using critical path analysis 2 Using statistics 3 Logical thinking.uk/careers 21 .
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Creative/innovative 1 Generating alternative solutions to problems 2 Creating original ideas 3 Improvising or adapting for other purposes 4 Designing new things. filing system or recording procedures Rating Total score 22 To find out more. sounds and patterns 12 Innovating and improving procedures in your own field Rating Total score Administrative/organisational 1 Managing your time 2 Planning systematically 3 Operating procedures precisely 4 Making things run like clockwork 5 Handling in-trays efficiently 6 Meeting deadlines 7 Producing clear operational structures 8 Developing resources to achieve objectives 9 Organising working time 10 Monitoring procedures and progress 11 Making detailed plans of action 12 Having a well-organised work space. visit our website at www. layouts. systems. intuitive or imaginative 6 Developing others’ products or ideas 7 Writing with imagination or creativity 8 Seeing new possibilities or openings 9 Appreciating new or unconventional aspects 10 Visualising: imagining how something will look 11 Working creatively with shapes.open. events or courses 5 Being insightful.uk/careers .ac. colours.
ac. and that the wider the range of skills you have. Now look through the original ratings to see whether there are skills you’re not yet very competent in. Write them in this space: Communication Dealing with people Financial activities Thinking and analysis Technical/practical Creative/innovative Administrative/organisational Total score Circle the skills that you’d most like to use in the future. Look at the skills you scored most highly in and those you most enjoy. Recognising the skills you have to offer is key in being able to market yourself to an employer (see also Section 4). you can use the information when you come to consider alternatives.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Summary Now add up all your total scores. List those here: Pause for thought What does this activity tell you? Are there any surprises or does it confirm your expectations? Either way. but would like to develop.uk/careers 23 .open. the greater the variety of job options open to you. To find out more. Remember that skills can always be developed simply by using them more. visit our website at www.
12 Rate the values below for importance. the next step is to recognise what you’re satisfied with and what you’re dissatisfied with. not to limit yourself by concentrating so much on restrictions that you achieve less than you might. a manufacturing company. people. excitement. developing skills Being part of an important organisation Having lots of stimulus. developing new ideas Activity.6 What do I really want from work? Now that you’ve thought about who and where you are and the skills you have. thrills Having influence or power over others Enjoying or making beautiful designs or things Getting promotion. a local authority. some kinds of work have more to do with ALTRUISM and others with ECONOMIC or CREATIVE values.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. analyse Making friendly contacts with others Large income. study. It is important. places Scope to learn. a financial institution and so on will each have a different ‘feel’ as a place to work. This doesn’t mean that you can achieve everything you wish. 4 Very important 3 Important 2 Less important 1 Not important Description Making decisions. independent action Change or variety in tasks.uk/careers . handling things Taking risks. In the same way. expensive possessions Expressing ethical code or religious beliefs Using talents. a newspaper office. business and trading Value AUTONOMY VARIETY INTELLECTUAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC SPIRITUAL USING ABILITIES COMMITMENT EXCITEMENT AUTHORITY AESTHETIC ADVANCEMENT ALTRUISM COMFORT CREATIVITY PHYSICAL COMMERCIAL Rating Pause for thought Does this make clear your reasons for wanting to work? Does it suggest the kind of work you like to do or the type of organisation you feel most at home working for? Clearly. think. 24 To find out more. though.ac. visit our website at www. Activity 1. a charity. Try to use the full range of scores. as restrictions of one kind or another will limit everyone’s range of choice. keeping moving. career progression Helping or caring for others Concern for surroundings or location Being original.open. Try to think through which would suit you best.2.
but it’s stimulating to have some change and variation in the work environment. To find out more. inadequate income causes many problems and dissatisfactions. closely controlled work is generally far from satisfying. targets to be achieved. Too little About right Too much Goals People function best when there are demands to be met. complicated demands repeatedly made on us can be stressful.2.uk/careers 25 .13 To complete your examination of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.7 How well does my present (or last) job meet my needs? Activity 1. We all have our own preferred level of demand. visit our website at www. Money Clearly. challenges to rise to. repetitive. Too little Adequate Well paid Variety Individuals differ in the amount of variety they prefer. Note any ideas that occur to you. Too little About right Too much Social contact Everyone’s need for contact is different. Too little About right Too much Opportunity for control Simple.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. Equally. but on the other hand having a high level of responsibility (being a managing director. But having very high-level. Too little About right Too much Pause for thought Which of these are the most important to you? Answering that may clarify sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction in your current or most recent job. Too little About right Too much Respect Most of us like to be thought well of and respected by others.ac. but most of us get satisfaction from being with others. It may begin to suggest either the kind of work you’d like to do or the kind of organisation you’d like to work for. Circle the level that applies to your present or most recent job. Too little About right Too much Clear boundaries A work situation where boundaries aren’t clear can cause uncertainty and conflict.open. being in a tightly defined job can feel restricting. consider the following. For work satisfaction it’s important to feel that there’s some match between your contribution and the position you hold. Too little About right Too much Opportunity to use skills Most of us enjoy using and developing our skills and competence. chatting over coffee or working in a team. for example) can be stressful.
Take time to reflect on the results of the activities in this section.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. Note your thoughts here. agree with your beliefs in general and allow you to express your personality. If your occupation is to ‘feel right’. Any significant mismatch is likely to leave you feeling dissatisfied or stressed or becoming cynical about your job. it’s important that it should be fulfilling. perhaps discuss them with a confidant and if necessary modify them.ac. 26 To find out more. visit our website at www.uk/careers .14 Review You’ve now considered the reasons why you work (other than financial necessity) and which things you most enjoy doing.open.
ac. Not sure or No according to how you feel about each activity.8 What kind of work would I like to do? To help you decide on the kind of work you’d like to do. Assume that you could do the activity if you wanted to. but only of your own preferences. visit our website at www.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1. You will have had experience of some of them.15 Look through these kinds of work and consider whether you would like to carry each one out.open.2. Interests are to do with the things you find most appealing or enjoyable. Try to imagine whether you’d like doing the others or not. Tick Yes. It’s not a question of your ability or qualifications. you also need to consider your interests. Activity 1. Yes 1 Supervise staff dealing with correspondence 2 Design a staff appraisal scheme 3 Monitor quality control activities 4 Keep up to date with computing developments 5 Put budgeting procedures into practice 6 Develop a marketing plan for a new service 7 Keep abreast of scientific developments 8 Write information booklets 9 Supervise process control staff 10 Organise renewal of insurance cover 11 Plan staff training schemes 12 Forecast drawing office work schedules 13 Find new areas for computer applications 14 Keep abreast of money market changes 15 Negotiate prices with suppliers 16 Plan research and development (R and D) 17 Handle public relations issues (PR) 18 Revise road delivery schedules 19 Plan introduction of new clerical procedures 20 Interview job applicants 21 Organise installation of an internal telephone system Not sure No To find out more.uk/careers 27 .
open.ac.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1.uk/careers .15 continued Yes 22 Instruct computer users on procedures 23 Coordinate work of audit staff 24 Brief sales staff 25 Design new technical equipment 26 Collect and collate information 27 Supervise warehouse staff 28 Report on legal matters affecting the organisation 29 Set up a staff-grievance procedure 30 Plan equipment-maintenance schedules 31 Review data-processing installations 32 Monitor productivity of operations 33 Analyse effectiveness of advertising 34 Organise scientific research 35 Design publicity leaflets 36 Monitor productivity of operations 37 Implement new administrative procedures 38 Investigate staff turnover problems 39 Monitor laboratory testing services 40 Write computer documentation 41 Brief colleagues on effects of taxation changes 42 Report on sales performance 43 Produce design specifications 44 Manage external relations 45 Supervise a building-maintenance programme 46 Take minutes of meetings 47 Prepare a staff handbook 48 Carry out an energy usage audit 49 Deal with computing problems Not sure No 28 To find out more. visit our website at www.
38.open. 31. 28. 13. 22. 33. 52 Questions 8. 17. 26. 35.uk/careers 29 . 23. 46 Questions 2. 11. 48 Questions 4. 32.ac. 49 Questions 5. 44. 40. 21. 14. 54 To find out more. 36. 29. 47 Questions 3. 39. 12.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. visit our website at www. 53 Questions 9. 34. 25. 16. 15. 37. 30. 43. 50 Questions 6. 45. 24. 51 Questions 7.15 continued Yes 50 Prepare financial reports 51 Review a product range and pricing 52 Develop and improve mechanical or electronic equipment 53 Edit a newsletter or magazine 54 Improve plant layout to increase productivity Not sure No Scoring Give 4 points for each ‘Yes’ response Give 2 points for each ‘Not sure’ response Give 0 points for each ‘No’ response Now add up the scores for the groups of questions shown here: Total Group A Group B Group C Group D Group E Group F Group G Group H Group I Questions 1. 42. 41. 19. 27. 10. 20. 18.
The list of interests we’ve considered in this activity reflects common graduate and managerial areas of work. sales manager G Scientific/engineering/research and design e. recruitment manager C Technical support e. management accountant. doesn’t tell you what you should do.g. nor those that depend on performance skills such as acting. tax inspector F Marketing/sales/purchasing e. If so. health service manager B Personnel/training/education e. It might be that you work or have worked in your highest-scoring area and enjoyed it. electronics engineer. IT consultant.ac. production manager Write in your total score for each group. primary teacher. It will then match your profile with an occupational database to produce a list of job suggestions for you to consider. Before carrying on. Use Section 2 of this workbook to help you research the results you have got in the above activities. creative. librarian.ac. craft and natural environment areas. but it will give you a starting point to explore areas of work that may interest you. It doesn’t include artistic.g.prospects. Simply click on Login/Register in the My Prospects account box on the home page and go from there. even if in a different kind of organisation. interpreter I Operational/production/distribution e.g.g. like similar programs. Alternatively.g. laboratory technician D Data processing e. dancing. do take account of them in considering your future. charity officer. this is a reassuring confirmation and suggests that you should consider continuing in that or related work. architect H Information/communication e. retail buyer. The result may be no surprise. transport planner. database administrator E Accounting/finance e. If you have interests outside this ‘managerial scheme’. interests.15 continued What your scores mean Your scores relate to different kinds of work activity: Score A Administrative/legal/secretarial e. 30 To find out more. playing a musical instrument.g.g.uk/careers . Activity 1.open.g. Prospects Planner.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 1. quality assurance manager.16 You may also find it useful to work through Prospects Planner. visit our website at www. Access Prospects Planner via the Prospects website by logging on to: www. This is an online career-planning tool that will help you explore your skills. and motivations.uk/links/Pplanner First. you might find it helpful to look again at the section on the roles you play in your life and any possibilities you noted there.g. the pattern may suggest a move to a different area of work. you’ll need to register.
or you might prefer to move on to the possibilities that this knowledge could open up for you in Section 2. You should by now have a much clearer picture about: • • • • Your aptitudes Your skills and interests Your achievements and experience Your values At this stage you might like to discuss things either informally with a trusted friend or formally with a careers adviser. Now complete the summary chart below. visit our website at www. When you’ve done that.uk/careers 31 .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Review Read through the results of your work and reflect on the notes you’ve made. you may want to look at Section 6 ‘The next steps’.open.ac. Summary chart What am I good at? Write down the aptitudes that you’d most like to use What are my main work values? Write down the values you’d like to fulfil What would I like to do? Write down the occupations or job areas you’d like to work in To find out more.
organisational structure.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Summary chart continued How would I like to work with people? What kind of environment? Write down the kind of contact you’d like to have with people. travel.ac. such as location. and the kind of environment you’d like What other aspects are important to me? Write down any other factors that are important to you. What changes would I like to make? Write down some changes you would like to make to help in your job searching 32 To find out more. etc.open.uk/careers . visit our website at www.
You may find it useful to complete this section before you book an interview. which OU students can do by contacting your regional centre. The tactics you will find most relevant at this stage are: • Tactic 1: Focusing your skills – self-reliance. visit our website at www. This is a virtual career coach which teaches individual career-management skills. to explore further by continuing to read the remaining sections in this book or by looking at information and activities on the Careers Advisory Service website at: www. You need to register (free) to use it at: www.uk To find out more.ac. however. good luck with the next step! Further resources Try these resources for developing self-awareness.com Learndirect Futures is another career interestassessment website that generates job suggestions. people.open.learndirect-futures. You could take a look at the Windmills website. It covers job roles at all levels of responsibility rather than those just at graduate level as covered by Prospects Planner. general and specialist skills analyses • Tactic 2: Finding your ideal job – includes a motivation assessment You can access the website at: www.co.ac. It will help if you’re feeling uncertain about where your career is heading and is very useful if you have some work experience but feel as if you are currently under-employed.open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook You may wish to talk over some of your initial thoughts with a careers adviser before you go on to the next section. Windmills consists of seven stages or ‘tactics’.uk/careers Whichever route you choose. The content of Section 1 can provide a really useful starting point to an individual consultation with a careers adviser.windmillsprogramme. You may prefer.uk/careers 33 .
you will be able to focus much more accurately on what you need to do to achieve your goal. the recruitment process will be quite different. people’s job-seeking methods can be disorganised and inefficient. work through Section 1 ‘Knowing yourself’ before going any further. Always keep copies of your applications. private and voluntary sectors. (In fact.5 Planning your strategy 35 Graduate-level jobs 36 Creative job search 38 Finding vacancies 38 Building a network of contacts 43 2. where and how often vacancies are advertised.3 2. If you haven’t yet got a clear picture of the kind of work or job you want to pursue. We are assuming at this stage that you know what you want to do.) Otherwise. the only thing they might have in common is that they probably use an interview during the selection procedure. Another key fact you need to understand is that different sectors and employers have their own traditional methods for recruiting. As a result.1 2.2 Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Exploring possibilities In this section 2. so be organised and systematic. rather than carefully organised and systematic. when.2 2. What information they do have can often be based on personal experience or rumour. or for jobs that don’t fit your needs or meet your expectations. • Look into and follow up all sources of information. visit our website at www. So. It’s also important that you don’t spend valuable time applying for jobs where you have little chance of success. a key fact you need to grasp immediately is that it is vital that you plan your strategy for job hunting in order to get the job you want.open. The local sawmill is likely to approach the task differently from a multinational advertising agency.uk/careers 35 . Are graduates usually recruited? Are there formal channels? What are the essential qualities sought in candidates? How do you match up? • Apply for jobs and attend interviews.1.1 Planning your strategy Many job-seekers actually have very little knowledge of how the job market works and how people are in fact recruited. By planning your job-search strategy. jobs and developments in sectors you’re interested in. To find out more. A typical strategy means that you will: • Consider all the opportunities open to you: public. 2.ac. This means that you must be flexible enough to adapt your approach to the diversity of methods used by potential employers. • Get a general view before you start to draw up a shortlist. • Do some research: find out how. • Don’t forget that you need to review and evaluate your progress from time to time.4 2.1 A typical strategy A strategic approach pays dividends. • Build up a file of background information about companies. and be prepared to ask for comments on how you’ve done.
sample advertisements. • Follow up this information by talking to professional careers advisers and people in the job areas that interest you.ac.1. and capable of learning new skills. 2 36 To find out more. • Use a range of job-search methods. 2.2. As you research the main occupational areas that interest you. employment seeking strategies have had to be flexible and responsive to the employment market. You need to find out as much as you can about the job(s) and the companies you’re applying to. both on the number of people employed and on the work that they do. and don’t forget to follow up useful contacts from job advertisements. • If you are a student. useful articles. for all graduate job-seekers and job-changers. and ask yourself why. • Use local career libraries. It’s becoming apparent that it isn’t always the classification of the job that’s important. regional representatives. The dramatic reductions in graduate recruitment during the recession of the late 1980s and early 1990s and the rise in the numbers of people studying for a degree have meant that. it’s becoming increasingly difficult to define exactly what’s meant by a ‘graduate job’. fellow students. relevant journals. You can do this by exploring jobs in sectors on the Prospects website at www.uk/careers/links • Personal contacts can be invaluable: tutors. Modern graduate occupations Since the expansion of higher education in the 1960s. websites. www.uk/links/SectorBs 2. details of salary bands. specialist and general trade directories. look into trends in the area. • Constantly reassess your assumptions about questions such as your mobility and your job preferences. Research conducted by Elias and Purcell in 2004 (Seven Years On: Graduate Careers in a Changing Labour Market. A high level of interactive and communication skills is usually required for these areas in addition to having received training in the specific area. for instance. press releases etc.1.prospects.ac. representatives from professional bodies. • Be realistic about the skills and experience you have and those you need to acquire. They’ll all have a bearing on employment.prospects. To review your progress: • Consider what appears to work and what doesn’t. visit our website at www. so that you can present yourself effectively.2 Information Information is an essential tool in job hunting. 2.1 What is a ‘graduate’ job? One of the main reasons employers recruit graduates is that they expect them to be more flexible. This is still so. and graduates are now entering a much wider range of jobs. The graduate has to be an expert in a very specific area. solicitors or research scientists. the better the choices you make will be. • Set up a file of job information. professional bodies. However. alumni. job descriptions and person specifications.ac. useful company and sector contacts. there has been a development of new professional areas requiring graduate-level qualifications.uk/links/ CSDSevenYears) grouped graduate jobs into five distinct categories: 1 Traditional graduate occupations Established professions for which a degree has historically been required. • Get to know the main sources of information about careers and jobs.open. The fuller your awareness of the opportunities open to you. As large numbers of graduates enter an increasingly diverse range of jobs. • Keep notes of your conversations. but the nature of the graduate’s experience and aspirations. File copies of letters and applications and record the progress on each one. • Acknowledge those who have helped you – quick telephone calls or thank-you notes may pay dividends.2 Graduate-level jobs Another important aspect of any job-search strategy is to consider your options realistically in the context of the current and future employment market. • Be prepared to persist. and the more you know about each possibility.uk/careers .ac.3 Review your progress Keep records of all contacts and applications you make. the graduate labour market boundaries are blurring. for example.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 2. more adaptable to change.open. look at the OU Career Links scheme where you can talk to a ‘career helper’ from the OU community at www. journalism or social work.
Barclays) only 14 per cent of respondents had a place on a graduate training scheme with a blue chip employer. retail management. there were 3.ac.uk/links/SectorBs Destination of Leavers in Higher Education in the UK Each year universities in the UK are required to ask their graduates about what they are doing and how studying has changed or developed their careers. What sort of organisation are you suited to? You need to consider what type of opportunity might be right for you and think about the pros and cons of working for an SME or a large blue chip company. Non-graduate occupations Increasing numbers of graduates don’t immediately enter the ‘graduate labour market’. Here are some ideas on the difference between working for SMEs versus blue-chip organisations: SMEs • • • • • • Fastest growing sector of UK economy Local Early responsibility No formal induction Less red tape and bureaucracy Lower starting salary Blue chip • • • • • • Easily identifiable opportunities National Small cog in big wheel Structured training programme Formal structures embedded Perks and higher starting salary To find out more. a growing proportion of graduates find their first jobs in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).prospects. Many are in nongraduate jobs but using the skills that they have developed as a result of their studies. nursing. marketing. Some are relatively new occupations whereas the nature of others has changed so that an increasingly common route into them is via a graduate level qualification (for instance.open.5 per cent. graphic design.tqi.ac. the data shows the unemployment figure for OU students from the 2003/4 survey to be 2. visit our website at www. This data is published annually and can be seen at www. 2.uk In 2004 unemployment among all students was 6. Niche graduate occupations This is an expanding area.2. environmental health).prospects. Although we know that OU students start from a different point as many are working while they study.1 per cent six months after leaving.ac. engineering.uk/links/wdgd and on the Teaching Quality website at www.ac. There are many instances of graduates in these occupations demonstrating their potential and developing their initial role to fit their skills. In fact. According to the Graduate Experience 2002 Report (DTI.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 3 4 5 New graduate occupations These reflect changes in technology and organisational structures and priorities. At the beginning of 2002.2 New and expanding opportunities for graduates Structured graduate programmes still exist with large ‘blue chip’ companies but competition is fierce and fewer graduates now enter through these schemes. For more information on SMEs go to: www.8 million SMEs in the UK and it is predicted that they will create a further 2 million jobs by 2010. Most jobs in this category don’t usually ask for a degree but have some areas that are deemed as ‘specialist’ and increasingly ask for a degree at entry – for example.uk/careers 37 . The ability to access and use specialist information is an additional skill for these areas.
