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Geotechnical Engineering

journal homepage: www.rockgeotech.org

Wei Yao a, b, Taiming He c, Kaiwen Xia b, *

a

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China

b

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 1A4, Canada

c

Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100000, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Dynamic strength parameters are extensively used in mining engineering and rock mechanics. However,

Received 27 November 2016 there are no widely accepted dynamic failure models for rocks. In this study, the dynamic punching shear

Received in revised form strength, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and tensile strength of ne-grained Fangshan marble (FM)

22 January 2017

are rst measured by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. The pulse-shaping technique is

Accepted 13 March 2017

Available online 23 September 2017

then implemented to maintain the dynamic force balance in SHPB tests. Experimental results show that

the dynamic punching shear strength, UCS and tensile strength increase with the loading rate. A recently

developed dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory is then used to interpret the testing data. In this model, the

Keywords:

Dynamic strengths

angle of internal friction f is assumed to be independent of loading rate and is obtained using the static

Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) strength values. According to the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic UCS and the dynamic

Dynamic Mohr-Coulomb model tensile strength are predicted from the dynamic punching shear strength. Furthermore, based on this

Fangshan marble dynamic theory, the dynamic UCS is predicted from the dynamic tensile strength. The consistency be-

tween the predicted and measured dynamic strengths demonstrates that the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb

theory is applicable to FM.

2017 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by

Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/

licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction (Zhou et al., 2012). Over the years, ISRM also has recommended

several methods to measure the static shear strength, tensile

In rock engineering applications such as rock quarrying, rock strength and compressive strength (ISRM, 1978; Ulusay and

drilling, rock excavation, rock blasting, and seismic event, rocks Gokceoglu, 1997; Ulusay et al., 2001, 2007; Ulusay and Hudson,

may be stressed and fail dynamically (Ghaffari and Young, 2012, 2007).

2013). The accurate determination of rock dynamic strength pa- A cylindrically shaped rock specimen was basically adopted in

rameters over a wide range of loading rates is thus desirable in the suggested methods by ISRM for both static and dynamic

many rock engineering designs. compressive strength measurements (Ulusay and Hudson, 2007;

Various methods have been proposed to determine the dynamic Zhou et al., 2012). Brazilian disc (BD), an indirect tension method,

properties of rocks (Zhang and Zhao, 2014). The split Hopkinson was suggested by ISRM to obtain the tensile strengths of rocks

pressure bar (SHPB) system is an ideal and reliable high-strain rate under static and dynamic loading conditions (ISRM, 1978; Zhou

loading technique to obtain dynamic mechanical properties of et al., 2012). A block punch index (BPI) test was recommended by

rocks. Since it was proposed by Kolsky (1949), the SHPB has been ISRM for measuring static shear strength for rocks (Stacey, 1980;

extensively applied to quantifying dynamic mechanical behavior of Sulukcu and Ulusay, 2001; Ulusay et al., 2007; Huang et al., 2012).

engineering materials at high strain/loading rate. Recently, the The dynamic punch shear test was adopted to measure the dy-

methods to measure the dynamic tensile strength, compressive namic shear strength of rocks in a SHPB system for the facilitation

strength and fracture toughness of rocks using the SHPB were of the sample preparation and minimization of bending stresses on

suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) the samples (Huang et al., 2011, 2012).

Using the above methods, several researchers have studied the

mechanical properties of Fangshan marble (FM). Huang et al.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 1 4169785942; fax: 1 4169786813. (1990) investigated the strain eld development prior to the

E-mail address: kaiwen.xia@utoronto.ca (K. Xia). failure of a uniaxially compressed FM plate with an inclined

Peer review under responsibility of Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, central slot. Test results showed that when the specimen was

Chinese Academy of Sciences.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrmge.2017.03.019

1674-7755 2017 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the

CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

808 W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817

Fig. 1. Micrographs of FM using optical microscope. They were captured from two orthogonal directions in the same plane of the sample.