5.4. So.4. but don’t let them use you. • Find out about getting appropriate training or study with work experience. Make sure they keep you in mind for suitable vacancies.ac.uk/careers . In fact. SMEs. [Adapted from the AGCAS booklet Job Seeking Strategies] Pause for thought Ask yourself what you can take forward from these ideas. a partnership between employers and higher education institutions – look at www.10). but prefers specific skills. Today’s labour market is increasingly diverse. and to foster contacts.9 and 2.org. None of us can predict what kind of jobs might be available in the next few years. The best advice is to start as early as possible and be creative in your job search.ktponline. • Develop an excellent CV and application letter.2).6 for details. and what benefits you hope to gain from the experience. • Use employment agencies. To succeed. 2. you need to play by a set of new rules. or talk to them in person. knowledgeable people.2.5. • Find contacts in the sorts of organisation and job you’d really like. This may give you an identifiable edge in the job market. Learn how to use the telephone effectively – there’s some advice about this in Section 2.open. visit our website at www. it’s estimated that 7 out of 10 jobs are ‘hidden’. You may want to ask to meet people. • Don’t limit your marketing to letters of application. Consider temporary or part-time work to enhance your marketability. Be clear about what you’re offering to do. qualities and experience. may not advertise so as not to be inundated with applications. in times of recession. 38 To find out more. Consider what you can do for them. or redefine old ones • because an organisation doesn’t recruit enough graduates to warrant much expenditure of effort or money on advertising • because of the volume of unsolicited applications • when an organisation doesn’t particularly demand a degree.2. Try to contact the person who makes the decisions and might be interested in your talents.uk • Don’t forget the increasingly important nontraditional graduate recruiters (small and mediumsized enterprises – SMEs. and be sure to get constructive comments on your applications and overall approach (you will find out more about recruitment and executive search agencies in Sections 2. in that they are never even advertised! Often. this hidden job market increases as some employers shy away from the administrative burden of dealing with the overwhelming number of responses their recruitment advertisements produce. What will your job search strategy look like? 2. • Use the internet to research into companies and job vacancies. which were discussed above in Section 2. including those in organisations you’ve already worked for (if any).4 Finding vacancies When it comes to job vacancies. Most of us need to review our careers now and again to take account of changes in ourselves and the opportunities open to us. See Section 2. • Cultivate well-placed. and customise them with a particular opportunity or employer in mind (see Section 4 ‘Getting the job’).Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 2. • Think about doing voluntary work. skill development and knowledge of the industry or job area.4.3 Creative job search The career-review process isn’t something you do once and for all and then never do again. in particular. • Use the contacts you’ve made to get opportunities to work-shadow or to carry out job study interviews that will give you useful knowledge. they are classified as either ‘open’ or ‘hidden’. how can you do a creative job search? Here are a few essential steps to get you started: • You need to ‘market’ yourself. • Investigate the possibility of employment through a ‘Knowledge Transfer Partnership’. how long for.1 Applying for hidden jobs Hidden jobs are produced: • by organisational changes that make old jobs obsolete and create new ones.
Get any agreements – proposals or contracts – in writing as soon as you can. even open jobs are hidden during the early stages. The Writers’ and Artists’ Year Book. visit our website at www. Demonstrate that they can’t afford not to employ you. for instance. nor appropriate in some areas of employment. job titles and addresses are correct. showing how your abilities can contribute to the success of the enterprise. teaching. • Give a specific reason for contact Have a peg to hang your letter on. Marketing yourself means keeping ahead of the competition. Your letter.4. reorganising. Economic. selection dates. It isn’t enough just to wait for jobs to be advertised in the media. and concentrate on those. jobs and areas most appeal to you. Ask questions about the employer’s needs. technological and organisational change always affect employment patterns.ac. Research the organisation. • Contact a named individual Approach only the person who can take the decision to employ or help you (you might be asking for information rather than a job). You’re not sending out a mail drop or a circular letter. while decisions are being made about internal versus external recruitment campaigns. Speculative approaches can even create new jobs. If a fulltime appointment isn’t practical. ac. Convince employers that you have exactly the skills they need to solve their business problems. • Consult the main directories in your local reference library. This approach gives you the initiative. 2. You decide which organisations. follow up by telephone. Check with the organisation to make sure that names.uk/links/occupations to see if there are any. a very nervous jobhunter. Thompson Directory. explaining what you offer and what you can do. And be sure you can deliver the goods! • When you meet Be businesslike and professional in making your proposals.kompass. KOMPASS (www. Does the profession you’re interested in produce one? Use www.2 Making speculative approaches Please note that making speculative approaches to companies is not permitted in Northern Ireland. relocating? Use all your information sources and network contacts (which we will discuss in more detail below) to select a portfolio of companies. show where you can fit in. and how you would improve. Be prepared to negotiate. Remember. You must prepare a thoroughly argued case to prove that the cost of employing you is more than outweighed by the benefits. 2.4.g. advertising space and so on. Be prepared to fit in with the employer’s availability. perhaps to arrange a meeting through a secretary. telephone call or email must reach the right person. • Look at company websites and find out more about them. Yellow Pages. Consider what’s right for you and your ‘target’ area. Which organisations have the sort of position that attracts you? Who is recruiting. com) • Specialist trade directories for different occupational areas. develop or help it become more effective. for example. To get started try: • General trade directories e. Familiarise yourself with its problems and needs. Each approach must be tailor made and will take time to prepare. The effective job-seeker must tap the hidden market by making speculative approaches to prospective employers. • Get a meeting No one ever got a job merely by writing a letter. Treat the employer as a client. there may be a possibility of employing you for a particular shortterm project. You want a meeting: say so clearly when you write. To find out more.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook To find the kind of company that can use your skills and satisfy your needs: • Look at the resources suggested in this section.uk/careers 39 . Prepare for the meeting as you would for a job interview. Be flexible. Turnover. Prove that they need your abilities and would benefit from your expertise. • Always follow up If you hear nothing within two weeks of writing. This approach isn’t comfortable for some people for example. You’re making a business proposition.3 To make an effective speculative contact • Pick out likely targets Be discriminating and choose worthwhile prospects. Offer dates and times. You’re not asking for a job or hoping there might be a vacancy.prospects. promotion and retirement continually create new job opportunities.open. sectors.
During holiday periods.4. you may be referred or recommended to another.6 Replying to advertised jobs If you reply to an advertisement. For now. it may seem a little strange to seek out hidden jobs.5 Applying for advertised jobs Many jobs are of course advertised and here we look at where. especially in particular companies • get an introduction to a key decision-maker in a company. about the job advertised or the selection methods they use.4 Networking In the 2003/4 Destination of Leavers Survey.5 below. Each rejection may be one step nearer to the job you want.uk/careers .ac. always follow the instructions given. Use these meetings to get more information about the job market. Remember every ‘no’ brings you closer to a ‘yes’! • • • • • The internet Newspaper. The best place to consult newspapers and journals is your local library or online if you have access to the internet. 40 To find out more.7 Newspapers and journals You will find many job vacancies advertised in newspapers and specialist or trade journals. 2. You may have to do some detective work if the advertisement doesn’t give a telephone number. go to www. but their relatively high advertising rates tend to restrict the salary range to the higher end. advertising is reduced. 2. Independent. whom you can convince of your qualities as a candidate. At first. just keep in mind that research into how managers change to jobs with other organisations has shown that over half get an introduction through networking.open. You will find links to national and regional papers from www. you may need to look at them every day. Here you will find links to jobs notified to the OU Careers Service and access to other UK wide and local vacancies. 21 per cent of OU students reported that they had got their job as a result of personal contacts and networking. the day on which most papers are sold.prospects.thepaperboy. Make a note of advertising patterns in your local press. August to mid-September and December. Many employers send very poor information. We will deal with networking in more detail in Section 2. Local and regional papers sometimes concentrate their job advertisements on Thursdays. But experience supports the practical wisdom of doing so.4. Show initiative by telephoning or emailing if you need to know more.4.open.4. Financial Times) advertise certain kinds of work on particular days of the week.uk/ careers and to the section entitled ‘Moving on’ and look at the ‘Advertised Jobs’ and ‘Virtual Employer Fair’ pages. Make the most of it. At the start. Daily Telegraph.com 2. Making speculative contacts can pay off in several ways. and familiarise yourself with the kinds of advertisement placed in each paper. ‘Networking’ is the systematic use of personal contacts to: • gather information about an industry or company • discover hidden jobs. you may be offered a meeting.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Take a long-term view It takes time to build up a mailing list. The big Sunday papers advertise a variety of jobs. or to concentrate on particular companies just because they appeal to you. Elias and Purcell (2005) in Class of 99 (Study of the early Labour Market Experiences of Recent Graduates) highlight the value of networks for getting into new employment. Because advertising in national newspapers is costly. • Persevere Occasionally persistence will pay off and. If it says write. Make a note of the advertising patterns: you will find that most of the quality daily papers (The Times. or none at all. start planning early in your job search. visit our website at www. as recruiters seldom place their advertisements more than once. Advertised jobs can be found through: • The OU Careers Advisory Service We are currently developing services for students that advertise vacancies notified to us by employers.ac. after an initial refusal. look for sources through www. Guardian. If you’re going to make speculative approaches. Each employer you see is a new contact. • develop further contacts to expand your network. trade and professional journals Professional associations Recruitment agencies Executive search firms In all these cases.ac. If you are an OU student. telephone or email for an application form. Even if you have no luck with a particular employer. there’s no point in sending a CV. smaller employers often rely on local advertisements in the regional press because it’s less expensive and brings in a more manageable number of replies.uk/links/occupations 2. and responses may be slow and few.
the British Psychological Society and the Training and Development Agency for Schools.9 Recruitment agencies Recruitment agencies tend to deal with lowerlevel salaried positions. have a regional education or training officer and sometimes specialist careers adviser whom you can contact. Some produce yearbooks and lists of members. not to help you sort out your career plans. To find out more. and in some areas of employment (such as medical sales) they are almost the standard source of recruits. usually a percentage of your first year’s salary. Many specialise in particular kinds of work or industry.uk/careers 41 . Addresses and other details are in the Directory of British Associations at www.open. about what the agency is offering you.com and in most major libraries. Be clear.8 Professional associations Many professional associations and institutions.4.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 2. visit our website at www. They often act for small to medium-sized employers that have no personnel or recruitment departments of their own.cbdresearch.4. Remember that it’s there to fill its clients’ posts. 2. Services are free to you – the employing company is charged a fee.ac. for example. though.
They are of two main kinds: • Fee/assignment firms are given sole charge of a particular search. they can be a useful source of information about how you were received by the client. they prefer to receive a CV to judge whether you fit what they have on their books at that moment. visit our website at www.ac. You can search for agencies by geographical location and by type of work from their website at: www. or are marketable enough to fit something that might turn up in the future. There are also opportunities to ‘post’ your CV on the web. Most graduate recruiters now recruit online as well as using other methods. They seldom divulge information about their clients. They receive enormous numbers of CVs and often don’t bother to acknowledge them. Sometimes contingency firms will distribute your CV widely in the hope of generating new business. Remember that: • Websites may not always deliver what they promise. 2.open. You could find yourself treated like a trading commodity. or when commercial confidentiality is essential.ac. specialist IT skills. 2. They may interview you and construct a pen picture to go with your CV.ac. • Contingency firms are paid only when the company hires someone they have presented.uk/graduatejobsearch/ index. The average search firm has only three or four consultants. they’re worth considering if you have skills that are in short supply – accountancy is a particular example. Although some firms deal only with positions above £50. Some employers let more than one contingency firm work on a particular job. Many sites change rapidly and there are no guarantees about the accuracy of the information displayed.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook To find out about recruitment agencies: • Making the Most of Your Recruitment Consultancy A guide obtainable from Badenoch and Clark recruitment consultancy at: www. Most consultants limit interviews and initially are likely to carry out a telephone screening with you.careers. You can access this at: www.11 The internet Most jobs are now advertised on the internet through national websites directly associated with particular careers.prospects. While they are important in the market place. edited by Patricia Leighton.badenochandclark.10 Executive search firms There are more than 200 executive search firms in the UK. search firms may deal with a limited type of vacancy. • It’s sometimes difficult to see the wood for the trees – not everyone has a brilliant web designer.rec.uk. They tend to be used for jobs that are at a high level or require scarce specialist skills for example. • Websites sometimes go online while still under development. entering it into the database of an organisation (usually recruitment organisations) that will either try to find a suitable match for you or allow an employer to search the information and perhaps select you for interview.uk/careers . Further resources Look at the following website developed by Strathclyde University Careers Service which directs job seekers to vetted job websites. so if you apply to a large firm operating in many locations you need to send your CV to all of them. and your personal details may become public property. and always include details of your former salary and the range you’re looking for. As noted above. Bear in mind that not all sites offer confidentiality.strath. You can find addresses of search firms in The Daily Telegraph’s Recruitment Handbook.com • The Recruitment and Employment Confederation is the national association for the recruitment and staffing industry. published annually by Kogan Page. If you decide to use a search firm. the online news and CV-matching service that brings tailored information about jobs and career events to your email address and lets employers search your electronic CV.000. Always try to cross-check information. Try to make sure you use vetted or recommended websites only to post your CV. if the website’s main interest is simply to capture personal details and sell on a CV.4.html You can also register free on My Prospects. similarly. As a result.com Consultants often don’t share information with one another. send a CV and covering letter.4.uk/links/MyProspects 42 To find out more. their role is limited by the high fees they charge to employers (typically 30–35 per cent of annual salary). You can also receive the Prospects Graduate Digital magazine. They get most of their fee whether the employer hires their candidates or not. You can find this at: www. If they send you to an interview they’ll want to know how things went.
Put contacts at ease about this to avoid embarrassment.1 Building up a network Draw up a list of everyone who might be able to help you – friends. 2. Establish: • • • • What you’re seeking How your contact can help you How much time you’re asking for (15–20 minutes) Time and place for a meeting. Unease usually arises from the misconception that using contacts means asking people for jobs.5. Some will be able to give you names of their Activity 2. In fact. Think what they can do for you: • keep you informed • comment on your strategy and approach. stability or decline its working climate and culture its business strategy the background of key managers. These secondary contacts can act as a bridge between you and the decision makers in the companies you’re interested in. voluntary work or casual part-time jobs. So. especially those in the function that interests you. what is appropriate for the area of work and what might be effective. the impression you make • get you noticed. tutors or people you’ve met through leisure interests. tutors. what you’re doing is making the most of them as sources of advice.open.5 Building a network of contacts Personal contacts can be a fantastic source of help in your job search. Your network of contacts can include friends. telephone call. plan the format and content of your call: To find out more. or they may lead to other secondary sources. Others. smiles and so on.ac. To take some of the stress out of the situation. but they can become your publicity agents and your information sources. so that you don’t get confused over important details. or to refer you to someone else who can.uk/careers 43 . As you work towards developing and extending your network. any business contacts you have. fellow students. Getting the approach right is important. Be very succinct. Be persistent. you may be able to discover: • • • • • a company’s competitive position whether it’s in a state of growth. they may be able to put you in touch with someone who can. own business contacts. so try outside normal office hours if you can. Even if these people can’t help you themselves. Pause for thought Perhaps you feel uncomfortable about networking in this fashion. family. so it’s difficult to judge what impression you’re making. keep a record of each letter. Busy managers are usually in early and late. even after years of practice. how do you build your network? Your primary contacts are people who know you directly. It’s often difficult getting through to someone during the day.2 Using the telephone effectively You may be making a speculative call. You don’t get the usual clues from nods.1 Approaching your contacts You need to decide how you will approach your contacts. information and ideas. are stilted and anxious. conversation and so on. Some people are natural and relaxed on the telephone.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 2. 2. or telephoning to follow up a contact you’ve been given or to make an appointment for an interview. Most people will be only too glad to help. visit our website at www.5. By telephone Your first approach is likely to be by telephone. all potential sources of information or advice. former colleagues. They may not have the job openings you want. relatives. A number of methods are possible but you need to decide what is right for you. Make a note in your career file of your list of contacts. Through building up a network of contacts.
• Introduce yourself succinctly. to get a ‘feel’ for the culture.5.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • If they have a secretary.) – Put myself in the shoes of my prospective boss. you might find it helpful to look again at the advice in Section 2-3 ‘Creative job search’.4 Career Links As an OU student. Pause for thought Meetings need to be well planned and purposeful. Whilst this person won’t necessarily be familiar with a specific company. and how I am going to present myself.3 Making an approach in person Making an approach in person can be an opportunity to test your interview skills and make a good and lasting impression. • Clarify the exact place of the appointment. 44 To find out more. Before reading on. and to read the following example. trading problems/ opportunities (for me). visit our website at www. considering what further preparation you need at this point. get their full name if you can. > Re-read the advice in Section 4 about job applications and interviews. you can register with Career Links. • Try to avoid being interviewed over the phone unless this is pre-arranged.g.g. It might cover: • Why you’re thinking of leaving your present job (or why you left your last one) • Your job goals and some alternatives • Your strategy for getting there • A discussion about the industries you’re interested in and the companies you’ve picked out • Questions about names and referrals to key people. • Use the name of the referral source discreetly.ac. I set up an appointment with her. prospects for development/training/promotion). > List which issues I want to investigate (e. using published sources. They will respect you more and be more prepared to help if they have evidence of your professional approach. • Suggest times and dates for an appointment. • State the objectives of your call. they are likely to have general knowledge about making contacts. You can access career links at: www. Other people have their own agendas. > Talk again to contacts. journal and newspaper stories). (A discussion with an ex-employee could be particularly revealing. and decided on further preparation.uk/careers .open. • Advice and comment on your job-search strategy Example One of my network contacts led to an introduction to the head of a department in a company I was targeting. 2.ac. It was produced by one of the students who tried out this pack before publication and was preparing to approach a particular company. you need a carefully planned agenda. as follows: > Carry out more research on the company (e. Make sure that you’ve done your research thoroughly.uk/careers/links Pause for thought Building a network of contacts plays a key part in creative job search. political battles. before you talk to your contacts. exposure to risk. and there’s a lot to cover in twenty minutes. (Think about what sort of help the company may need. • Offer your telephone number or email in case of a change in arrangements. • Get the contact interested straight away – make notes beforehand of what you want to say. etc. preferably decision-makers for your kind of job who you can ask about opportunities in the industry. 2. For a productive meeting. possible openings.open.5. This could be a vital step in your networking – it allows you to link up with others in the OU community who have work experience in the area you are aiming for. • Get to the point quickly – treat it like a minicommercial for yourself.) > How do my strengths match the needs? > Plan which of my strengths/ accomplishments I am going to mention.
Local centres seek to place people into suitable voluntary work – meals on wheels.charityjob.) Dates Salary Copies of references • The first paragraph is crucial.citizensadvice.com Job Centre vacancies are online at www.uk Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) www. Section 4 ‘Getting the job’ offers advice to help you with the practical side of drawing up a letter to accompany a CV.org.cev. Includes non graduate jobs on this site www.org. ac.org.ac. Use it to mention an achievement related to the job you’re seeking and strike a chord of need in the reader.thepaperboy.vso. national and international newspapers www.open. and prune ruthlessly. For example.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Note in your career file what preparation you want to make at this point.5. 2.uk Employee Volunteering www.6 Voluntary work Voluntary work can be a fantastic way of getting experience and building networks as well as showing commitment to an area you are interested in.uk/careers.uk CR Search and Selection www.do-it.) To decrease expenses To obtain specialist expertise that leads to an increase of sales or a decrease in expenses On the Prospects site you can register free and have information about jobs emailed to you.uk along with links to information about New Deal initiatives. etc. 2. grammar and layout. describe a relevant problem.gov. membership.co. Further resources For further information and resources go to the OU Careers Advisory Service website at www.uk Search facility with links to regional.lgjobs.co.5 Drawing up your letter When it comes to drawing up a letter.co.org. • Get someone else to check your spelling.prospects.uk/careers 45 . outline how you tackled it and state what results you got.org.jobcentreplus.ac.employeevolunteering.uk/links/MyProspects Here’s a selection of other sites that you might like to look at: Vacancies in higher education and related organisations www. you may find the following websites helpful for exploring opportunities to work with charities and voluntary organisations: Charity Job www. To find out more. keep in mind that there are three main reasons why someone might want to employ you: 1 2 3 To increase sales (or the employer’s equivalent – service volume. You will also find links to professional bodies and related sites from the ‘Broad Career Areas’ within the above site. • You should include Key achievements and relevant experience Only the last five to ten years A maximum of two uncrowded pages • Exclude Personal data (marital status. go to Section 2 to research jobs or the section ‘Moving on’ if you want to find out more about looking for jobs and if you want access to vacancies both locally and UK wide. Go to www. If you are a student.uk Community Service Volunteers www. Be critical over matters of style.jobs.uk Do-it-: search this database for a wide range of volunteering opportunities in the UK. hobbies.charitypeople. In addition.open. etc.5.com allows you to search by occupation and location.uk The European Volunteer Centre www.com/uk/ Local Government Jobs at www.uk Charity People www.be/members.uk Citizens Advice www.csv.crsearch. A speculative letter will need many drafts in order to polish it.htm lists member organisations for EU countries including the UK and Ireland. From here you can link to the various volunteer bureaus for your areas of the UK www.ac. Your letter must list accomplishments that correspond to these reasons. visit our website at www.connexions-direct. etc.
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook
Making decisions and taking action
In this section 3.1 Making decisions about your life 47 3.2 Goals, restrictions and resources 48 3.3 Plan of action 52
If you’ve developed self-awareness and explored opportunities and now need to make decisions and plan how to put them into action, this section is for you. It will help you to consider the advantages and disadvantages of different decisions, find sources of help and plan for action. You’ve probably put a lot of time into analysing your life and career. You should have considered your strengths, skills and experience, and researched the occupational areas that interest you. Before going on to make decisions, it’s helpful to look at the framework within which you may be making choices about the future.
3.1 Making decisions about your life
It’s not our claim that everyone can achieve everything they want. Obviously you have to be realistic, as life imposes restrictions on us all. But many people don’t achieve all that they’re capable of, because they’re not clear about what they want to do and how to make decisions. It’s important to aim for what you want while being aware of what’s achievable. One way to consider the range of options is to look at your goals alongside your personal restrictions and resources.
3.1.1 Managing your situation
Whenever you’re in a situation you’re not happy with, you have four basic options. You might think about them both in the short term and in the long term. For example, you may be clear that long term you want to change jobs, but in the short term you might be able to ‘change yourself’ to make things easier. • Work for change Try to change the situation to make it more as you want it to be.
If you’ve tried unsuccessfully to do this, you’re left with the other three options. • Change yourself Examine your own attitudes, behaviour, ambitions, skills, lifestyle and so on, and consider how, if you changed any of those, your situation might improve. • Live with it This means much more than ‘putting up with it’. You need a strategy to minimise the aspects of the situation you don’t like and maximise those you do. For example, you might put more energy into activities outside your job if you’re dissatisfied at work, change the way you work so that it reduces your contact with troublesome elements, or spend more time doing the things you enjoy and cutting down those you don’t. • Leave Find a constructive way to move on out of the situation, job, relationship or problem.
Pause for thought
Consider the four options. Which could apply to your present situation? How?
To find out more, visit our website at www.open.ac.uk/careers
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook
3.2 Goals, restrictions and resources
Whatever your decision about the four options, you need a goal and a plan to get there. In the next section we are going to look at your goals and then examine the restrictions and resources that may affect how you reach them.
What is a goal? • Goals are what you want to get out of life. • You may use other words to describe your goals – results, outcomes, aims and ambitions. • Unlike dreams, hopes, fantasies and wishes, goals are specific and expect the outcome to arrive. • While short or long term, goals should be realistic but challenging. • Remember: your goals may change over time.
What are your goals?
Write them down here. You may not yet have fully identified your goals but put what you can here and add to it later.
To find out more, visit our website at www.open.ac.uk/careers
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook
3.2.2 Restrictions and resources
We’re all affected by our own restrictions and resources. Sometimes the same thing is both a restriction and a resource. If you’re buying a house on a mortgage, it’s both a liability and an asset; a friend or relative might need support but might also be a source of support to you.
What are your restrictions and resources?
Think about your resources – the things, people and attitudes that could help you. Then think about your restrictions – the things you need to take into account or that may be problems. Write them down on the chart.
Money Financial resources
Equipment, tools, premises I have I haven’t got
People, family, contacts Who can help me? Who needs my help or support?
Health Good points Bad points
Beliefs, outlooks Positives Negatives
Pause for thought
Consider your answers. How will they affect the kind of opportunities open to you? Are there other things you need to consider? For example, do you need to work near your home? Could you move to a new area? Might your age be important?
To find out more, visit our website at www.open.ac.uk/careers
3 Look first at the example below. visit our website at www. Example Goal – Promotion Resources Line manager’s support Personal ambition/determined Prepared to take responsibility Project management experience Restrictions Colleagues’ reactions Limited mobility Little experience of managing people No experience of managing budgets Now balance resources and restrictions for your own goal(s) Which of the goals you’ve listed in Activity 3. 50 To find out more.3 Balance helpful resources against restrictions Now look back to the restrictions and resources you listed. It was produced by someone who wanted to apply for promotion.uk/careers .1 are the most important? Underline them. What actions would help you to reduce their effects? You’ve now listed actions you can take towards your goals. Make the most of resources Look at the resources you underlined.2.open. Each restriction is set against a helping resource.ac. You now need to consider each of your goals in terms of all the resources that could be helpful or cause restrictions. The next activity will help with this. What actions would help you to make the most of them? Minimise restrictions Now look at the restrictions you underlined. You’ve probably noted some factors that will help you in the direction you want to take and others that you need to find a way round. but there’s more to do. Activity 3.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 3. giving a balanced picture of the situation.
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 3. Actions Attend course on finance for non-managers Attend outside course in the evenings Find out about the budget process Family support Now do this for each of the actions you listed. To find out more. You should also be clear about the main helping forces and problems you need to deal with. visit our website at www.ac. Resources Internal training courses Local college has course Line manager’s support Actions Resources Actions Resources Actions Resources Pause for thought You should now have a clear picture of what you really want and what ideas you want to develop. ‘No experience of managing budgets’ was listed as a problem.open.uk/careers 51 .3 continued Bring actions and resources together List the resources that can help you to carry out each step. Look at the example.
information. If you monitor your progress by checking your plan from time to time you can identify what you have achieved. and then revise your targets if necessary.ac. This means taking a few different steps: • Setting out your goals (long. Review At this stage it might be useful to read through the work you’ve done in this section.co. realistic. achievable.g. try the learndirect activity at: www. time based).com Action plans need to be SMART (specific. If.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 3. keep an eye on progress and adapt your plan if necessary.3 Plan of action The next stage is to bring everything together into a detailed plan of action. You should consider five factors when drawing up your action plan: 1 2 3 4 5 What you need to do How you are going to take action Resources that could help you (e. friends) When you will achieve your targets How you will know when you have achieved your goal Pause for thought You might want to complete action plans for several goals. 3. So. Further resources Look at the careers website at: www. visit our website at www.1 Back-up plan You should always try to have a back-up plan. Set aside time to review your goals and see how you are progressing. ‘Is it realistic?’ If it isn’t. You might need to gain experience or qualifications. gather information or get access to a particular resource. medium and short term) • Deciding which actions you need to take • Identifying your restrictions and resources • Working out a realistic timescale to achieve each step. You may have to cope with setbacks and frustrations.learndirect-advice.windmillsprogramme. This process will involve making a number of decisions. Ask yourself. it might be necessary to go through several stages.3. If you don’t manage to meet your goals it may be that your first plan wasn’t good enough. Put a note in your diary or ask someone to remind you. And of course if you change your mind about your end goal then you can go back to your original plan to make necessary adjustments. taking the first steps towards a new or resumed working life. with all its potential for improvement and advancement. but you’re setting out on a potentially exciting journey. You could also look at Section 6 ‘The next steps’. measurable. you’re ready to start taking action.ac. after doing that. you still find that you’re unable to reach your goal. you’ll have to revise it.uk/helpandadvice/dmr/ You could also look at Tactic 5 (Master the art of action thinking – how to attain your goals and action plan) on the Windmills Virtual Career Coach at: www. You may need to improve it or change it completely. Once you’ve done this. To achieve what you want. you might have to reconsider it. you are going to amass a lot of information from which you will need to identify realistic options and create suitable goals. To discover what kind of decision maker you are. finance.uk/careers and find ‘Action Planning and Decision Making’ using the ‘A-Z’.open. If you want to plan your career effectively.uk/careers . and perhaps discuss your plans either informally with a trusted friend or formally with a careers adviser. 52 To find out more.open.
open. visit our website at www. weekly Find someone else keen to do it To find out more.uk/careers Tomorrow Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 53 . then fill in your own plan on the following page.who or what can help me? Target date for actions To become a journalist Postgraduate course in journalism Next week Apply early By the end of the month Within two months Gain relevant voluntary/paid experience Write freelance articles and submit Find out where classes are offered locally Cost? Motivation to complete? Write to local newspapers Take an evening class in shorthand or word-processing Check if special arrangements are possible for payment e. My long-term goal Short and medium term goals to achieving long-term goal Find out about courses Difficulty of funding Explore educational or career development loans Investigate letting flat for year of the course Afraid of rejection Friend will provide support and encouragement Actions required Constraints Resources.g.4 Showing a worked example of an action plan Look at the worked example below.ac.Activity 3.
open. visit our website at www.who or what can help me? Target date for actions Activity 3.4 Your action plan To find out more.uk/careers My long-term goal Short and medium term goals to achieving long-term goal .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 54 Actions required Constraints Resources.ac.
uk/careers 55 .ac.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes To find out more.open. visit our website at www.
it shows you how these specific skills can be developed: To find out more. Confederation of British Industry.ac.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Getting the job In this section 4. Employers are looking for more than just technical skills and knowledge of a degree discipline.5 4. Director-General.’’ Digby Jones. They particularly value skills such as communication.2 4. students should engage in extra curricular activities and obtain work experience in order to develop skills that will make them better prepared for the world of work.open.uk/careers 57 .’’ Carl Gilleard. In addition to working hard to gain a good degree.4 4. Table 4. visit our website at www.1 4. Job applicants who can demonstrate that they have developed these skills will have a real advantage.7 What do employers look for in graduates? 57 Matching vacancies 59 Application forms 62 The curriculum vitae (CV) 65 The covering letter 78 The interview 81 Other selection techniques 87 4. It is also important for students to become self aware and develop the confidence to market themselves effectively when the time comes to apply for jobs.1 overleaf is taken and adapted from the 2006 version of What do Graduates do? It shows very clearly what types of skill employers want. Forward to Prospects Directory 2004/5 ‘What do Graduates 2006 do?‘ (HECSU/AGCAS/AGR/UCAS) ‘‘Twenty-first century graduates need to demonstrate to employers that they can ‘hit the ground running’. Together they make up what is referred to as ‘employability skills’. Equally importantly perhaps.3 4. Chief Executive. Association of Graduate Recruiters ‘What do Graduates 2006 do?‘ (HECSU/AGCAS/AGR/UCAS) Analysis of years of national employer surveys suggests the desired skills of graduates fall into four broad areas: 1 Self-reliance skills 2 People skills 3 General employment skills 4 Specialist skills. teamworking and problem solving.6 4.1 What do employers look for in graduates? ‘‘A degree alone is not enough.
work and education OU study. voluntary work. enthusiastic Self-promotion – positive. methodical Commitment – dedicated. ambitious Networking – initiator.g.g. resourceful Planning action – decision-maker. competitive. Involvement in community groups.uk/careers . trustworthy. Proactivity – resourceful. visionary Customer orientation – friendly. willing. coordinator. accounting.ac. first aid at work qualification. logical. journalism. language skills. sport. e. results skills orientated Flexibility – versatile. languages. engineering. quick-thinker. focused. IT Technical skills – e. member of orchestra. coordinating others Self-reliance skills Self-awareness – purposeful. influencer Leadership – motivator.g. planner. energetic.open. Skills that employers want and how they can be developed Type of skill “Buzz” words Examples of how the skills can be developed through interests.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Table 4. Roles within the home – planning. roles within work e. realistic Interpersonal skills – listener. risk taker IT/computer literacy – office skills. NVQ qualification. diplomatic Foreign language – specific language skills General employment Problem-solving – practical. able to prioritise People skills Team working – supportive. sales Source: HECSU. use of IT. work responsibilities in a team. visit our website at www. drive. fundraising for charity. caring. assertive Oral communication – communicator. 58 To find out more. self-reliant Willingness to learn – inquisitive. multi-skilled Business acumen – entrepreneurial. software packages Numeracy – accurate. presenter. European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). Roles within your working situation. guide/scout leader. motivated. keyboard skills. self-belief.1. travel. deliverer Caring responsibilities. organised. work experience OU study. adviser. co-operative. conscientious Specialist skills Specific occupational skills – specialist relevant knowledge. persistent. AGCAS. UCAS and AGR Roles within the home – budgeting. web design skills. relationship-builder.
or other specified qualification? • Experience Is it preferred or essential – will you be ruled out? What experience can you offer from any aspect of your life that demonstrates close or transferable skills? • Qualities Note the language used to describe the ideal applicant.uk/careers 59 . visit our website at www. Find out what this will mean in practice. • Location and geographical mobility How far would you travel each day? Would you consider moving house? If you need to travel around. especially if there isn’t a specified salary? • Named contact Is a name given to contact for further information? It’s a good idea to follow up such offers. and be honest about whether your personality and needs match what the employer wants. For example. Look at your advertisement and analyse it under these headings: • Style and language What’s the general style of the advertisement – formal.1 Matching the requirements Once you’ve analysed your advertisement. it’s important to see how you can use it to develop your skills and experience. If the opportunities seem limited. So. ‘multinational’ …? How does the organisation see itself and what image does it want to project? Do you feel comfortable with its choice of words? Will your personality fit the organisation? Are your values similar? • Brief job description Does the work genuinely interest you? Does it match your needs? What are the key tasks? What skills are needed? Can you produce evidence of your ability to deal successfully with each task? How will you demonstrate your potential for coping with tasks you haven’t handled before? Is there anything that seems unclear? • Qualifications Are they preferred or essential? For example. but it’s worth bearing in mind that candidates who apply for ‘graduate’ jobs are also expected to demonstrate at least some if not all of these skills. What are you looking for.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook The requirements an employer sets out in a job advertisement are likely to be much more specific. • Prospects What opportunities are there for advancement in this job? The employer may be looking for evidence of your willingness and ability to progress. you need to analyse the information you already have. First of all you need to read between the lines. Now you want to make sure you have a ‘match’. you need to try and match yourself to the requirements of the job to judge whether or not you want to apply for it.open.2. how much of a problem would this be for you? • Age Are there any obvious age implications? It’s important not to lose sight of the positive aspects of age and experience.ac. ‘committed self starter’ could imply that there’ll be little supervision. Remember to use this evidence when you apply for jobs! If you don’t shout about it. • Salary Usually a good guide to the level of qualifications and experience required. before finding out more about the position.2 Matching vacancies You’ve seen a vacancy advertised that you’d like to apply for. Many OU graduates have lots of evidence with which they can demonstrate these skills: • experience of the world of work and working environments both paid and unpaid • commitment to their own personal development demonstrated by undertaking OU study • time management and organisational skills required to successfully combine OU study and other responsibilities. You may have to motivate yourself with little support or encouragement. qualifications and personal qualities.) To find out more. Analyse each noun and adjective for its implications. so you need to consider how you can show that you meet the requirements. As we show here. (It might help to refer to Section 1. flamboyant. do you need a driving licence. They’re usually set out under headings such as experience. but you have to be aware of the going rate for that occupation. but be prepared when you do. or even in the face of resistance. even a brief newspaper advertisement can reveal a great deal of useful information. ‘What would you like to know about us?’ Be ready to highlight your suitability for the post. low key. 4. as the contact will form an impression of you from the very beginning. Rehearse your introduction and be prepared for the question. nobody will do it for you! 4. but may also mean that no training is provided. attention seeking? What does this tell you about the organisation? What is the vocabulary used to describe the organisation – ‘dynamic’. The advert should specify what the employer is looking for.
visit our website at www.g. Marketing knowledge > Temporary job (with full induction and training) over two summer holidays as a market research interviewer. Active member of RSPB > I have organised several meetings between the RSPB and the local branch of the Campaign for the Protection of Rural England to look at the decline of the bluetit in Cheshire and preventive measures. Keyboard skills > Self-taught packages in order to produce a dissertation for my degree. > I am an avid reader and subscriber of the Warbler and make regular contributions to this national magazine. > As a part-time student I have worked within a thirty-two week study calendar and managed a weekly workload of reading. > Marketing module completed as part of my degree studies (12 months) – identifying. Ability to work on own e.ac. Here the key experience requirements are listed.g. assignments. as it helps you to focus on the important aspects as you complete your application form or prepare a CV. > I am a regional fundraiser for BTCV and the PDSA.open. > I work alternate Sundays at the local animal hospital as a volunteer.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Look at the following example. tutorials and revision alongside a part-time job and voluntary work.g. and the second column shows how a candidate would provide evidence of having the necessary experience. Treasurer of Residents’ Association: > Draw up budget bids or plans within agreed guidelines and procedures for submission to internal and external bodies. My evidence 60 To find out more.uk/careers . > Worked in Windows based environment for numerous holiday jobs – secretarial role. current part-time study. > I have worked unsupervised as a treasurer for a local Residents Association for two years and have always met deadlines for reports. Presentation skills > I have used Power Point to present information on the decline of local bird populations to a community group and to councillors. anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. This is a useful way of approaching any job advert. From recent employment. Interest in wildlife e. Example Vacancy: Fundraiser for Scottish Wildlife Preservation Society Analysis of key requirements Experience Numeracy e. > Responsible for assessing potential expenditure in terms of value for money and taking appropriate action to ensure this is achieved. > I have also organised and facilitated presentations to local schools and governors using a variety of media.
uk/careers.uk/links/occupations Whichever way you choose. you can also try the ‘Job Analysis Activity’ on the OU Careers Advisory Service website at www. look at the occupational information on the Prospects website: www. To find out more.4. visit our website at www. note down in the left-hand column the key characteristics and requirements of your selected vacancy. Alternatively.10 below. These kinds of activities are really helpful in preparing for the completion of application forms or for producing your CV. needs? • What are the key job requirements? • What skills are required to perform them? • Can I produce evidence of these skills? In the box below. Go to the section ‘Personal and Career Development’ from the site map.1 Begin by looking at an advert or job description for a position that interests you. values.open.prospects. try to produce evidence of your suitability against each point.uk/careers 61 .ac.ac. In the right-hand column. If you don’t have a specific one in mind you might look in a careers publication or website such as www.open. You should also take a look at Section 4. ask yourself: • Does the work genuinely interest me? • Does it match my personality.uk. interests.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 4.ac.ac.jobs. Vacancy/job description: Analysis of key requirements My evidence If you are an OU student.
visit a career service or large library to look for other information. Look for ‘online applications’ in the ‘A–Z’. so it is crucial that you sell yourself effectively. • Usually. the space allowed for each question indicates its relative importance. visit our website at www. underlined topic headings. • The only information the selectors will have about you is what you’ve given them in your written application – emphasise the positive and leave it to them to spot the negative. 4. as that makes them difficult to read. also. You’ll come to some sample questions below in Section 4. Ask the organisation for more details and. attach a separate sheet. Use it effectively to include or to emphasise information that you think is relevant and isn’t allowed for on the form. to clarify your points.1 Before you start your application form • Find out as much as you can about the vacancy and the organisation. an NHS Trust).3. Keep the following points in mind when it comes to completing an application form: • The purpose of a completed application form.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. If you do. • If there isn’t enough space for factual information (e. • When answering extended (multi-part) or difficult questions. You may find the Select Simulator useful for practising completing online forms. • Don’t cram sections too full. 4. • Be sure to answer all the elements of each question (e.g. If you haven’t looked at employers’ application forms for some time. write ‘N/A’ or ‘Not applicable’ to show that you haven’t overlooked it. • If there isn’t enough space for general interest information (e.2 Filling in your form • Complete all sections of the form. Whatever format they come in though. Some are designed for recruiting people for a particular function or training scheme (e. • Remember that presentation can be as important as content. and not only for senior jobs.3 Application forms Application forms come in all shapes and sizes. what do you contribute and what do you get out of them?’).2 . • Comply with instructions such as using black ink or block capitals. This means that on an initial read through they may spend as little as two minutes looking at your form. ‘What are your spare time activities. the kind of person the organisation wants to employ. is to get an interview. In fact. OU students can access this on the Careers Advisory Service website. When completing online forms you may find that some of your experiences do not fit neatly into the categories provided.uk/careers .g. You can also research online. ‘Give names. • Many larger employers ask you to complete an online application. If you’re asked to submit an application form. Bear in mind that employers often receive a lot of forms. etc. it shouldn’t just repeat what’s on your form. if possible. unless you’re told that you must not attach any other papers. • Make a photocopy of the blank form (or print it from the screen) and use it for your rough draft. You must keep to the prescribed format.3.g. • Read through the whole form before you fill in any of the sections. you may be surprised at the probing nature of some of the questions they ask. ‘What have been the significant factors in your life to date?’) prioritise and keep it within the space allowed. Often – but not always – you’re told that you may also enclose a CV. • Your aim is to convince the employer that you’re worth interviewing – you appear to be a suitable candidate for the job and. Most are intended for a wide variety of posts in the organisation (e. Convince them that they need to see you. Layout can help – consider using bullet points. addresses and dates of all previous employers’).g.3. because many large employers now optically scan applications to enter them into their recruitment databases. the principles for completing application forms are very similar. don’t send a CV instead. most large organisations now make their forms available online (which can save you time and postage). graduate engineer). think of: 62 To find out more. We suggest you contact the employer for advice on how to approach this. like a CV or a speculative letter.g.ac. as most organisations will have comprehensive information on their websites. If a question doesn’t apply to you. Being able to write succinctly is evidence of your written communication skills.open.