loaded up to a certain level, its strain would be concentrated on consistency and obtain the accurate parameters for dynamic

relatively narrow belts, which were the potential locations of the Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic tensile strength and

impending ultimate failure. Zhang et al. (1993) presented that the compressive strength of FM are quantied and compared with

dynamic fracture toughness of FM increased with the loading rate those reported in the literature. The dynamic Mohr-Coulomb

when the loading rate was higher than 104 MPa m1/2 s1. Zhang theory is nally utilized to relate the shear strength, compressive

et al. (1999, 2000) macroscopically examined the sections strength and tensile strength for this rock.

(perpendicular to the fracture surface) of the fractured FM spec-

imens, and found that there was clear crack branching or bifur- 2. Sample preparation and experimental setup

cation near the fracture surfaces. They also reported that both the

dynamic fracture toughness and the branching cracks of FM 2.1. Sample preparation

increased with the loading rate. Zhang and Wu (2012) and Zhang

and Zhao (2013a) utilized the SHPB with the digital image cor- The FM marble is a kind of ne-grained marble excavated in

relation (DIC) technique to measure the surface deformation Fangshan region, Beijing, China. The density of FM is 2.85 g/cm3 and

characteristics, the dynamic facture toughness, the dynamic ten- the P-wave velocity is 5900 m/s. To obtain an insight into the

sile strength and the dynamic compressive strength of FM. Zhang mineralogical composition of this rock, 30 mm thin section samples

and Zhao (2013b) presented a micromechanical model to examine were prepared for microscopic examination using polarized light

the intergranular and transgranular fractures of FM and reported (Pichler and Schmitt-Riegraf, 1997). The results are shown in Fig. 1.

that fracture surface roughness was dependent on the loading Fig. 1 shows that the FM composition is almost 98% of dolomite,

rate. which has a very high birefringence (the color of grain in one di-

As a construction material, FM is widely used in the founda- rection is black or pale; the color in the perpendicular direction is

tions of structures, such as historic building and bridges. The dy- white). The remaining composition mainly consists of quartz and

namic shear strength of rock is important in the design of crystals with anomalous interference colors. The size of minerals

structures such as rock slopes, dam foundations, tunnels, and ranges from 10 mm to 200 mm with the average dolomite size of

caverns for storage. Moreover, since dynamic failure criterion can 100 mm and the average quartz size of 200 mm.

describe the conditions under which failure occurs in rock-like According to the ISRM recommended method for measuring

materials under dynamic loading, the failure criteria play a sig- the dynamic uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rocks (Zhou

nicant role in some constitutive models and in predicting the rock et al., 2012), cylindrical samples with the length to diameter ra-

failure under certain circumstances (Huang et al., 2012; Zhang and tio of 1:1 were used. The rock block was rst prepared into cores

Zhao, 2014). The measurements of the shear strength, tensile with diameter of 25 mm. Then the cores were machined into

strength and compressive strength are indispensable in estab- cylinders with height of 25 mm. In addition, based on the ISRM

lishing applicable failure criteria. Thus, it is vital to obtain the recommendation for determining rock dynamic tensile strength

dynamic shear strength and establish a dynamic failure criterion (Zhou et al., 2012), BD samples were also prepared. Rock cores

for FM. Despite the existing research attempts made on FM, there with diameter of 40 mm were drilled from the FM block. There-

is no investigation to measure dynamic shear strength and further after, the cores were cut into discs and polished, with a thickness

to establish a dynamic failure criterion that correlates the dynamic of 20 mm. Disc samples were employed in punch shear tests. The

shear strength, dynamic compressive strength and dynamic ten- marble block was machined and polished into discs with 45 mm

sile strength of FM. Although the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is one of in diameter and 11 mm in thickness. The cylindrical surfaces of all

the most widely used strength criteria in geotechnical engineering the specimens were smooth without abrupt irregularities, and

application and numerical modeling (Jaeger et al., 2007; Barton, straight to within 0.02 mm over the full thickness of the spec-