3. one should be an academic referee. The skills you’ve developed in one context may well be transferable to another and employers will look for evidence that you recognise them: e.2. the name and address of the person you sent the form to. Learning outcomes will give you some help in mapping out the skills and achievements that you gained during OU study. It’ll also take some of the tedium out of tackling other forms. If appropriate. there are a number of resources in the Careers Advisory Service website at www. working under pressure. If possible.open. Always send it by first class post.g. and keep them well briefed so that they can write supportive references. flexibility and time management skills. If you want to do this in a more structured way.g. ask someone else to look over your application before you send it. If you’re applying for a job related to your degree subject.3 Skills you have attained as an OU student As an Open University student. self-discipline.3.g. You’ll rarely find the perfect application form that exactly suits your background and experience. • Make a note of the job you’ve applied for.g. to be a teacher) while some put emphasis on transferable skills (which you dealt with in Section 1. You’ll need to adapt your answers to the questions you find. with a little editing.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • • • • • • • What you’re going to say (understanding the purpose of the question) Who you’re saying it to (someone who doesn’t know you but will make decisions about your future) How you’re going to say it (presenting an accurate picture of yourself) Why you’re saying it (showing that you have the qualities. ideally get someone else to check rather than relying on a spell checker. Tailor your responses to the post you’re applying for.ac. interests and skills the employer is looking for) Make your points relevant. give fuller details of your course than you would if it’s not particularly relevant. You may be able to look back at the course descriptions To find out more. Be positive and honest. handling money. and the date you sent it.uk/careers. ‘I worked as a volunteer classroom assistant for three years’ rather than ‘I love children’). in your use of personal pronouns). Make sure you’ve been consistent in style (e. give their full titles and status. working odd hours. dealing with members of the public. You can often use the same material. 4. • Make a copy of your completed form so that you can re-read it before the interview. • Look over the presentation. They can help you identify the subject-specific knowledge and transferable skills you have acquired during each course. Get your referees’ agreement before giving their names. or not more than once. Inaccuracy in one section can raise doubts about other areas of the form. Some jobs may require subject-specific knowledge (e. 4. Every employer values determination. but mention any part-time or voluntary work you did during that period. Use positive language. Usually.4 When you’ve completed the form • Check it thoroughly for spelling and grammatical errors. not ‘we’). These may have been expressed as learning outcomes.5 above) and some look for a mixture of both. If you’ve been unemployed. interesting and personal (say ‘I’. Give evidence and avoid bland generalities (e. another someone you’ve worked for who can write about you as an employee. Make the most of these skills as well as your academic success. If you are a student. Be convincing. You will find that by studying with the OU – whatever the subject area – you will have developed a range of both subject knowledge and transferable skills that many employers will value. It is up to you to pick these out from your own experience so that you can present this on an application form. go to the sections on ‘Personal and Career development’ and ‘Moving on’.open. Look at Section 6 if you are or have been an offender. Your regional centre can provide you with a confidential reference – name the Regional Director as the referee. Leave no unexplained gaps in your employment record. • Use an envelope of suitable size so that the form isn’t folded.uk/careers 63 .ac. visit our website at www. Generalised waffle convinces no one. Practise answering the typical questions in the next activity. and Course Guides for the courses that you have studied and pick out the kinds of skills that the course aimed to develop. say so. for several applications. you can stress the personal qualities and skills that OU study demands. Use the ‘any other information’ section to draw attention to activities and qualities not covered elsewhere on the form.
You’ll need a lot of time. the people. Don’t forget that you can ask a careers adviser for advice on what to include in your application.uk/careers . Every word should justify its inclusion. All are genuine questions from graduate application forms used by large companies. This section will tell them more about you as an individual than any other part of the form. There is 180mm space available on the form to influence the selectors. Question 3 Write a short autobiography. 64 To find out more. your ambitions and aspirations.2 Read the sample questions below.1 and consider answers based on the evidence you’ve already gathered. visit our website at www. drafts and fine tuning. There is 30mm space available on the form to show that you understand what the job involves and what you have to offer. Tell us what you did and how you achieved results.’ ‘what you did’ and ‘results’. There is 80mm space available on the form.open. Explain why we should select you ahead of other candidates. Remember to cover ‘planned.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 4. Question 1 On the first page of this application you stated a preference for a particular job or function. Include such details as your achievements and responsibilities. events or experiences that have influenced you. Question 2 Outline any activities you have planned and organised. Look back at the answers you gave to Activity 1.ac.’ ‘organised. Go for key points and give evidence from your record.
some professions. as well as the work I want? There’s no right or wrong way to write a CV. Be prepared then to spend a considerable amount of time on creating and reworking an effective document. look at what the expectations might be. for tips and example CVs. To find out more.ac. Most people tend to prefer one style over the others (though as you will see. your CV doesn’t need to conform to a set format. 4.open.4.3 Preparing your CV How you organise and present information about yourself and your activities will convey significant messages about your suitability as a potential employee.uk/careers 65 .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. So. so you have more control over the impression it will create. when it comes to preparing your CV. not sending out a batch of identical CVs to a list of companies you found in the Yellow Pages.4. it should be flexible enough to allow modification to match the job you’re seeking. To use the same approach for. you need to make a decision about the kind of CV to use as most employers will not specify. However. some job areas have expectations that a particular kind of CV is submitted.open. my strengths and qualities? • What experiences shall I emphasise? • How can the style of my CV match the culture of the organisation(s) I’m sending it to. a CV is primarily intended to make the recruiter think it worthwhile interviewing you. Whichever format you choose. you need to ask yourself a few key questions: • What’s the area of work I’m after? • Which employers or organisations am I approaching? • What messages do I want to send about myself. it’s most important that you keep in mind that one ‘all-purpose’ CV will not be much use to you. Instead. prefer CVs in a chronological format.4. an academic CV is used mainly for applying for academic posts). For example.4.prospects.1 The importance of tailoring your CV However. Here we will just provide some guidelines on good practice and offer examples of four possible formats: 1 2 3 4 A chronological CV A functional CV A targeted CV and An academic CV.4. (So you may in fact be doing just that. 4.2 What style of CV? The general style of the CV should depend on the sector or organisation it’s addressed to. go to the OU Careers Advisory Service website and choose the ‘Moving on’ section if you are a student at: www. Employers expect you to show that you’re responding to their own advertisements.uk/careers Alternatively. 4.7 below. For more information on CVs. In addition. The advantage of a CV is that you get to decide what information to include and highlight. This is only likely to work if you always apply for the same function in several very similar organisations. content and design to show off your strengths and present you in the most positive light. It is important that you find out if there is a preferred format for the type of job that you are applying for by doing further research into the job and if necessary seeking advice from a careers adviser (or the professional body if there is one). such as the legal profession.ac. it is useful to highlight this in a separate section as it draws attention to it. For most jobs.uk/links/CVwriting We also show you sample CVs in Sections 4. When researching jobs.4 – 4. You can tailor the style. For instance. a financial institution or a local authority might have an adverse effect. When you have work experience that is directly relevant. Bear this in mind when you design your own CV. applications to marketing organisations or to the publishing industry can be successful if the style and layout suggest a flair for lively prose or graphic design. say. The right one is the one that works for you in your situation and succeeds in getting you interviews.4 The curriculum vitae (CV) Like an application form.ac. visit our website at www. You want to make sure that you present yourself positively and accurately.) And you can reinforce this impression by tailoring the covering letter. and what to leave out or minimise. but it must look as though you’re targeting the individual company. look at: www. it is more often the case much more effective if you adapt your CV to suit the particular organisation or job you’re applying for (easy enough to do if it’s word-processed).
The chronological CV Malcolm Lewis 16 London Road Portsmouth PO9 6AL Tel. This lists jobs by date. visit our website at www. highly motivated CIMA professional with in-depth knowledge of the financial services and strong team-working skills. However. the disadvantages to a chronological CV are that any gaps in your employment stand out. where you worked.open.uk/careers . it can suggest instability and will require explanation – particularly if you’ve changed profession or career direction. your job title(s).com Profile An experienced. As a result. In addition. • It has for many years been recognised as a standard approach to CVs. responsibilities and key achievements.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4.ac. if you’ve changed jobs frequently. Employment Current position: 1996 – Ace Holdings Plc Portsmouth Main responsibilities: Key achievements: • Preparing financial reports • Supervising office of 25 staff • Planned and co-ordinated computerisation of management accounts system • Trained staff in use of new system • Strengthened and simplified reporting of financial information • Reduced staff costs by 11% in 1999/2000 • Researched a detailed marketing study leading to refocused annual marketing plan • Negotiated £2m loan for major construction project • Handled credit analyses and made credit recommendations Deputy Finance Manager 66 To find out more. showing the name of each employer. with a chronological CV. beginning with the most recent. the period you were employed. The advantages of a chronological CV are: • It can be very easy to produce. • It allows prospective employers to see very quickly how an individual has progressed and increased responsibility.4./fax 01903 562366 email mcrlewis@wizard. it isn’t always easy to spot key achievements or skills which might get ‘buried’ under different job titles. looking for an opportunity to take on wider responsibilities within the industry.4 The chronological CV You are probably most familiar with a chronological CV.
ac. handled cash Education 2001–2005 The Open University 1995–2000 The Open University Masters in Business Administration (MBA) Professional Diploma in Management. Physics. Languages: conversational Spanish and French Interests Keen member of local amateur dramatics society and have been stage manager for the last four years Currently treasurer of my children’s primary school PTA Regular swimming to keep fit References available on request To find out more.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Previous experience: 1988–96 Management Accountant Southern Finance Plc Portsmouth Organised and prepared accounts for District Manager Planned and managed the introduction of new financial information system Supervised office of nine staff 1986–8 Southern Finance Plc Southampton Accounts clerk Assisted with ledger accounts and budget preparation.open. visit our website at www. History.uk/careers 67 . by part-time study Courses: B784 The effective manager B785 Accounting for managers B786 Managing customer and client relations B751 Managing development and change B752 Managing resources for the market 1981–1986 Hampshire High School O-levels: Maths. interviewed clients. Chemistry. French Training 1990–95 Passed all stages of Chartered Institute of Management Accountants examinations Various short professional courses In-house interviewing. staff appraisal course Additional skills IT skills: competent in the use of Microsoft Office and SAGE financial management software. English.
visit our website at www. Its advantages are: • It can highlight your skills rather than job changes. • If your current or most recent experience isn’t related to the position you’re applying for. Keen to find a challenging position that offers long-term potential in quality assurance and/or new product development. Capable of achieving personal objectives.4. a functional CV allows you to place more emphasis on relevant strengths and experience from earlier periods.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4.open. 01788 529445 email: Sandra@hotmail. • Developed and instituted a statistical quality control programme to cover all critical control points in the manufacturing process. analytic. This kind of CV shows that you’re conscious of the demands of the prospective employer and of what you have to offer. resulting in significant improvement in overall sanitation. Experience CONTINENTAL KITCHENS LTD. Career orientated. The system alerts operators when to change the process parameters without disturbing production flow.5 The functional CV A functional CV focuses attention on your skills and achievements. presented according to the function or responsibilities you’ve undertaken rather than according to individual jobs.uk/careers . Achievements • Analysed the quality assurance system at Continental Kitchens Ltd. more accurate means of inspection.ac. with a clear and concise vision of future objectives. saving £200K annually. This facilitated a faster. making recommendations for new procedures which led to an entirely new quality control system. • Created computer applications for environmental microbiological trends for control of plant cleanliness. sanitation and pest-control programmes – creation of statistical programmes to help with the transition of quality assurance responsibility to individual operators 68 To find out more. • You can group different achievements together to match the job that you are applying for.com Skill profile A graduate biologist with strong food industry experience in quality assurance. The disadvantages are that it takes more thought to prepare a functional CV and you have to ensure that it is clear and relevant to the chosen job without looking as though you might be hiding something! The Functional CV Sandra Simpson 5 Malvern Road Cherry Hinton Cambridge CB1 4LX Tel. highly organised and energetic. • Formulated new and improved existing food products. Goal orientated. Cambridge 1999 to present Quality Assurance Coordinator (2000) Quality Assurance Auditor (1999) Responsible for – all quality control. Contributed to the development of a new line of Polish foods for wholesale distribution. as demonstrated by successful completion of my degree by part-time study while employed full time. research and development and creation of new products.
From 1995–99. On return to Britain. visit our website at www. Mathematics (D) 8 GCSEs Grove Comprehensive School Leicester 1986–1992 Additional information After ‘A’ levels. CB10 3QY Tel. Leicester Research Technician Responsible for 1993–1995 – – – – formulating new and improving existing product lines performing shelf-life studies on a range of products supervising in-plant testing of laboratory formulations analysing waste water to ensure it met all government standards Education The Open University 1994–2000 BSc (Hons). I took a ‘year out’ to travel the world and consider my future. I have been interested in watersports since school. CB2 1PF Tel.uk/careers 69 . 01233 364721 To find out more.ac. My other interests include cycling and mountaineering. 01223 599886 Regional Director The Open University in the East of England 12 Hills Road Cambridge. Full driving licence Referees Mrs Joan Whitaker Director of Quality Assurance Continental Kitchens Ltd 12–16 London Road Cambridge. Upper Second Class Courses studied: S101 Science: A Foundation Course S203 Biology: form and function U205 Health and disease U206 Environment S324 Animal physiology S327 Living processes S328 Ecology S365 Evolution 2 ‘A’ levels: Biology (C).open. particularly scuba diving.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook – setting up a new product recall procedure to facilitate any possible product retrieval due to failures reported in post-manufacturing integrity testing – supervision of the sanitation crew of eight during needed microbiological clean-ups BOW WOW PET FOODS LTD. I took time out of work to raise a family. I served as a Regional representative on the OU Students Association for three years and contributed to student feedback on two courses in their first year of presentation. I gained employment as a research technician and applied to study part time with The Open University.
I am hardworking and have always put considerable energy and enthusiasm into all of my activities. N10 8EP TELEPHONE: 020 8887 5131 EMAIL: Vkozlowski@wizard. Hons. with all the time. I thrive on the challenge of change. The disadvantages are that. with the skills required and the evidence of them clearly laid out at the beginning. believing that this is the key to achieving worthwhile results. Both my work as a nurse and in banking has demanded a high level of personal responsibility.4. Sound judgement. • You can adapt it to suit the job you’re after without sacrificing quality. I have been responsible for cultivating a spirit of teamwork and cooperation. dates and so on. I am a member of a small steering group set up within the bank as a result of the recent major changes in working practices. I have to be able to prioritise work within both strict financial and time constraints and ensure that others do too. and in Principles of Social and Educational Research. It has to change to match each job. implementation and evaluation of new systems and their effect on staff at all levels. Most candidates for managerial posts use this format. The advantages are: • It focuses straight away on your strengths. My main research topic involved interviewing a wide cross-section of both adults and children in small groups and on an individual basis. making sure that I always fulfil my function and deliver to deadlines. It combines elements from both the chronological and the functional CV. 70 To find out more. No less important has been my ability to express myself clearly and effectively both face-to-face and on paper.open.uk/careers . have been essential to the success of my section. in projects and reports. Distinctions obtained in Social and Cognitive Psychology. I have become used to seeking and learning from criticism. this one isn’t easy to prepare. visit our website at www. whilst working in a team. effort and skill that implies. autonomy and judgement.ac. in Biology: Brain and Behaviour. London.net Career aim Building on my previous experience of working in a large organisation at a time of change to train and work as a professional personnel manager. devising questionnaires and analysing data. • It is more likely to catch the reader’s interest. A Participant: An Individual: An Enthusiast: Education 1987–1994 The Open University. This experience has shown me the importance of good interpersonal and communication skills. • You can lead the reader in the direction you want to go – your skills and achievements. 2.1 Courses chosen to obtain recognition by the British Psychological Society. Skill profile A Coordinator: As a project manager currently working simultaneously on a range of demanding projects.6 The targeted CV A targeted CV is even more closely matched to the needs of a particular employer. BSc.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. The work involves planning. and to resolving potentially disruptive differences of opinion. The Targeted CV Vigla Kozlowski ADDRESS: 45 Longhurst Avenue. combined with organisational sensitivity and a high level of accuracy and attention to detail. followed by the details. like the functional CV.
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 1979–1983 Parsifal Comprehensive. during my training I realised that this career was not for me. record keeping. I decided to apply for a job and combine this with part-time study with The Open University. so I decided to train at the local hospital. Chemistry (D) Training 1992 1987 IPM Certificate in Personnel Practice Lloyds Bank short in-house course in Personnel Management. Business Loans Section Responsible for assessing loan applications and making loan decisions. However. Lloyds Bank. Counter Clerk – Responsible for serving customers. Activities and interests • I am teaching myself to play the saxophone and enjoy getting together with my friends for musical improvisation. Work experience 1992 to date.open. North London Hospital. Personnel Assistant – Personnel administration. frequently for larger loans. working with adults on a one-toone basis and in small groups. I would now like to broaden my experience into personnel in a large retail organisation. Lloyds Bank. Section leader with responsibility for the work of six staff who report directly to me. Lloyds Bank. Student Nurse Although I could have gone to university when I left school I had always wanted to be a nurse. Dbase IV and Q&A databases and word-processing using Word 2000 and Word NT • Interviewing • Psychological test administration and interpretation • Car owner. Lloyds Bank. clean driving licence. Banking attracted me because it offered a structured training and a wide range of opportunities within each department. working with the personnel of companies and other institutions with a financial interest in the company’s future. 1989–1992 1987–1989 1986–1987 1983–1986 Additional skills • Sound working knowledge of Excel and Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheets. three staff. • I spend one evening a week as a volunteer tutor with a literacy project.ac. To find out more. visit our website at www. Biology (D).uk/careers 71 . Finchley Road. handling cash. Referees Names available on request. As I had enjoyed the studying and wanted to further my academic studies in a related subject. Full. Recruitment Officer – Recruitment interviewing. in charge of four staff. This involves initial discussions with individuals and. pay and pensions. London Three ‘A’ levels: English (C). • I keep fit by swimming and running regularly each week.
4. D.co.’ Modules studied included: tolerance and autoimmunity. 07900 543 21 E-mail: h. • If you are a postgraduate or research student who is applying for a job outside academia. Jordan and Dr.PhD in Medicine 2002–2005 Thesis Title: The regulation of leukocyte migration away from the subendothelial compartment.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. Milton Keynes. They are likely to include information on some or all of the following: • The title of your PhD and the names of your supervisors • Teaching/administrative experience • Professional memberships (if relevant) • Fellowships and awards • Conferences attended/presentations given • a detailed abstract of research should be appended to the end of the CV • full details of publications. The Academic CV Hilary Michelle McArthur 18 Poole Avenue.BSc (Hons) in Biochemistry (first class) 1998– 2001 Dissertation project: ‘Autoimmunity: A genetic perspective.’ Modules studied included: cell biology.MSc in Immunology (distinction) 2001– 2002 Dissertation project: ‘Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis is mediated through the acid sphingomyelinase dependent generation of ceramide.7 The academic CV For academic jobs in universities. These CVs place more emphasis on the subject matter of the degree and/or research and on the knowledge and achievements gained. you should consider a chronological. haemopoietic cell differentiation and malignancies. Ask someone who knows nothing about your research subject to read through what you’ve written and check it makes sense to the lay reader.ac.uk/careers . visit our website at www.mcarthur@yahoo. USA. microbiology. Remember to emphasise the transferable skills that you have developed in undertaking higher level study. 72 To find out more. and physiology. genetics. such as communication. skills or targeted CV. oncology. analysis and working to deadlines. validated and implemented a “novel” assay to investigate leukocyte migration and survival. Because of this. In presenting your research. you should do this without using any subject-specific jargon so that it is understandable to the employer. immunology. Supervisors: Professor R. academic CVs are often longer than other types of CV.open. Identified phenotypic alterations in T-cell subpopulations following migration through an endothelialfibroblast bilayer. University of Manchester . You should also include three referees rather than two.uk EDUCATION The Open University . Systematically investigated the role of soluble mediators and adhesive interactions in the survival of neutrophils following transendothelial migration. University of Salford . MK6 3DY Tel. This was a broad-based degree in biochemistry with the second year spent studying at Oregon State University. transplantation biology and cell adhesion. James Project synopsis: Adapted. depending on what you are applying for. it is expected that candidates (for academic jobs such as lecturer and postdoctoral research posts) will produce an academic CV. • Remember to include examples of the skills that you have developed through your research.
2004. Scientific Laboratories. Student Mentor for the Open University’s Outreach Programme 2002 . and McArthur. H. Laboratory Assistant. A. International Conference. (Paper submitted to the UK Medical Biology Journal) Bennett. RESEARCH AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE Tutor on an Open University Summer School. along with presentation and communication skills.. To find out more. • Image-based analysis of leukocyte behaviour in static and flow adhesion and migration assays. Transmigration prolongs neutrophil survival through a beta-2integrin-dependent adhesion signal. J. H.uk/careers 73 .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook RESEARCH EXPERIENCE AND TECHNICAL SKILLS • Development of static adhesion and migration assay. and McArthur. POSTERS AND PRESENTATIONS Bennett. • Adaptation of a novel co-culture system: culture stromal cells on the apical and basal surface of Transwell inserts. Manchester. and a working knowledge of WinMDI and Image Pro. J.... January 2006 ABSTRACTS. PowerPoint and Prism. Jones. July 2005. A.2004 • Responsible for communicating and demonstrating technical skills to A level science students at a local college. Summer 1998 • Worked independently on an assigned project.. American Journal of Medicine.M. J. and McArthur.M.M. Layerton S. A. Jones. Bennett A. March 2005 Bennett. H... • Microscopy: phase contrast and fluorescence. Layerton. July 2005 • Trained undergraduates in basic laboratory skills • Allocated tasks and ensured their completion.. British Society of Immunology. H. Jones. H. Ceramide rich lipid rafts and acid sphingomyelinase activity are required for spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis.open. Transmigration prolongs neutrophil survival through a beta-2integrin-dependent adhesion signal. • Flow cytometry. Identification of a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of neutrophils in a model of reverse endothelial migration.. • Developed technical writing skills for industry purposes.. and McArthur. A. and McArthur. as well as showing visiting work experience students laboratory protocols. Rapidly recruited TNF-stimulated endothelial cells – is this a novel route for neutrophil clearance from inflamed tissue? International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis. COMPUTER SKILLS Extensive experience of Microsoft Word. • Marked undergraduate work and provided individual guidance to undergraduate students. • Isolation of leukocytes subsets and endothelial cells. Excel. • Subcellular fractionation.M. Salford. PUBLICATIONS Bennett. visit our website at www.ac. S.M.
marital status. visit our website at email@example.com@open.james1@open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook ACHIEVEMENTS Received awards for best overall academic achievement and best dissertation project at the end of my MSc (2002). when you have more opportunity to negotiate any difficulties.uk/careers . where your aim is to get yourself invited for interview. Always give the full area code.4. Other personal details There’s no need to include such details as date of birth. give more detail about particular 74 To find out more. If you’re employed and prospective employers can contact you during office hours. nationality.r. However.open. content and layout. These are irrelevant on a CV. Include an email address if you have one. give your number and say that it’s a work number. say during the last ten years. REFEREES Professor Rebecca Jordan r. so that you can be reached as easily as possible. Employment experience Your aim here is to stress your achievements at work. they’re unnecessary at this stage and may confuse matters. gender.ac. personal profile (optional) references.uk All referees can be contacted via The Open University Davis Medical Building Milton Keynes MK7 6AA Or by phone on 01908 456 789 The above example of an academic cv has been published with the permission of the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS). number and extension. activities additional skills career aims. 4. Include the nature and place of your employer’s business if it isn’t obvious from the name. but don’t give the address or the name of your manager at this stage. You can discuss them at the interview if appropriate.uk Dr David James d. It should be quite obvious what it is. Received award for best overall academic achievement at the end of my BSc (2001).uk Dr Steven Mayes s. At home.8 What to include (and not to include) in your CV Your CV is uniquely yours in style. Address Be sure to give a full address with postcode. For more recent jobs. Personal data Name Give the name you want to be known by if you’re called for interview or appointed.g. Telephone It’s important to give a telephone number where you can be reached or where a message can be left. you don’t need to give initials or middle names. consider investing in an answering service or machine. since invitations to interview are often sent at short notice and speedy delivery is in your interest. It’s acceptable practice these days to put your name in the centre in larger bold font instead of giving the document the title Curriculum vitae. experience education training interests.d. so that the caller will be discreet. number of children. CVs usually contain: • • • • • • • • personal data employment. Include your mobile number if you have one. but you may find the following ‘do’s’ and ‘don’ts’ helpful.ac.ac.
They can also help you identify the subject-specific knowledge and transferable skills you have acquired during each course. and play down other. Avoid specialised language unless you’re sure the reader will understand it. • If your qualifications were awarded overseas. Learning outcomes can assist you in mapping out the skills and achievements that you gained during OU study. This allows you to highlight the experience the employer is likely to be most interested in. some jobs do require subject-specific knowledge (e. then work backwards or forwards chronologically. If you have served time in prison. There’s no need to include the full address of each school or college – condense the information to dates. A onesentence description of the scope of your job. assignments and results achieved. should be followed by a statement of achievements. Education How far back should you go? School or young college-leavers should be quite explicit about their education since age 11. day-release. • If you’re offering professional qualifications it might be worth specifying not only the qualification (with the S/NVQ level. that you keep yourself fit. with appropriate detail. Whichever system you use. but also how you obtained it. so that the reader is encouraged to read on. Interests. then the rest of the employment history in backward or forward chronological order. activities This section has various uses. projects. if you’ve had time out of paid work to bring up a family. make sure it’s clear and that the way you present starting and leaving dates is consistent. and highlight in a covering letter or skill section the personal qualities and skills that this kind of study requires. • Be specific about what you studied in your Open University courses. state this. budget etc. • If you had a series of short-lived jobs and you want to abbreviate the list. mention the British equivalent so that the employer knows what level you’ve reached. even if it’s not the most recent. fulltime course. Include useful information about training and development – courses of a week or more. Your hobbies To find out more. Some look for a mixture of both. please refer to Section 6 below for tips on dealing with this. which are often listed as learning outcomes. or training in relevant specialist skills. knowledge or training.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook responsibilities. to be a teacher) while others place more emphasis on transferable skills (see Section 1. Don’t leave any unexplained gaps. There are different opinions about whether you set your experience out in forward or reverse chronological order. You might find the course descriptions and Course Guides for the courses that you have studied very useful: pick out the kinds of skills that the course aimed to develop. that you’re a sociable person who gets on with others.. preferably in quantitative terms.2. less important jobs. Present your qualifications in the way that makes the most of them: • If the job requires a degree or diploma it’s best to start with that. • Start with the most relevant work experience. names and towns. It can show that you have a well-rounded life and don’t live for work alone. For a technical post or one that requires special knowledge. Some possible sequences are: • Put your present or most recent job at the head of the list.uk/careers 75 . e. with figures such as staff. • Divide your experience under the headings Related and Other. visit our website at www. Of course. you could expand your work achievements and contract the education section. So much depends on the nature and relevance of your previous employment to the job you’re applying for.open. enabling the employer to see at once that you meet the requirement. Training Don’t give an exhaustive list of all the training courses and seminars you’ve attended. you could say something like ‘In the five years 1995-2000 I worked in various temporary positions in the catering industry’.g. It is up to you to identify them from your own experience so that you can present this on a CV.5 of this workbook). • If you have no higher-level educational qualifications you could list secondary school educational history in chronological order – that can be easier to digest than in reverse chronological order – but use the same order you used in ‘Experience’. By studying with the OU – whatever the subjects are – you will find that you will have developed a range of both subject knowledge and transferable skills that many employers will value. but it’s more appropriate for senior managers to include a brief résumé of schools attended and exams passed. consider giving additional information to show that you have the relevant work experience. But everyone agrees that the most relevant job should appear at the top of the list. For example.g.ac. if appropriate) and the awarding institution. If you’ve worked your way up from the bottom and lack formal qualifications altogether.
4. particularly if you want to offer a targeted CV. • Be consistent in how you present the information. visit our website at www. word-processed and printed or copied on goodquality white or cream paper. chronological order) and in your layout. you have an unconventional record. Use an A4 envelope with cardboard reinforcement. Make sure the copies are sharp and clear. Use an ‘easy-to-read’ font. one your present or last employer. after that you can use it on its own. underlining). If you don’t want your employer approached at this stage.4. • Don’t cram the page. Write the words out in full the first time you use them and put the abbreviation in brackets. Use bullet points to make reading quicker. • Make it easy to read and follow. An unusual hobby such as sky-diving or genealogical research can be worth mentioning.ac. Don’t use clichés. personal profile Including career aims and a skill profile can be particularly effective if you’re seeking a career change. One way to do this is from the job description. even though it has no obvious relevance to the job. You might prefer to omit referees on the CV and put ‘Available on request’. Don’t fold it. bold. and the notes that follow it suggest some inferences that can be drawn from them about the nature of the work of personnel management.4. jargon and abbreviations the reader may be unfamiliar with. including software you are familiar with e. and their status or relationship to you (e. (e. and so on. Concentrate on the aspects that are most important for the employer to know. Some of the key words in the description have been emphasised. you’re a mature graduate. you’ll need to analyse the job itself. Additional skills The diversity of individual careers sometimes makes extra sections desirable: you can make up your own subheadings. • Avoid long. Consider using an appendix for very detailed information such as a list of publications. • Seek other people’s views on your draft. course tutor). Include details you think a prospective employer really ought to know – driving licence.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook may have given you opportunities to tackle roles and develop skills that you haven’t had scope for at work – perhaps you’ve been a school governor.g. and in particular the skills it calls for. line manager. Word and Excel. follow it up by sending a hard copy straight away. pay attention to its appearance as well as its content. • The space you give to each section should reflect its importance. 4. or you’re applying for a job for which the competition is particularly keen. Space makes text easier to read and more attractive. It might be helpful to read it alongside CV Example 3.g. addresses and telephone numbers. we’ve chosen a description for human resource management. • If you send your CV by email. additional skills such as foreign languages (if possible. Give their names. Career aims. run a computer club. 76 To find out more. The employer may not bother to read on if there’s nothing of interest to begin with. for some media jobs) more elaborate graphics and perhaps coloured paper might be appropriate. and don’t clutter it up with unnecessary punctuation. to adapt for other employers. Have headings in the same style (capital letters. first aid training. To illustrate this. • Put the most important information on the first page and as near the top as possible. References You’ll usually need two referees. • Two sides of A4 is usually the right length (unless it is a CV for an academic position which is usually longer as it includes listings of published work and/ or research).open. such as Arial 11 point. done voluntary work that demonstrates organisational and management skills. It gives your CV an interesting feature and makes it memorable. say so in your CV or covering letter. Yours will be one of many that the employer has to read. and proofread the final version carefully. • Your CV should be produced to a high standard.uk/careers . which is designed for this area of work. give an indication of your level of competence). You’ll need it again. complicated sentences.10 Analysing a job description In order to construct a CV that’s effectively related to the job you’re seeking. If you need to demonstrate an interest in design (e.g.g. Keep a copy of your CV (and disk) in a safe place. It is also important to outline your level of IT and keyboard skills. • Make sure that your CV arrives looking like a quality document.9 Presentation of your CV To produce an effective CV .
working conditions. (undertaking job analysis and evaluations as appropriate). messy …. None was perfect. especially the ability to communicate effectively with them. records of labour turnover and other necessary information and assisting with human resource planning procedures and programmes. interviewing applicants and advising on the selection of those most suitable. To find out more. uninteresting. • Words such as consultations. discussing career development. • If you think that your CV looks feeble.3 Take some time to reflect again on the CV guidelines and examples. And bear in mind that covering letters. advising and negotiations imply the need for skills in dealing with people. – Maintaining staff records. appraisals. The examples (all fictitious by the way) illustrated each of the four main CV formats in turn – chronological. functional. • Words such as analysing. but the style is standard for academic CVs in general. • If you already have a CV. – Arranging for dissemination of vacancy details by internal and external means. It’s time to redesign it. – Assisting in negotiations in the field of industrial relations and ensuring observance of regulations and agreements relative to personnel matters.open. – Advising management on standards of remuneration. the subject of the next section. industrial relations.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Example Human Resource Management Advising on.uk/careers 77 . personal welfare and other matters with individual members of staff. as appropriate. ask yourself whether it presents the information you want to give in the way you want it to be seen. the academic CV showed that the applicant studied medicine which you can’t do with the OU. it probably is. developing and administering policies in relation to staff recruitment and training. discussing. • Look again at the example CVs to see whether any of the three formats would be particularly appropriate to convey what you want. (Indeed. general conditions of employment and other personnel matters. career development. human resource planning and forecasting imply the need for skills in evaluating information and reaching appropriate conclusions. Activity 4. visit our website at www. • Think about the general style of your CV in relation to the person who’s going to read it. Some typical tasks may include. targeted and academic. • Make sure that you’ve: analysed the requirements of the job listed your skills composed your examples of key achievements Then go ahead and construct or redesign your own CV. – Helping to undertake staff appraisals and. interviewing. • Words such as arranging and records imply the need for administrative skills. staff promotion schemes and other matters. management/ staff communications. evaluations.ac. The examples of the CVs above illustrated some of the points you should consider when designing your own CV. – Analysing staffing requirements in consultation with department and other managers.) You may well decide that a quite different layout and format are more appropriate for your individual circumstances. would accompany these CVs. wordy.
or whether vacancies will arise in the near future. If you’ve worked through Section 2 in this book. • Print your name clearly below your signature. and when you would be able to start. Keep a copy of your letter.uk/careers . send a brief follow-up letter or telephone to make sure that it’s been received. 78 To find out more.3 Drafting your letter • If possible. Switchboard staff can be very helpful in supplying this information if it isn’t otherwise available.5. you’ll know that to make a speculative approach you have to present your case in a letter. • Put your name. a speculative approach is not allowed in Northern Ireland.open. not repeat what’s on the application form or CV.’ and ‘I beg to remain’. • Make sure your spelling and grammar are correct. so make sure that the reader will want to find out more about you. interests and activities. on the lefthand side. It should enhance your application. At the same time you must leave the impression that you’re someone it’s useful for the employer to know about. where you are. especially as it may be based on US spelling. steer clear of stilted expressions like ‘re your advertisement of 29th July. then highlight the relevant points in the CV such as work experience. end ‘Yours faithfully’. such as a relevant degree. If you haven’t received an acknowledgement within two or three weeks. Add some other detail to reinforce your suitability. Convey clearly what kind of work you’re seeking. The second letter accompanies a CV in response to a newspaper advertisement. Two examples of covering letters are set out overleaf. translate into being someone the employer ought to see. A CV will usually require more of an introduction.2 Applying speculatively Remember.5 The covering letter Your covering letter is your opportunity to market yourself. • You can use your covering letter to give additional information such as reasons for an unusual change in career. 4. • Address your letter to an individual person by name and job title.1 Applying for a job in a vacancy list or answering an advertisement Mention the job title (including any reference number). 4. if done well. • Keep it brief – usually not more than one side of A4. • Use plain A4 paper of good quality. You’re trying to find out whether there are any vacancies. telephone number and date at the top right-hand corner and. The first is a speculative approach asking for an advice interview from an executive the writer doesn’t know. • If there are any special circumstances not covered in the application form or CV. job title and organisation of the person you’re writing to. or highlight aspects of your CV which you feel are particularly important. • When writing to a named individual. what you’re studying. Application forms often allow you reasonable scope to sell yourself and may need only a brief covering letter. So make clear who you are. type or word-process your letter (though very occasionally an employer will ask for a handwritten letter). It will usually be read first. It introduces your application and draws attention to the main factors that make you suitable for the job.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. Say why you want to work for that particular organisation. appropriate qualification. mention them in the letter.5.ac. and say where and when you saw the vacancy. • Although you should be business-like. and that you’ve expressed yourself clearly. related experience. visit our website at www. the name. address. end ‘Yours sincerely’. usually accompanied by your CV. such as a disability and how you overcome potential difficulties. Always include a covering letter unless the employer specifically tells you not to. 4. Stress how you think the organisation can benefit from employing you. your qualifications and what you have to offer. If there’s a vacancy this will.5. Highlight your strongest selling points. without duplicating what’s on the application form. If you do have to resort to ‘Dear Sir or Madam’. Ask someone else to read it – don’t rely on your computer’s spelling check.
Yours sincerely Joginder Singh 01926 850973 To find out more. visit our website at www. I should appreciate a personal meeting with you and will contact you in the next week to discuss this. Although I would like to work for your company. and I wish to congratulate you. Having had over ten years’ experience in export sales. • Increasing sales by 26 per cent in one year when the pound was at its highest exchange rate.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Example 1 Speculative letter Joginder Singh 123 Warwick Road Kenilworth Warwickshire CV8 1EJ Mr George Black Export Sales Director Blank Distribution Company 5 Blank Street Royal Leamington Spa Warwickshire CV35 8EE 10 February 2006 Dear Mr Black.uk/careers 79 . including experience of exporting electronic. I noted in yesterday’s Financial Times that your company received an export award from the Department of Trade and Industry. I am now seeking a career change that will build on this experience. • Selecting and working with local distributors throughout the world.ac. Some of my key achievements have been: • Locating new lines of products and developing international sales for them. your advice and suggestions would also be helpful and influential in helping me research my options to develop my career. and computer based control equipment. Your success in selling computer components to Asian countries has been something few companies have achieved in the last few years. I should appreciate your advice concerning the development of my career. With your knowledge of exporting.open.
I am a qualified accountant with substantial professional experience. I have particular interest in computer-based accounting procedures and extensive staff management experience. I have recently taken voluntary redundancy as a consequence of a nationwide organisational restructuring programme.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Example 2 Response to an advertisement Margaret Minty 8 Milton Avenue Edinburgh EH10 3PQ 0131 668 1394 Mrs Shirley Barrett Personnel Manager Fairplay Industries Ltd 123 Evergreen Way Milton Keynes Buckinghamshire MK10 8VS 6 March 2006 Dear Mrs Barrett. Yours sincerely Margaret Minty 80 To find out more. I have brought about a sustained improvement in my office’s financial performance over the past five years. Although I currently live in Edinburgh. I look forward to hearing from you.ac. I am confident that I could make a significant contribution to Fairplay Industries Ltd. I am free to relocate to another area and see this as a positive addition to my professional and personal development. My decision was based on a desire to change employers in order to broaden my professional experience as I am keen to develop my career in a managerially demanding environment.open. Working in a team alongside other senior management colleagues. Assistant Finance Director. Having read the detailed description of the post.uk/careers . and discussed specific aspects with the Finance Director over the telephone yesterday. Fairplay Industries Ltd. visit our website at www. I am enclosing my CV in response to your advertisement for the above post which appeared in the Daily Telegraph on 1 March.