2013; Bidgoli et al., 2013; Hoek and Martin, 2014; Lisjak and imen. The ends of the specimens were at with uctuation less

Grasselli, 2014), this criterion was only applicable for static rock than 0.02 mm, and were horizontal with slope angle within

failure analysis over a long period in the past. Fortunately, the 0.25 . Moreover, the deviation between the connecting line of

Mohr-Coulomb theory was recently extended to account for the the center points in both ends of the specimen and the specimen

dynamic loading (Zhao, 2000; Huang et al., 2012). For this, the axis did not exceed 0.001, or 0.025 mm every 25 mm in length.

dynamic shear strength of FM is rstly measured in this study to Twenty ve specimens were prepared for each type of dynamic

understand its mechanical behaviors. In order to guarantee data test.

W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817 809

where the uniaxial compression tests and dynamic tension tests

followed the ISRM suggested methods for dynamic rock tests

(Zhou et al., 2012). As a standard dynamic testing system, the

SHPB system includes a striker, an incident bar and a transmitted

bar (see Fig. 2). All bars are made of high strength steel, with

Youngs modulus of 200 GPa, density of 8100 kg/m3, one-

dimensional (1D) P-wave velocity of 4970 m/s and static

yielding strength of 2.5 GPa. A gas gun is used to launch the

striker. The rock specimen is put between the two bars. The

strain gages are glued on the incident bar and transmitted bar,

respectively.

The impact of the striker on the incident bar induces a longi-

tudinal compressive wave propagating in both directions. The left

propagating wave is fully released at the free end of the striker and

forms the trailing edge of the incident compressive pulse. Thus, the

duration of incident compressive pulse depends on the length and Fig. 3. Typical signals measured by strain gages in SHPB tests.

1D P-wave velocity of the striker. At the specimen/bar interface, the

incident wave is transferred into the reected wave and the

transmitted wave (Zhang and Zhao, 2014; Xia and Yao, 2015). The

C

strains from these three waves are recorded using strain gages 3_ c t 3 t 3 r t 3 t t (5)

(shown in Fig. 3) and used to infer the dynamic response of the L0 i

materials subsequently. Thus, the loading forces (P1 and P2) on the

where C is the 1D P-wave velocity of the bars; L0 and A0 are the

two interfaces of specimen/bar can be expressed (Kolsky, 1949,

initial length and cross-sectional area of the specimen, respectively.

1953):

The UCS of the rock, C0, is dened as the maximum value of sc (Chen

and Song, 2010; Zhang and Zhao, 2014).

P1 t EA3 i t 3 r t (1) Lubricants were used on the bar/specimen interfaces to mini-

mize the radial inertial effect and achieve uniform deformation of

P2 t EA3 t t (2) the specimen (Dai et al., 2010). For dynamic compression tests, it is

a prerequisite that the forces on both loading ends of the sample

where E and A are the Youngs modulus and cross-sectional area of should be approximately equal, which can minimize the axial in-

bars, respectively; 3 i, 3 r and 3 t are the incident, reected and ertial effect. The pulse-shaping technique is utilized to reach such

transmitted strains, respectively. dynamic force balance (Frew et al., 2002; Dai et al., 2008; Zhou

et al., 2012). In this work, a C1100 copper disc is used as the

shaper material. For dynamic compression tests, the dimensions of

3. Testing methods the pulse shaper are 12.75 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in thick-

ness. The striker has impacted on the pulse shaper (see Fig. 2),

3.1. Dynamic compression test generating a non-dispersive ramp pulse propagating in the incident

bar (see Fig. 3).