• Guard against being too open. Don’t be panicked into responding too quickly. I need a moment or two to think about it. it can be useful to ask about future business plans. although as the candidate you should do most of the talking – in effect determining the content. You can set a standard against which the others will be judged. To find out more. • Show acceptance of the interviewer as a person. Here are some initial tips for interviews: • Interviewers want you to do yourself justice. so the sequence of interviews assumes an importance of its own. Fill a thinking gap with comments such as ‘That’s an interesting question. and aren’t easily swayed by factual information thereafter. go first. perhaps in an illogical way. It’s up to you to help them out and make them feel comfortable. but they make very consistent judgements and assessments between candidates. • Interviewers are more likely to be swayed by negative information or behaviour on the part of the candidate than positive. • When faced with a panel of interviewers you should address the majority of your response to the interviewer who has asked you a question whilst ensuring that you still have some eye contact with the rest of the panel. From the vast amount of research into interviews as a selection method. initial answers are critical. use the opportunity to add relevant information about yourself that you haven’t had an adequate opportunity to express. Remember that interviewers want to be liked and hope to be supported in their day-to-day work and career by your appointment. If you’re given a choice. The ideal interview should flow like a conversation. • Interviewers too may be inexperienced or nervous. They’ll be asking themselves ‘Could we get on?’ ‘Would this person be supportive?’ • Balance the initiative-taking.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4. not maintaining eye contact) in an interview can be more important in determining its outcome than experience or qualifications. Neither should psychologically dominate the discussion. This suggests that a good interview performance is likely to impress. If the interview has already covered that. • Interviewers’ judgements about a candidate are always made in relation to judgements about earlier candidates. • Interviewers may be poor at assessing the personality characteristics of individual candidates with any validity. some important insights for candidates emerge: • Some interviewers make up their minds about candidates within the first four minutes of an interview.uk/careers 81 . • When asked whether you have any questions. reaching greater depths as the rapport develops between the two parties.ac. • A candidate’s body language (for example.’ • Always try to be positive in what you say and never be critical of a previous employer. Interviews tend to exclude rather than to include. They’re hoping that you’ll be an excellent candidate and that the interviewing time and effort will be well spent. visit our website at www.open. First impressions count. • A few seconds silence in an interview can seem an eternity. while the interviewer sets the format.6 The interview Interviews remain the most common method of filling vacancies.
may try to ‘sell’ the job Head of a group or department A technical expert with wider managerial experience Will talk shop. Try to foresee questions or situations and work out possible answers. • Learn from observing others – take the role of interviewer with a partner. visit our website at www. • Think about the interview and plan for it.6. network contacts. • Practise by role-play with a partner. Practise some answers into a tape recorder and listen critically to yourself. solutions. find out something about the people interviewing you. often astute and very sensitive Acting as internal screener. Collect as many concrete examples of things you’ve done as you can. problems. If you can. • Ask for comments from a partner. or interviewers who have rejected you. • What are your weak spots and what do you feel uncomfortable talking about? • Why would you not employ yourself? Produce convincing counter-arguments.6. for insight often leads to heightened anxiety. pick bits from CV Concerned about your professional competence and the rapport between you Managing director or company founder May digress into lengthy company history Concerned about cultural fit. Their perspectives may differ according to their job function: You could read all the books ever written on how to do well at interview and still not be good at it.9 below and practise some answers out loud. Even experience as an interviewer doesn’t make for a flawless performance. How you sound will be crucial.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 4.open. How you project yourself through your social and communication skills will determine your success whenever you speak with potential employers. Practise speaking on the phone to a friend and ask what impression you’re making. Don’t let your own stereotyping of the interviewer affect your interview technique. Read the section on ‘Tough questions’ in Section 4. may look for shared vision May be looking for someone who’ll question or act as an agent of change Will seek views from all those who’ve come into contact with you 4. into a tape recorder.2 Before your interview • Research the job and employer thoroughly beforehand.6. 82 To find out more. Do it out loud. Why have you been invited for interview? What are your unique selling points? Questions are likely to focus on: Your achievements Your motives for applying Your likely contribution • Prepare by marshalling your material in advance. Consult some of the books listed at the end of this booklet. Find out all you can about interviewing techniques and be ready to cope with them: • Read about the process.ac.1 Interviewers There are as many kinds of interviewer as there are people. achievements and personal ambition Considering how you’ll fit with the rest of the team May have to ‘sell’ you to more senior colleagues Serious but relaxed. or use audio or video recordings. judgement valued by others Likely to concentrate on personality and organisational ‘fit’ May have a fund of knowledge about company culture Line manager or decision-maker Trying to assess your style of working Concerned about your motivation. • Review your CV.uk/careers . within a broader organisational framework May have standard questions. Below we list the four main types of interviewers you may come across. Human resource/recruitment managers Well-trained and experienced. Remember that when managers interview they’re playing a role to a set of social rules. • Reflect on your experience. and may not be entirely their usual selves. Practice is essential. Evaluate your performance and incorporate the learning into your next interview. • Practise your answers in the weak areas.
• Maintain good eye-contact with the person you’re speaking to. clichés. • Decide what to wear. and keep your hands away from your mouth. papers. Try the whole outfit some days before.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Plan travel and arrival times.6 Answering questions Whatever the nature of the job. A lucid style is a transparent window on the content. professional. ask for repetition or clarification. telephone. If you’re very unsure about this. • Remember to take a copy of your application with you. • Speak concisely. • Convey the right amount of enthusiasm. allow yourself time to relax. Conservative dress is more likely to pay off than flamboyance. and achievment profile. look at company literature to get an idea of how people dress. Smile! • Avoid negative statements. • Remember the need for a poised.6. Dress appropriately for the culture. Some people need to practise this. • If delayed. • Use plain language that doesn’t confuse or divert. • Arrive in good time. • Use your natural gestures – there’s no need to look frozen! • Avoid fidgeting. If in doubt ask ‘Would you like me to go on?’ • Show through your answers that you’ve done your research into the company. .4 How you sound • Sound as if you have confidence in yourself. • Speak clearly.open. • Listen attentively to the questions. . visit our website at www. Avoid jargon.5 Body language • Walk and sit with good posture. and if possible do a dummy run. the interviewer will be working to a mental model consisting of three related profiles. Personal profile Intellectual ability Communication skills Listening skills Confidence Job motivation Energy and drive Endurance Development Financial motivation Professional profile Knowledge Reliability Integrity Commitment Achievement profile Effectiveness Efficiency Economy To find out more. 4. warmth. polishing your shoes and so on.6. If there’s no suitable literature you could telephone and ask the person on the switchboard or the secretary of the person interviewing you.uk/careers 83 . or groups of characteristics – your personal. It’s your task to provide evidence in your answers that demonstrates these characteristics. • Don’t smoke anywhere on the premises. • Don’t forget to turn off your mobile phone. confident first impression.3 On the day . • Don’t fold your arms. so that if it doesn’t feel right you’ve got time to change your plans. 4. Show that you know the interview ‘rules’ by wearing smart clothes. which will give you clues to whether you are answering the questions and timing your replies appropriately. umbrellas. friendliness and sincerity. 4. • Shake hands firmly and briefly. and judge when you’ve said enough.6.ac. Don’t drop your voice towards the end of sentences. 4.6. Watch the interviewer’s behaviour. • Don’t be overburdened with bags. • Prepare some questions that you would like to ask.
e. Look through the next examples – you’re bound to come up against some of them in one form or another. The smile won’t be seen but it can be heard.6. You’re taken through a series of questions that are recorded and analysed by trained interviewers.9 Tough questions Everyone has a different perception of what constitutes a tough question. Here are some tips to help you through them followed by some examples and how to approach them. 4.7 After the interview • Think about the questions and your answers. • If you’re rejected. visit our website at www. • Try to show that you understand why the interviewers have asked you the question.ac.’ • Hypothetical questions test speed and quality of thought. but some things are especially important: • Do you speak loudly enough? • Is your voice clear or do you have a tendency to mumble? • Do you sound confident and interested. When you’ve answered. e. ‘What problems did you encounter in the early planning stage of the building extension?’ • Open questions used by skilled interviewers encourage expansive replies incorporating both facts and attitudes or feelings. you plan to fail. stop and leave it at that. as you would when talking to someone face to face. 4. • A sales exercise: you’re given an opportunity to sell a product over the phone. • In response to embarrassing – rather than simply tough – questions. The questions are 84 To find out more. state assumptions you’re making. take time and keep to the point. ‘Would this just be in the UK or the whole of Europe?’ designed to establish whether or not you have the required skills for the job. • Structured: a mutually convenient time is fixed in advance for the interview. and say where you’d need more information. at the employer’s convenience. write a letter asking for some constructive comment by telephone. Pause for thought If you fail to plan. often with a technical content. The advice that follows about personal interviews below applies just as much to telephone interviews. Even if you’re unsuccessful this time.6. • Standing up while talking can make you sound more confident. This technique is used for recruiting sales. In general: • If you feel yourself under pressure. ‘What if the policy changed to carrying more freight by rail?’ In reply be methodical. A wide range of questions is covered in Great Answers to Tough Interview Questions by Martin Yate (see the end of this section for further details).g. There’s some general advice about using the telephone effectively in Section 2.open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook You need to also be prepared to adapt your responses to the different kinds of question: • Specific questions invite factual replies. • Some candidates dress in the clothes they would wear to an interview to put themselves in the right frame of mind.uk/careers . They do this in several ways: • Fully automated: you receive a letter giving a freephone telephone number to ring. marketing or telesales staff.g. or monotonous or tentative? • Don’t forget to smile when you’re talking on the telephone. This reinforces recollections of you. e. • Screening: you’re questioned on various aspects of your CV to decide whether you’ll be invited to a personal interview. If you can show that you know what they’re getting at.g. you’ll tend not to listen so acutely. keep your answer simple and short.6.g. Ask for the question to be repeated. e. you’re half way to giving an appropriate answer.8 Interviews by telephone Increasing numbers of companies are using the telephone in the first stage of the interviewing process. Did you do yourself justice? Did you allow negative information or negative expressions of feelings to creep in? • Send the employer an informal thank-you note soon afterwards. there may be other positions coming up. ‘Tell me about the three years you spent studying with The Open University. 4. You hear a list of statements and press a number on the telephone keypad to indicate your response.
Why should you be appointed rather than an internal candidate? This is an invitation to list your main strengths. the fresh perspective of Q an outsider.g. freedom from childcare. Having worked for one company for so long. Remember that this question isn’t simply about your factual history so don’t give too much detail.open. for example: Early years (if appropriate) Education Work experience Significant events Keep your answer short (three to four minutes). Draw on examples from the three profiles – personal. Include any particular characteristics that you feel relate to the job. and the ‘political’ gains of instigating change through appointing an outsider.ac.g. Try to restrict yourself to four or five as too long a list will confuse the interviewer. This question needs practice.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Examples of tough questions and how to answer them Q A What are your strengths? You’ll have become aware of these through your self-analysis. professional and achievement – we discussed in ‘Answering questions’ above to produce a rounded picture.uk/careers 85 . what difficulties do you expect in adapting to our culture? Make it clear that you understand the importance of the concept of culture by mentioning the internal diversity of companies and organisations you’ve had contact with. It is your chance to provide an overview and at the same time to throw in leads that you hope the interviewer will take up. or pair one with something that can be turned from a weakness into a strength (e. conscientiousness) to end on a positive note. Draw attention to the possibilities of bringing in skills or experience that the company would benefit from. Q A A Q A Q A To find out more. Q A What are your weaknesses? Don’t claim to be faultless! Most strengths taken to the extreme become weaknesses. You could also provide evidence of being a quick learner. Or explain how you had a weakness (e. particularly in view of age leglislation in 2006 but you never know…! The interviewer could be suggesting either that you’re too old to adapt or that you haven’t got a realistic appreciation of the demands of the new job. to counter any thoughts that you might simply be looking for a refuge. time management) but have taken action to overcome it. and the typical salary ranges. Isn’t it a bit late in your working life to change career? It is perhaps unlikely that you would be asked this. Either choose one that isn’t particularly significant. emotional stability. credibility with clients. Negotiations like this might seem strange to you if your only experience is of fixed salary scales. visit our website at www. Concentrate on the many positive features of your greater maturity: experience of life and work. Tell me about yourself. Then express your motivation and drive. Describe how you’ve adapted to different subcultures you’ve encountered by doing different jobs in your career. Use phrases like ‘learning a valuable lesson’ rather than admitting to making a mistake. domestic stability. coaching and mentoring skills. wellreasoned argument for your choice of this new kind of work. Mention your previous salary and any financial commitments that lead you to raise or lower your expectations. Add a balanced. Cover relevant aspects of your life. Q A How much are you worth? Try to delay answering this until you know the responsibilities and scope of the job.
Relate your answer in the final stages to the job you’re applying for. Uncertainties in the business environment will probably lead to growth opportunities for the company and you. What are your ambitions? Concentrate on your desire to do the job well and to develop your skills and confidence. mentally sharp and so on. Concentrate on flexibility.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Q How have you tried to stay up to date? (Age is commonly associated with obsolescence of skills or knowledge and ineffectiveness. Emphasise your desire to develop your skills by moving to a more demanding job.ac. Why has it taken you so long to find a new job? Finding any sort of job is easy. either at work or at leisure. It is also important to emphasise IT skills and keeping up with professional journals/research in the area. Why do you want to work for us? Your research will pay off here.open. Plead ignorance about other potentially boring duties. What sort of relationship did you have with your last manager? Concentrate on understanding your manager’s expectations and objectives. If possible. filling in expense claim forms). Emphasise that you are adaptable and respond positively to circumstances and would not necessarily expect to use all of your skills in the first instance. Mention steps you’ve taken to keep up to date.uk/careers . finding an appropriate job takes time. What were the circumstances of your leaving your last employer? Keep your reply short and don’t touch on any conflict or bitterness. Be honest. Do you not feel that you might be overqualified (or too experienced) for the position we are filling? A strong company needs highly competent people with appropriate experience to deal with current problems. Include a reference to how important work is to you.) A A Quote samples of your own recent learning. Include examples of support and how you kept your manager informed. How would you describe your management style? Have a well thought-out answer ready. Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A Q A Q 86 To find out more. Make clear statements about your willingness to shoulder responsibility and say that you would consider career progression within the company at an appropriate time. what would you choose? Talk about the kind of work you’re being interviewed for and why this company interests you. A trite or bland answer will seriously undermine your application. visit our website at www. relate this to the job you are applying for. There’s no research evidence to support this assumption. your variations in style according to different people and different tasks. Create a favourable impression based on the things you’ve done to help yourself. and your hope that some of these needs will be met. You might start by briefly describing how your style has developed as you’ve grown in experience and social expectations have changed. What interests you least about this job? Choose a routine activity (filing. but be careful that it isn’t a core function of the job. Statements about far-reaching ambitions should sound realistic. If you had complete freedom of choice of jobs and employers.
this company…) today? Do you feel well equipped to meet those challenges? • None of your experience is at managerial level. the Health Service. and why? • Do/did you have any frustrations in your present/last job? • What did you learn from (e.uk/careers 87 . medium and long-term goals? • Why have you decided to change careers? • What are the main challenges facing (e. 4. as well as interviews and psychometric tests. aware that interviews have many shortcomings.open. beyond the interview’. Because assessment centres are more thorough. are increasing their use of additional tools.ac.7. It can include situational activities. education. in any combination. group discussions. All the other candidates will be nervous too. here are some general guidelines: • Don’t be intimidated. visit our website at www.g.1 Assessment centres This approach has been defined as ‘the use of any selection device.7 Other selection techniques Larger employers. they are fairer to you. being a manager…)? • How do you react to criticism? • How do you feel about the progress you made in your present/last position? • In your present/last job. • What would you find easy about teaching undergraduates and what would be challenging? Don’t forget that you can ask a careers adviser for help in preparing for interviews. How would you cope with the transition? • How long would you expect to stay here? • How would you describe yourself? • In your present/last job. in-tray exercises and the like. You would normally find out about the way an organisation uses these by researching their recruitment literature or website. this job. • Why should we appoint you? • Have you any questions? For academic jobs: • What publication are you most proud of and why? • What do you see as the main benefits of your research? • Tell me about your PhD research assuming that I have no background knowledge. If you are asked to attend an assessment centre.g. 4. To find out more. One such tool is the use of assessment centres – these are not places. your last job)? • What is the most difficult decision you have faced? • What kind of decisions are most difficult for you? • What area of your skills or professional development would you like to improve? • Describe your ideal job. what do/did you spend most time on.4 Here are some more examples of interviewers’ questions to think through yourself.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 4.g. what do/did you like most/least? Why? What was your greatest success? What has been your biggest failure? • What do you see as the most difficult aspect of (e. exercises and interviews) for recruiting new employees. • Why did you decide to study with The Open University? • The classic three-part question: What kind of people do you like to work with? What kind of people do you find it difficult to work with? How have you worked successfully with this difficult type of person? • What are your short. but a technique (a mixture of tests. particularly at graduate level.
numerical and perceptual skills). • Try to get a good night’s sleep beforehand.2 Psychometric tests Psychometric tests are structured pencil-and-paper or computer exercises. often in the form of multiplechoice questions. Unlike aptitude tests.uk/careers . • Take care at social events: rich food and drink dull the brain! • Try to ensure that you talk to as many of the company representatives and other candidates as possible – don’t just limit yourself to one or two who seem the most friendly. • Take the pens and pencils you like to write with. • Go to the loo before major exercises. the level and nature of your thinking skills (typically. A highlighter pen could be useful. ability or intelligence tests These aim to assess your capabilities in tests of reasoning: that is. special seating) discuss it with the selector in advance. • Try to focus on your own performance rather than that of others and don’t assume that she or he who shouts loudest will win. both mentally and physically: • Your invitation may include a programme of events.g. have no time limits • Ask during the practice session if you don’t understand. Get yourself ready. The tests should have been carefully researched and tried out to ensure that they’re fair to everyone who takes them.Z’. You may face hours of hot sticky work in examination conditions. The selectors aren’t looking for a rigidly ‘typical’ personality.7. for example.ac. or bring your own calculator. Study it carefully. getting in some practice will probably make you feel better.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Decisions are made by drawing on all the evidence. They’re designed to assess your reasoning abilities. Tests are designed so that you have a few items to practise on first. paying attention to any special instructions. • In summer. Don’t be afraid to ask questions. and your preferences and attitudes. Decisions about senior appointments are never based on test results alone.uk/careers and look for ‘Assessment Centres’ in the ‘A. Further resources For further information and resources on assessment centres go to: www. make sure you take them with you. cognitive.open. failure in one or two elements won’t automatically mean rejection.prospects. • Assume that you’ll be closely observed the whole time. induction loop. 88 To find out more. If you wear glasses for reading.ac. • Assessment centres sometimes have the advantage that they give you longer to judge the organisation and the people within it. They look at how you react or behave in different situations. You might be asked to prepare something in advance. such as personality and interest questionnaires. • If you have a disability and need special arrangements (e.ac. verbal. Your results are usually compared with how others have done on the tests in the past. depending on the organisation and more usually by large blue chip companies: • as a selection exercise before an interview • to accompany an interview selection • as part of a number of selection exercises at an assessment centre. • Make sure that you know exactly what you’re required to do. they have no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers. for sales personnel. choose something that’s cool as well as smart to wear. 4.open. You will find practice tests at: www.g.uk/links/AssessmentCntrs www. The tests are used in a variety of ways. In fact. When the time comes: • Arrive in good time. independence. visit our website at www. Personality questionnaires These gather information about how and why you do things in your own particular way.shldirect. although certain characteristics will be more or less appropriate for the job (e. but if you’re anxious about them. There are two main kinds of psychometric test: Aptitude. social confidence and persuasiveness would be considered important characteristics). or how you respond to different situations. The ability to listen and support others is also highly valued. they can last several hours.com When it comes to completing the tests: • Read the instructions carefully and follow them precisely • Some ability tests have tight time limits and too many questions to do in the time allowed • Others. a good test can offset weaknesses in interview performance – it never seems to work the other way round.
sometimes during the assessment centre. Some selection procedures include a discussion about the test results with a psychologist.7.7. it is advisable to talk to the employer about this beforehand to discuss whether there are any alternative arrangements that would be appropriate for your situation.7. The observers will be making notes about the quality of your contribution (logic. • Be clear about the aims of the exercise: keep the group focused on the task. come to a conclusion or recommendation. Sometimes you’re told the topic before the day. remember that getting the best out of others is a skill in itself. For one thing. Like examination candidates. There could be questions afterwards.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Personality tests are easy to fake. • Recommendation of an option. Don’t ignore the possibility of recombining parts of different options. 4. Talk directly to them. A suitable structure for your answer is likely to be: • A redefinition of the problem (by drawing out the key issues) • Setting out the main options. Concentrate your thinking and be succinct in your expression so that you have less to write. relationship with other participants). Make it a lively delivery. 4. but you’re always given time to prepare. don’t over-run. If you’ve been asked to prepare in advance. visit our website at www. with the selectors acting as observers. most tests contain ‘lie scales’. not enough to do them justice. Never read from a prepared script. You may need to make your presentation just to the selectors. with your reasons (is it practicable. verbal expression. for another you’ll have to guess what sort of personality the company is looking for. Candidates often fail through producing two to three times too much material. • Make an early contribution.5 Group discussions Three to eight candidates sit in a group and discuss one or more topics.3 Written exercises Typically. • Don’t spend so much time thinking and planning that you haven’t got time to write the report. don’t use a ballpoint pen – it tends to make things worse. Honesty is the best policy. you’ll be given a lot of written data and asked to write a report.4 Presentations These are often used as part of an assessment exercise. not an essay. If you have trouble with it. The marker will be looking for original thought. but there are dangers in trying to do this. To find out more. • Don’t rework chunks of the brief. and faking then becomes very difficult to sustain. communication skills and persuasiveness. Tell ’em what you’re going to tell ’em Tell ’em Tell ’em what you’ve told ’em Keep in mind some general advice about presentations: • Whatever the instructions. • What’s usually wanted is a business report. • You won’t get any marks if the marker can’t read your writing. • Make assumptions explicit. • Don’t be tempted to produce complex visuals. with their pros and cons. Very often you’ll be set a task as a group or given a case study to look at. and if more information might be needed say what it is. They’re easy to set up and provide a useful sample of logical thinking. Remember the rubric: 4. practise so that you’ve got the timing right. but not necessarily the first. and you may have access to audio-visual materials. • Keep a careful eye on the time. You’ll probably have only five minutes of presentation time.uk/careers 89 . but make good use of your allowance. Make liberal use of subheadings and bullet points to make your answer easy to read. • Be supportive and pleasant to the other candidates. • Remember to put your name on all the sheets of paper you use. outline a proposal or draft a letter. and how?) If you’re faced with a written exercise: • Follow the instructions.ac. see it as a task in which you have to convince or persuade the selectors. Keep the presentation simple. or sometimes to the other candidates as well. applicants who fail selection tests often do so because they don’t answer the questions. If asked to do so. You’re not going to be judged on your ability to dominate.open. with reasoning to support your choice. Be cooperative. If you have a disability that you believe may affect your ability to do these tests. How you say it is as important as what you say.
4.open. A cleverly constructed in-tray will generate emotional responses that can cloud decision-making. for example.analysis of handwriting – is used a lot for managerial selection in continental Europe. some employers ask candidates to submit a handwritten piece on a management topic. or 90 words per minute wordprocessing. means that details of an individual’s history are correlated with the biographical details of others who have succeeded in the same occupation. If you have to reach a decision within thirty minutes. How to go about it: • It may be possible to take the in-tray apart and sort it into heaps. particularly in France. Best marks are obtained by candidates who produce the largest volume of appropriate written output. take care over presentation as well as content. Studies indicate that graphologists can produce generalised personality descriptions.7. 4. follow this up by tackling the items according to those you set. • Give reasons for your decisions. Signal in your comments that you’ve spotted these links. A well constructed test in-tray will contain distracting trivia. • You can be judged only on what you’ve written down. but they’re not as detailed or as accurate as information gathered from psychometric tests and exercises. with appropriate levels of formality and informality in your responses. just like a real one. Make a point of discussing your strategy and interpretation of the group discussion with the interviewer later. judgement.6 In-tray exercises These simulations of the administrative aspects of a job can be very taxing. Information may be collected from the standard application form. make reporting and follow-up clear. make sure that it’s permitted. remind the group if necessary.7.7 Graphology Graphology . As well as general fitness. and ability to communicate in clear English. set timescales. a contraction of ‘biographical data’. Pause for thought Getting the job you want is always a challenge. and may take time. but is a controversial technique in the UK. other than statistical correlation. • Look for links within an in-tray. They’re usually set in an unrealistic scenario that prevents you from talking to other people in the organisation (e.7. or conflict between the other participants. So. 90 To find out more.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Mentally ‘stand back’ occasionally and evaluate what’s happening. 4. • Keep a careful eye on the time. • Remain balanced in your judgement. Intervene if there’s loss of direction. but often a special form is needed.7. Evidence offers little support for its use as a predictor of performance. Most candidates find these tests tough.7. • If the first part of the exercise asks you to set priorities. The biographical data need not have any recognised link with performance. medical tests cover sight. • Don’t be discouraged. If you like to work like that. you’ll be maximising your chance of success. Related tests of ‘potential for proficiency’ (trainability) assess characteristics such as hand–eye coordination. However. it’s Saturday afternoon).ac.uk/careers . 4.8 Biodata analysis ‘Biodata’. use your diary and your secretary well. 4. colleagues are ill. and between intrays if there’s more than one. and that can be a clue.10 Medical tests The job advertisement or person specification should state clearly whether a certain level of physical fitness is required. Treat the whole exercise like real life. By taking the trouble to reflect and to prepare. • Read the instructions carefully and plan your time accordingly. Don’t just put your head down and plough through the lot. The qualities most likely to be assessed are analysis. not on what went through your head.g. Staffing issues are most likely to spring this trap. decisionmaking. even if you’re not asked to do so. You’re likely not to know that graphology is being used. if you’re asked to submit a demonstration piece. organisation. You may be asked to respond quickly (in timed conditions) to a number of typical questions or issues that may crop up in a job and say what you would do and how you would prioritise tasks. abroad.9 Proficiency tests These tests are used to find out whether candidates have the skills they claim – 120 words per minute shorthand. visit our website at www. colour perception and hearing. You may be allowed to use the floor if the desk isn’t big enough.
open.ac.uk/learning M. Byron (2003) How to pass the Civil Service Qualifying Tests. Parkinson (2004) How to master Psychometric Tests. Kogan Page.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Further resources For giving presentations.ac.ac.open.uk/careers If you are an OU student look at the ‘Moving on’ section on the Prospects website at: www. M. ask for the OU Toolkit on Presentations from your regional centre or look under Study Strategies for the link to Student Toolkits at: www. Yate (2005) Great Answers to Tough Interview Questions.open.uk/links/AppsInterviews To find out more. The OU careers website at: www. M.uk/careers 91 .ac. Kogan Page. visit our website at www.prospects. Kogan Page.
6 5. Each section includes a discussion of some of the issues you may encounter. For more information and links on job-seeking strategies when facing discrimination. In this section we highlight some of the additional challenges that may be faced by students and graduates. The issues of whether.1 5.7 Age 94 Criminal record 95 Disability or additional requirements 96 Gender/sex 98 Race 100 Sexuality and sexual orientation 101 Religion or belief 102 Regardless of their background.uk/careers 93 .ac. the same principles of career planning and job seeking apply to everyone.3 5. strategies to help you in your job search and further resources that you may find helpful.ac.5 5. visit our website at www.2 5. the legal position. To find out more. there is evidence that certain groups of people are at a disadvantage and may experience difficulty in achieving their career aims. In fact. on a covering letter. on your application form. go to www.4 5. before or during an interview will be considered later in Section 5.prospects. when or how you should do so.uk/links/ discrimination Pause for thought Keep in mind that disclosure of personal information during the recruitment process can be a concern for some people. and you will often see this highlighted in job advertisements. Many employers have well-developed equal opportunities policies to help them to recruit a diverse workforce. some organisations aim specifically to recruit a workforce that reflects the community they serve. However.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Equality and Diversity Issues In this section 5. This section will explore a range of issues related to equality of opportunity in relation to • age • criminal record • disability or additional requirements • gender/sex • race • sexuality and sexual orientation.open.
you have a degree and. visit our website at www. Employers are looking for more than a qualification. sexual orientation and religion. Employers vary a great deal in their attitudes towards age and recruitment and with the increasing numbers of mature and overseas applicants offering a wide range of qualifications and experience. You may need to allow some time for appropriate arrangements to be made. hone your CV to highlight that ‘extra’ you can offer to enhance your application. So.1 Age Are you concerned that. as a mature graduate. having completed your degree. 5. juggling study and home responsibilities. They are saying.. For example. Braille or large print.open. This should also help you to feel confident about what you can offer to the workplace. If you have additional requirements that may lead to difficulties accessing any of our services. 94 To find out more. Having a degree is not enough to secure a job.’.1. selection procedures in large organisations are being reviewed. or contact your local OU Careers Advisory Service. and paid work.ac.1 Note here any issues that could affect you at work. which you might like to discuss with a careers adviser. your age will count against you in the job market? 5.2 How to help yourself in the job market Take a look at Section 4 on applying for jobs. to offer a range of transferable skills and experience to an employer. disability. Remember. that you are automatically going to be offered a job. This may feel unfair. please contact your regional centre who will arrange this. we will be happy to take reasonable steps to accommodate your needs. It’s not enough to think that because you have completed a part-time degree. Then contact the Careers Advisory Service in your region to get help with your marketing plan. ‘Yes. The Employers Forum on Age states that ‘being an employer of choice in an environment with an ageing population means ensuring that employment policies and practices are attractive to all age groups’.. if you need any information in an alternative format such as an audio recording.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Activity 5. there will be legislation in force in the UK that will ensure that anti-age-discrimination will become as much an offence as discrimination against race. you need to present your experience and skills positively and highlight your ‘added value’. 5.1. plan ahead and make use of the study breaks and any contacts you have to find out all you can about the area of work you are interested in. For instance. gender. This is where you are able. If you haven’t had any recent work experience (paid or voluntary). So. then you could consider exploring your local options.uk/careers . look at the Careers Advisory Service website for contacts for volunteering opportunities.1 Your rights By October 2006. especially when you have used all your spare time to get the degree in the first place.
some have started new careers in their 50s. • Demonstrate your flexibility and experience of studying and working in mixed-age environments. • Stress your ability to hit the ground running – you know all about working for a living. some areas of work look for maturity. • Identify the skills you developed in previous work. • Demonstrate your experience when making effective business decisions and give examples. teamwork. (A level playing field.taen.ac. counselling. Don’t be put off by negative reactions if at first you don’t succeed! One graduate wrote: My method worked because of planning. visit our website at www. teaching.open.uk/careers 95 .uk/links/Discrimination 5.gov. starting by using the company website (if there is one available). and view life experience as an advantage e. or need. Published by Age Positive at: www. research. • Create your own network using contacts from previous jobs/friends/family.com/mat_home. good targeting and carefully written documentation. Here are some tips from the Association of Graduate Recruiters (AGR) and the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS) to help you maximise your potential for job seeking: • Produce a concise CV and match your experience to the job requirements. AGCAS) Tell employers about your skills and what you have had to do to get an OU qualification. • Convey your reliability.ac.ac. Published by AGCAS and available online at: www. You can access the network at: www. 5. You do need to be clear about what you want and what you can offer.asp Age diversity at work – A practical guide for business.efa. you may be confused about its implications for working in the future. occupational therapy. Available for reference in your regional centre or at: www.1 Your rights Do note that there are legal requirements regarding disclosure of certain convictions.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Many OU graduates have changed careers in midlife. work and earn for as long as they want.uk A level playing field – A job-hunting guide for students and graduates on how to challenge unfair discrimination.uk Mature students – the way forward (AGCAS publication) is available at: www. • Highlight your time management. Nonetheless. loyalty and confidence to manage change. adaptability. studies and general life experience e.uk The Third Age Employment Network (TAEN) works for better opportunities for mature people to continue to learn.2 Criminal record If you have a criminal record. psychotherapy. Some of your concerns may include: • Whether you must declare any convictions.uk/links/Mature AdvantAGE – A magazine published by ‘realworld’ to help ‘mature’ students to take control of their future. you have just spent a number of years improving these through part-time study. Most employers will be impressed by your commitment and motivation! Indeed.org.g. • Be confident if you are offered an interview as this means your CV/application form has obviously been successful. including a section for mature students. when and if to disclose a conviction to a prospective employer. organisational and self-motivational skills. social work. it’s vital – whatever your aims – to research your chosen area thoroughly and market yourself effectively. • Fully research each employer. Further resources For the latest information on age legislation 2006.org. go to Employers Forum on Age at: www. Be prepared to produce more than one CV. communication.g.realworldmagazine. And you must be determined and active in your approach. • What impact a criminal record will have on your gaining and keeping employment.agepositive.prospects.prospects. to do so. investment of time and 143 stamps and envelopes. • How.2. • Use positive language in applications and interviews and never apologise for your age. For some areas To find out more. and archive work.
Part II of the DDA is intended to prevent discrimination against disabled people at work and in recruitment.1 Your rights The Disability Discrimination Acts (DDA) of 1995 and 2005 make it unlawful for an employer to discriminate against you whether you are applying for a job or are in employment.ac. services and facilities.prospects. Published by AGCAS and available online at: www. do check the legal situation carefully.uk Scottish Criminal Record Office (Scotland) at: www.crb.co. including recruitment. training and selection for redundancy or dismissal.org. employers are required to seek disclosure of criminal records from the relevant criminal records office.2. altering hours or buying equipment.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook of work.gov. Before you start studying for a specific career area. • Make use of other agencies that can help and advise you.disclosurescotland. particularly in relation to employment and access to goods. and what funding is available from other sources. in the past. or applying for jobs.drc-gb. You can access them at: www. You count as disabled according to the Act if you have ‘a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on your ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities’.com The National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NACRO) publishes a number of advice leaflets. supervising or being in sole charge of persons aged under eighteen’. 5. These may include adjusting premises.2 How to help yourself in the job market If you have unspent convictions. Discrimination is outlawed in all aspects of employment. The key starting point is to explore career areas that are relevant to your interests and skills. as defined by the Act.org Further resources Criminal Records Bureau (England and Wales) at: www. All employers are covered except for the armed forces. Employers must show that they have looked into the costs of adaptations.uk/links/Discrimination 96 To find out more.3. but smaller companies with lesser funds may not have to do so. • Be realistic about the employment area you wish to enter.open. and people with severe disfigurements.uk A level playing field – A job-hunting guide for students and graduates on how to challenge unfair discrimination.apextrust. 5.nacro. including a section for offenders. and so must the finances of the employer. Keep in mind that there are certain jobs for which convictions never become spent. promotion. Large companies will probably be expected to adapt the workplace. They define rights for disabled people.3 Disability or additional requirements Many students and graduates with disabilities have the same skills and abilities to offer as anyone else. Here is a range of strategies to help you: • Discuss your situation with a careers adviser at your regional centre. For some students.uk The Apex Trust – support. it can seem a challenging task to seek employment. additional support can help to enable access to work. visit our website at www. It does not apply to employers who employ workers on board ships or aircraft. The effectiveness of the adjustment in reducing the disadvantage must be taken into account. • Market yourself as positively as possible (see Section 4). such as ‘regularly caring for. and then to consider the next steps as outlined below. You can find out more from the Disability Rights Commission: Disability Rights Commission www. without the need for specific adjustments or support. Employers are also required to make reasonable adjustments both to the workplace and to the job description. training. those who have recurring or progressive conditions. information and advice for ex-offenders seeking work at: www.ac.uk/careers . This covers people who have had a disability. 5.
Access to Work – a Jobcentre Plus programme (see below) can provide support for you in a job. you will need to consider the method and timing. When you apply for jobs and you are considering whether to disclose your disability: • Always focus on what you can do. Specialist DEAs can discuss your current employment situation with you to plan the best way into work. Many employers have equal opportunities policies.open. If you’re concerned about losing the job you’re already in for a reason associated with disability. Here are some reasons why it might be a good a idea to not disclose your disability • You may believe that your disability has no effect on your ability to do the job.employers-forum. • A job matching and referral service.3 Resources for employment and training Jobcentre Plus Jobcentre Plus is a network of jobcentres provided by the government to offer information to all adults on jobs. However.jobcentreplus. You will be able to describe things in a positive light – your strengths. not what you can’t.ac. you risk losing your job.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 5.3. The majority of disabled jobseekers who find work through Jobcentre Plus are assisted by a disability employment adviser (DEA). • You might feel that you will be discriminated against and rejected straight away. If you do decide to disclose your disability. If you declare your disability and believe that you have been discriminated against during the application process. • You may think that an employer will automatically see you as a potential expense. • • • • • To find out more. many employers do not use the symbol but there may be practical evidence that they are positive about disability – such as offering information in alternative formats and alternative ways of contacting them. look for employers who make these kinds of positive statements even if they don’t use the disability symbol. So. Access to Work – Can help you make the most of your opportunities in work by helping you to tackle some of the practical obstacles you may meet at work if you have a disability. • Perhaps you prefer not to discuss your disability with a stranger. To find your nearest Jobcentre Plus office. You should always point this out to employers. • Referral if needed to an occupational psychologist. For instance.uk/careers 97 . Do you tell them on your application form? In a covering letter? Before or after an interview? There are no clear-cut answers to these questions. If you give false information and an employer finds out the truth later. • Don’t restrict your applications only to employers who are keen to recruit disabled people. • Referral where appropriate to specialist Jobcentre Plus programmes for disabled people including: Job Introduction Scheme (JIS) – To help you and an employer with employment costs for the first few weeks if you or your employer is not sure whether a job may be suitable. 5. • Information on employers in your area who are Disability Symbol users. look at the website: www. You must make your own judgement. visit our website at www.co. the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 entitles you to take your case to a tribunal. • Referral where appropriate to a work preparation programme. though you may find it helpful to talk it over with a careers adviser at your regional centre. Services the DEAs can offer include: • An employment assessment to identify what work or training suits you best.3. it may fund specialist equipment or transport costs.2 How to help yourself in the job market You may need to decide whether or not to tell an employer that you have a disability. training and self-employment. • Don’t assume that an employer will view your disability in a negative way.gov. your coping strategies. Many application forms ask about disability and health.uk or look up Jobcentre Plus in the Yellow Pages.uk Each is committed to creating and developing opportunities for people with disabilities. Here are some reasons why it might be a good idea to disclose your disability • Some employers are keen to employ people with disabilities and use the disability symbol – this shows they are positive about employing disabled staff. the DEA can provide advice to you and your employer and explore practical ways to help you keep your job. There are now over 400 member companies in the Employers’ Forum on Disability www.
facilities and services and in the disposal or management of premises. advice and resources for students with disabilities.diversityworks.open. academics involved in work placements and prospective employers: www. to request flexible working. this can help you in presenting yourself in your application for work.uk Diversity Works at: www. visit our website at www. and in fact. which came into force in the UK on 6 April 2003. The EPA applies to England. 98 To find out more.org. needing time off work for parenting duties.ac.uk/disability Further resources Association of Disabled Professionals at: www. If you live outside the UK you will need to check the legal position for your country of residence. and the provision of goods. education. Times are changing: for instance. It’s important that you are aware of the issues concerning sex and gender discrimination – at both recruitment stage.net The Open University Careers Advisory Service web pages have some useful links.open.uk/links/Discrimination The Hobson’s guide for Disabled Students – This is a free annual publication for disabled students.prospects. • Information on local and national disability organisations of and for disabled people. and in employment. includes employers’ case studies.) Other equality issues that you might encounter include harassment at work.org. If you check on the legal situation. published by AGCAS and available online at: www. and graduate case studies. Disabled students’ allowances (DSAs) Disabled students’ allowances (DSAs) are grants available to disabled students in higher education to help with the extra costs of services and facilities they need for their studies because of a disability or specific learning difficulty. There is also an interactive web-based service providing dedicated information.uk/careers 5.1 Your rights (The following information is from the EOC website.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook WORKSTEP – Individual programme of support through a variety of different job opportunities – leading to unsupported employment.4.open. and disabled children under 18. Employers are not required to provide the same pay and benefits if they can prove that the difference in pay or benefits is genuinely due to a reason other than one related to sex. There is a lot of discussion about the ‘glass ceiling’ that prevents women from achieving ‘top jobs’. • Details about work-based learning for adults.4 Gender/sex Does it make a difference if you are a man or a woman when applying for a job? Unfortunately. where the man and the woman are doing • like work. It also prohibits discrimination in employment against married people. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (SDA) prohibits sex discrimination against individuals in the areas of employment.uk/careers . June 2003.disabled-entrepreneurs. Look in the ‘A-Z’ under ‘Disability’ for further resources. there is still a 15 per cent pay gap between male and female graduates by the age of 24 – even when they have the same qualifications in the same subject. or • work that is proved to be of equal value. yes: despite the work of the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC).uk Disabled Entrepreneurs Network: www. including a section on disability.disabilitytoolkits. the necessity for a work/life balance is highlighted by the legal right for mothers and fathers of children under 6.org. available for reference in each regional centre.ac.ac. or • work rated as equivalent under an analytical job evaluation study. The OU provides information about DSAs on the website at: www.adp. we still find gender discrimination in the workplace.uk SKILL – The National Bureau for Students with Disabilities – has a large range of relevant information sources: www. www.ac.scope. Wales and Scotland. and looking for flexible working arrangements.skill. 5.) The Equal Pay Act 1970 (EPA) gives an individual a right to the same contractual pay and benefits as a person of the opposite sex in the same employment. and in ongoing communication with your employer.ac.uk A level playing field – A job-hunting guide for students and graduates on how to challenge unfair discrimination. (You might also want to check whether a prospective employer has an equal opportunities policy.