The schematic of sample assembly for dynamic compression Fig. 5 shows the dynamic force balance check in FM sample in a

tests is shown in Fig. 4a. The histories of stress sc, strain 3 c and typical dynamic compression test. According to Eqs. (1) and (2), the

strain rate 3_ c of the sample in the dynamic compression tests can be dynamic forces P1 and P2 are proportional to the sum of the incident

calculated as wave (In) and reected wave (Re) (see ln Re (P1) in Fig. 5) and

transmitted wave (Tr) (see Tr (P2) in Fig. 5), respectively. Fig. 5a

A shows that the dynamic forces on two ends of FM sample are

sc t E3 i t 3 r t 3 t t (3) almost equal in the dynamic loading period. The time when the

2A0

force balance commences is called as the initiation time of stress

equilibrium or the force balance initiation time. It is well known

Zt

C that the initiation time for rock sample to achieve stress equilib-

3 c t 3 i s 3 r s 3 t sds (4)

L0 rium state is 3e4 times the round-trip time of stress wave in rock

0 sample (Zhou et al., 2012). Hence, the initiation time of stress

Pulse Shaper i t

Striker Sample

r

Gas gun Strain Gage 1 Strain Gage 2 Damper

Computer

810 W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817

of stress equilibrium is too small to be identied from Fig. 5a. In

order to determine the initiation time of force balance for a typical

dynamic compression test, the stress equilibrium is evaluated by

considering the stress histories at both ends of the specimen:

3 3 r 3 t

Rt 2 i 5%

(6)

3 3 3

i r t

both bars are made of the same material and have the same cross-

sectional area (Ravichandran and Subhash, 1994; Li et al., 2014; Xu

et al., 2016).

As shown in Fig. 5b, in a typical dynamic compression test, after

the stress wave reaches the bar/specimen interface and then

several wave reverberations occur in the specimen, R(t) decreases

gradually from 2 to nearly zero. Due to the noise in the signal, R(t)

sometimes is larger than 2. At the time of about 37 ms, R(t) ap-

proaches about zero for the rst time. Thereafter, R(t) uctuates

slightly around zero, suggesting that the stress equilibrium is

maintained to some extent. When the forces at the both ends of the

specimen reach the peak values, the value of R(t) still remains

around zero, indicating that the specimen can still withstand the

load entirely although the bearing capacity of the specimen has

achieved the peak. At the end of falling edge of incident wave, the

value of R(t) increases dramatically, implying that the integrity of

the specimen has been severely damaged. Thus, force equilibrium

can be achieved during the entire dynamic loading. The initiation

time of stress equilibrium (t0) in the typical compression test has a

good agreement with the theoretical initiation time of stress

equilibrium. The coupling property of lubricated bar/sample

interface affects slightly the wave propagation, resulting in a little

bit longer initiation time of stress equilibrium in practice. There-

fore, the pulse shaper can be successfully employed to reach the

force balance in dynamic compression samples. For dynamic

compression tests conducted in this work, the dynamic force

equilibrium has been carefully veried.

The loading rate s_ compression is calculated by the time evolution

of compressive stress in the specimen. Fig. 6a shows the dynamic

Fig. 4. Schematic of sample assembly for the three types of dynamic tests (unit: mm): loading history for a typical compression test, in which there is an

(a) Dynamic compression test, (b) Dynamic tension test, and (c) Dynamic punch shear approximate linear regime. The loading rate is the slope of this

test. D is the diameter of the BD specimen and disc specimen; B and T are the thickness

region (Zhou et al., 2012), which is determined by the least square

of the BD specimen and disc specimen, respectively.

t and shown as a red dash line in Fig. 6a. For all dynamic

compression tests, the loading rate was determined using the same

equilibrium for a dynamic compression specimen can be estimated method.

by the P-wave velocity and length of the specimen. For a 25 mm Furthermore, due to the stress equilibrium on both ends of FM

long rock sample, the initiation time of stress equilibrium is theo- specimen during the dynamic loading history, the failure time of

retically 25.4e33 ms. Thus, when compared with the total dynamic dynamic compression sample can be indicated by the sudden

Fig. 5. Dynamic force balance check for a typical dynamic compression test with pulse shaping: (a) Dynamic force balance; and (b) The stress equilibrium factor R(t) of the sample.