• Concentrate on your strengths. Scotland and Wales. • Secure comprehensive equality legislation in Europe. including children and prohibits direct and indirect sex discrimination.6 Resources for employment and training Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) The Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) is the leading agency working to eliminate sex discrimination in the UK. there is a good argument that the general definition of sex discrimination prohibits this. Published by AGCAS and available online at: www. • Increase the number of women in public life. Therefore. Further resources Equal Opportunities Commission at: www. The EOC campaigns to: • Close the pay gap between women and men. • Make it easier for parents to balance work with family responsibilities. 10 – Top Careers for Women – careers publication focusing on issues relating to graduate women in the labour market.uk No.org A level playing field – A job-hunting guide for students and graduates on how to challenge unfair discrimination. although there is not yet any legal authority on this point. how can you help prevent discrimination against yourself – whether you are female or male – in the job market? Here are a few suggestions: • Plan your application effectively in order to minimise the possibility of unfair discrimination.uk Work life balance centre – available at: www. The EPA has been interpreted to cover indirect sex discrimination as well as direct discrimination.3 Indirect sex discrimination Indirect sex discrimination is where a condition or practice is applied to both sexes but it adversely affects a considerably larger proportion of one sex than the other.ac. Three months (less one day) from the act of the discrimination for employment tribunal cases.open. 5. a requirement to work full-time might be unlawful discrimination against women. one type of direct sex discrimination is sexual harassment. • Break free of male and female stereotypes. there are special provisions prohibiting discrimination on the grounds of gender reassignment in employment. irrespective of sex.4. to apply that condition or practice.4. and this will help to counter any negative stereotypes that may exist. irrespective of sex. 5. However. • End sexual harassment at work. an unnecessary requirement to be under 5’ 10” would discriminate against men. 5. another is treating a woman adversely because she is pregnant. to apply a condition or practice. This is especially important if you are looking to enter a field of employment that is traditionally dominated by the opposite sex.4 Discrimination on grounds of gender reassignment With certain exceptions. including a section on gender. Employment-related claims are brought in an employment tribunal.prospects.ac. There are special provisions about discrimination on the grounds of gender reassignment. The SDA applies to women and men of any age. it is not justifiable.uk/links/Discrimination To find out more. 5. There are no express provisions prohibiting discrimination on grounds of gender reassignment in the other fields covered by the SDA.numberten. Strict time limits apply.eoc.4.worklifebalancecentre. You can access this at: www. For instance. visit our website at www. Indirect discrimination is where the pay difference is due to a condition or practice that applies to men and women but which adversely affects a considerably larger proportion of one sex than the other and it is not justifiable. Part I of the SDA describes the forms of discrimination to which the SDA applies. • Provide clear evidence of your ability to do the job.2 Direct sex discrimination Direct sex discrimination is where a woman (or man) is treated less favourably than a person of the opposite sex in comparable circumstances because of her (or his) sex. For instance. England.org. 5. • Discuss your application with a careers adviser in your regional centre. • Make public services relevant to the differing needs of men and women.co.4.5 How to help yourself in the job market So.4.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Victimisation because someone has tried to exercise their rights under the SDA or Equal Pay Act is also prohibited.uk/careers 99 .
it will help if you can give an example of someone from a different racial group who. 5.uk/careers . you can apply to the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE).5. If you think you have been discriminated against on racial grounds.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 5. This is recognised by the UK government: The Race Relations Act identifies three main types of racial discrimination: • direct racial discrimination • indirect racial discrimination • victimisation. If you think this has happened to you. 5. has been treated more favourably than you.5. So. Government initiatives take time to implement however. or to one of a number of other organisations such as trade unions. ‘white graduates were more likely than those from minority ethnic groups to be in full-time paid work and less likely to be unemployed six months following graduation’.5. and to challenge unfair discrimination? Here are some suggestions: 100 To find out more. If you think you have been discriminated against at work. most racial discrimination in Britain is against people from minority ethnic groups.open. 5.6 How to help yourself in the job market So what can and should you do to market yourself.3 Indirect racial discrimination Indirect racial discrimination occurs when a person from a particular racial group is less likely to be able to comply with a requirement or condition that applies to everyone but which cannot be justified. or when applying for work. But too many members of ethnic minority communities are being left behind.4 Victimisation Victimisation has a special legal meaning in the Race Relations Act. 5. or work at an appropriate level to their qualifications. the amended Act gives you the right to take your complaint before an employment tribunal or a county court (or sheriff court in Scotland). for help.5. Racist abuse and harassment are also forms of direct discrimination. nationality (including citizenship). The report proposes a fresh approach to address the many barriers that can get in the way of success in jobs and careers. in similar circumstances. colour and nationality are protected by the law.ac. in 2004. to target employers. In general. Tony Blair. but people of every background. citizens advice bureaux and other advice agencies. colour. law centres.5 Race According to research by the Higher Education Statistics Agency.2 Direct racial discrimination Direct racial discrimination occurs when a person is treated less favourably on racial grounds than others in similar circumstances. you have the right under the amended Act to take your complaint before an employment tribunal. race. you have three months to file an employment case and six months to file a case in the county court or sheriff court.5. Some ethnic minority groups have done well in the education system and in the labour market. This happens when a person is treated less favourably because they have complained about racial discrimination or supported someone else who has.5.1 Your rights The Race Relations Act 1976 (which was amended in 2000) makes it illegal to treat a person less favourably than others on racial grounds. and you need to plan your own job-seeking strategies to maximise your opportunities. so don’t delay. And even those individuals who achieve academic success do not necessarily reap the rewards in the workplace that their qualifications merit. discrimination continues to exist for students from minority ethnic groups who do meet barriers to getting work. 5. In practice. These cover grounds of race. In March 2003. racial equality councils. and national or ethnic origin. the UK government launched a new strategy to remove the barriers to employment success for job-seekers from minority ethnic backgrounds. visit our website at www. and you want to prove it.5 Time limits Keep in mind that there are strict time limits for filing your case at an employment tribunal or court. March 2003 5. despite legislation. If you are thinking of bringing a case of racial discrimination.
Further resources KAL – Careers publication for students from minority ethnic groups (formerly Kaleidoscopic).uk 5.open. You can find more information at the Press for Change website (see Section 5.6. and how much to disclose to a potential employer and to work colleagues is of course a matter of personal choice.ac. the Sex Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations 1999 came into force in the UK.gov.6.uk/careers 101 .cre.prospects.6 Sexuality and sexual orientation Are you worried about possible discrimination in the workplace because of your sexuality? Whether to. campaigns and services as well as vacancies in the commission Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) www. available for reference in your regional centre or at www. when to. • Many employers have sub-groups for minority ethnic groups. This relates to England. Their website is: www.org.6.nmc-online. Contact them for information on legal issues.org To find out more. which apply to the Sex Discrimination Act (1997). that is dedicated to ethnic minority issues. visit our website at www. formally made illegal a whole catalogue of discrimination against transsexual people in employment. Windsor Fellowship The Windsor Fellowship is a charitable organisation that offers skills development programmes to undergraduates and graduates from minority ethnic groups.uk. plus details of work experience and career-enhancement programmes www.windsor-fellowship.bitc.6. Target employers with a reputation for good equal opportunity policy and practice. your CV. The amendments. application forms and covering letters.4).1 Your rights The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 ban discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation in employment. Scotland and Wales.kalmagazine.3 How to help yourself in the job market There are a number of measures that you can take to help yourself in the job market: • Many employers now have Equal Opportunities Policies that include lesbians and gay men. You can log onto their website at: www.ac.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Make use of Section 4 ‘Getting the job’ to prepare your marketing tools. especially public sector and large private employers.com 5.7 Resources for employment and training Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) is the national organisation for monitoring racial equality. You will need to consider how comfortable you will be in an area of work where you are not open about your sexuality. TeacherWorld UK TeacherWorld UK provides information and support for teachers (and those intending to teach) from minority ethnic backgrounds. and this will depend on your own experience and lifestyle.uk 5. It holds an annual careers day for black and Asian students and graduates.org.blackandasiangrad. Includes job-hunting techniques. For advice on finding positive employers take a look at: www. You can ask for a copy of the policy before applying for a job. National Mentoring Consortium Unit The National Mentoring Consortium Unit works with employers.uk/links/Discrimination • Understand the relevant legal situation. If the EOP is incorporated into your contract you might be able to directly rely upon it. universities and schools to support learners from minority ethnic groups. run by BITC. • Develop contacts and make the most of your networking skills.com Black and Asian Graduates –The UK’s official website for black and Asian graduates. Race for Opportunity is a programme. vacancies. • Discuss your plans and approach with a careers adviser in your regional centre.2 Transsexuals In May 1999. • Check if the organisation is a member of Business in the Community (BITC) www. Find out more about the unit at: www.uk 5. 5. students and recruiters.5.ac.teacherworld.
org. Larry Hirst. Press for Change Press for Change is a political lobbying and educational organisation.uk Regard – the national organisation of disabled lesbians.prospects. Scotland and Wales and similar regulations were also introduced in Northern Ireland. Usually.uk/links/Discrimination 5. Under the new regulations it is unlawful.open. gay men.uk Gay Business Association www.ac.uk/careers . race. which campaigns to achieve equal civil rights and liberties for all transgender people in the UK. age or disability. and Diversity Champions allows employers to focus on the new challenges and opportunities for addressing issues of diversity in the workplace. The most usual ways in which employers may discriminate might be around the way in which they recruit new staff. on the grounds of religion or belief. 102 To find out more.4 Resources for employment and training Stonewall Stonewall works to achieve legal equality and social justice for lesbians.gba. days when they choose to interview. staff development or training days clashing with days of worship or festivals and promotion. You should be aware that many organisations now do take proactive measures to promote flexible and integrated working through surveys and staff development and training to promote inclusion and raise awareness. Working with Stonewall enables us to share and learn best practice from others and to ensure IBM is an inclusive and positive company in our dealings with employees and customers alike. At IBM we employ the best people irrespective of religion. these employers are at the cutting edge of innovation in business and public service.stonewall.org.7 Religion or belief I greatly value IBM’s participation in the Diversity Champions Scheme. contact their headquarters to check which is the most progressive on lesbian and gay issues: some produce specific material and some have lesbian and gay groups. Published by AGCAS and available online at www. where they advertise.dircon. General Manager. A number of motions passed at TUC conferences have made it clear that all affiliated unions should adhere to equal opportunities for lesbians and gay men.uk/stonewall In December 2003. • If your employer recognises more than one union.org. bisexuals and transgender people. www. gender.6. If you encounter discrimination. The Employment Equality Regulations 2003 (Religion or Belief) were introduced to protect against discrimination in employment and vocational training in England.uk Further resources Equal Opportunities Commission www. This is a forum in which employers work with Stonewall to encourage diversity in the workplace. IBM (UK and Ireland) says: 5. including a section on sexuality and sexual orientation. to discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone. www. sexual orientation. It is also unlawful to harass or bully someone because of their religion or belief.eoc. the support of a trade union can protect you where the legislation doesn’t.ac.regard.pfc. visit our website at www. gay men and bisexual people and launched Diversity Champions in 2001. unless the employer can show that there is a legitimate business need. • Find out about employers who belong to the Diversity Champions group set up by Stonewall in 2001.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook • Consider joining a trade union where you will receive support and legal advice.co.org.uk A level playing field – A job-hunting guide for students and graduates on how to challenge unfair discrimination. through legislation and social change www.
gov.1 Disclosure The Employment Equality Regulations 2003 (Religion or Belief) do not impose a duty on individuals to tell an employer or prospective employer about their religion or belief. As it is recent legislation. Alternatively.bitc. • Look out for employee profiles on employer websites.open.uk/docs/RFO_Religion.pdf To find out more. • Read the information in the recruitment pack. Further resources The Employment Equality Regulations 2003 www. It is unlikely that you will find questions relating to religion or belief on an application form (other than for equal opportunity monitoring) or that you would come across it in an interview. there is very little case law at present – greater understanding of how the legislation is interpreted and practised will come with time. But how do you know this? • Look out for race equality schemes/equality and diversity policies.lowpay.uk/careers 103 . if the organisation has one. visit our website at www. Disclosure is a personal decision that will be influenced by a number of factors (you may want some reassurance before you apply or before you accept a job) and you may want to discuss in more detail with a careers adviser before you decide what to do.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook If this is an area that is of concern to you. if this is a concern for you. it is important (as is the case with all job applications and career decisions) to research jobs and organisations to ensure that they are right for you. • Speak to the equality and diversity officer. In the meantime. it doesn’t necessarily mean that the employer doesn’t care about this.org.7.uk/er/equality/eeregs Managing the New Legislation on Religion and Belief www. keep up to date on the law and your rights. 5. someone from human resources may be able to help.ac. Does it include information about equality and diversity? If not. unless it is a genuine occupational requirement (GOR).
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook
The next steps
In this section 6.1 Open University Careers Advisory Service 105 6.2 Open University study materials 106 6.3 Other sources of help 107
When you’ve worked through this book there’s a lot to gain not only by reflecting and reconsidering things, but also by discussing them either informally with a trusted friend or formally with a careers adviser. You might want to arrange this through your regional centre.
As you clarify your objectives, you’ll be able to develop a plan of action. In order to achieve what you want, you may need to go through several smaller steps such as gaining particular experience or qualifications, gathering information or getting access to a particular resource. Look through the information and resources that we recommend. Remember that many of the resources listed are concerned primarily with the UK job market. Readers outside the UK should look at www.prospects.ac.uk/links/ countries
6.1 OU Careers Advisory Service
The Open University Careers Advisory Service provides access to appropriate careers information, advice and guidance for prospective and current students and recent graduates. Ask your regional centre for a copy of the OU Careers Advisory Service Statement of Service, which outlines the range of services available, or you can view it on our website from the ‘About the OU Careers Advisory Service’ page. You may want to request an individual consultation with one of the OU’s careers advisers. This is usually conducted by telephone, and you can arrange this by contacting your regional centre. Some careers advisers may also be available at large regional events such as course choice meetings. Most one-week residential schools provide an opportunity to talk to a careers adviser.
6.1.1 Open University Careers Advisory Service website
Have a look at our website at: www.open.ac.uk/careers You can either work your way through the site or go straight to the sections that are of particular interest to you. (There are also links to other useful websites.) The site takes you through the various stages of planning your career, from analysing your potential to applying for jobs. The section ‘OU Study and your Career’ contains information on occupational areas linked to relevant OU courses and qualifications.
6.1.2 Career Advisory First Class Conference
All OU students have access to our online ‘Career Advisory Conference’ in FirstClass. We use this to post notices about events and any other careers information that is relevant to OU students. We also periodically run topic- or subject-based conferences where students can post questions and receive replies from a careers adviser – see: www.open.ac.uk/careers/ conferences
To find out more, visit our website at www.open.ac.uk/careers
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook
6.1.3 Career Links
This is an OU networking scheme run by the Careers Advisory Service where OU students who want to enter a specific career can register as Career Seekers. They are then matched with a suitable Career Helper who is already working in that career and who can share their personal experiences. For more information and to register for Career Links visit www.open.ac.uk/careers/links.
Applications and interviews: www.prospects.ac.uk/links/AppsInterviews ‘Beyond nine to five’ (flexible working): www.prospects.ac.uk/links/Flexiblework Prospects website also includes the free online career planning tool ‘Prospects Planner’. This asks users to answer questions on a range of factors related to their career choice and a list of potential occupations is generated according to their responses. OU students may find it helpful to discuss their results with a careers adviser. You can access this at: www.prospects.ac.uk/links/Pplanner. Your regional centre may also be able to provide or suggest other sources of information.
6.1.4 Publications and information
There are also a number of useful publications and sources of careers information available to all students of The Open University. OU study and your career – Looking at the career benefits of OU study and how your choice of course may affect your career plans. You can ask your regional centre for a copy or download it from the careers website. Recognition leaflets – Information about external recognition of some OU qualifications, transferring credit, membership of UK professional bodies, funding and sources of support. See: www.open.ac.uk/recognition You can also look at and/or download careers information written by members of the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS) on the Prospects website at: www.prospects.ac.uk This includes information such as: Opportunities linked to your degree: www.prospects.ac.uk/links/options Information about specific jobs: www.prospects.ac.uk/links/occupations An overview of job sectors (for example, education, information technology, legal and social care): www.prospects.ac.uk/links/SectorBs You will also find information on special interest topics, for example: Mature students: www.prospects.ac.uk/links/Mature
6.2 Open University study materials
6.2.1 Y154 Open to change
The Openings programme of short introductory courses has been specially designed to give you a chance to ‘test the water’ before committing yourself to full undergraduate study. Y154 Open to change can help you to assess your skills and explore possibilities for further learning. The course is for people who are thinking about returning to education or training as well as those who are unemployed or hoping to get back into employment. The cost of the course is £85 (£99 from September 2006). Some financial assistance is available for students receiving state benefits. You will find more information about Open University courses on our website at www.open.ac.uk/courses
To find out more, visit our website at www.open.ac.uk/careers
visit our website at www. You are advised to ring first.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook 6. Look in larger libraries for other publications mentioned in this book.open.gradireland.3.com Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland www.ac. look at these websites: England www.guidancecouncil. Look at the following website to find details of the nearest service to you: www.uk Wales www.1 External guidance providers Other university careers services may be happy for OU students to use their information rooms.open. with all its potential for improvement and advancement.ac. Further resources A list of further resources is given at the end of each section of this book.careers-scotland. To find out about services offered by the Open University library at Walton Hall.com Keep in mind that the extent of advice and guidance provided for adults varies and there may be charges for some of the services.uk www.com Scotland www.uk/links/careersservices For details of adult advice and guidance services in the following countries.uk/careers 107 .egsa. go to: www.careerswales.org. Good luck and best wishes for your future! To find out more.3 Other sources of help 6.uk/library Finally You may have to cope with setbacks and frustrations.org.ac. Some may be available for reference at your regional centre. but remember that you’re setting out on an exciting journey. taking the first steps towards a new or resumed working life.prospects.
uk/careers . visit our website at www.ac.open.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes 108 To find out more.
Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes To find out more. visit our website at www.ac.uk/careers 109 .open.
visit our website at www.ac.open.uk/careers .Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes 110 To find out more.
open.uk/careers 111 . visit our website at www.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes To find out more.ac.
open.ac.uk/careers . visit our website at www.Career Planning and Job Seeking Workbook Notes 112 To find out more.