In, Re and Tr are the forces derived from incident, reected and transmitted waves, respectively.

W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817 811

Fig. 6. Typical stressetime curves for (a) determining loading rate and (b) comparing with typical strain rateetime curve in the dynamic compression test. Strain rate is the change

in strain of a material with respect to time.

jump of the strain rate (Xia et al., 2008; Zhou et al., 2012). Fig. 6b It is noted here that the precondition of applying this static

shows the dynamic loading history and synchronized strain rate stress analysis to dynamic BD tests is the achievement of the

in a typical dynamic compression test. The initiation time of dynamic force balance during the BD tests (Dai et al., 2010). The

stress equilibrium is about 35 ms when the constant strain rate is pulse-shaping technique is utilized to achieve dynamic force

reached. Thereafter, the time (t1) of sudden jump of the strain equilibrium on both loading ends of BD sample in this study. A

rate occurs at about 112 ms, which is also the failure time of dy- C1100 copper disc with 12.75 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in

namic compression sample. It is worth noting that the time of thickness is employed as the pulse shaper. The dynamic forces P1

sudden jump of the strain rate is synchronized with the time of and P2 are calculated using Eqs. (1) and (2) for dynamic tension

peak load on the compression sample, which has been veried tests. Fig. 8 shows the dynamic force balance check for the FM

(Zhou et al., 2012). In other words, the time of peak load can be specimen in a typical dynamic tension test. Fig. 8a illustrates that

regarded as the failure time of compression sample and it holds the almost identical dynamic forces (P1 z P2) on two loading

that the peak load can be used to calculate the UCS of FM spec- sides of the BD sample are obtained during the loading period in

imen. The stressestrain curves for different loading rates are the tension tests. Since the time to reach force equilibrium in the

shown in Fig. 7. rock specimen will be 3e4 times the round-trip time of stress

wave in rock sample (Zhou et al., 2012), the initiation time of

3.2. Dynamic tension test stress equilibrium for dynamic BD samples can be estimated using

the same method as dynamic compression test. For a dynamic BD

The schematic of sample assembly for dynamic tension tests is test sample with diameter of 40 mm, the initiation time of stress

shown in Fig. 4b. If the inertial effect is minimized with the pulse- equilibrium is theoretically 40.6e54.2 ms. Thus, compared with

shaping technique, the tensile stress in the center of the BD spec- the total dynamic loading duration in the typical tension test, the

imen can be determined by (ISRM, 1978): initiation time of stress equilibrium is too short to be identied

from Fig. 8a. In a typical dynamic tension test, the stress equi-

2Pt librium factor R(t) is also obtained in order to determine the

st t (7)

pBD initial time of force balance (see Fig. 8b). The value of stress

equilibrium factor in tension test decreases at the beginning, and

where P is the loading force. Tensile strength T0 is obtained as the then approaches about zero at about 58 ms, indicating the dy-

maximum value of st. namic force balance. The stress equilibrium is maintained to the

post-peak moment of incident wave. The initiation time of stress

equilibrium (t0) in the typical tension test has a good agreement

with the theoretical initiation time of stress equilibrium.

Although the lubricant was used in bar/sample interfaces, the

coupling property of bar/sample interfaces affects slightly the

wave propagation and thus generates a little bit longer initiation

time of stress equilibrium in practice. Moreover, the dynamic

equilibrium in the center of the BD sample can be guaranteed

when the forces on the boundaries of BD sample are balanced (Dai

et al., 2010). Therefore, the pulse shaper is successfully employed

to reach the force balance in dynamic tension samples. The dy-

namic force equilibrium for all dynamic tension tests in this study

has been veried.

In addition, with the dynamic stress equilibrium on BD sample

during the loading history, it is proven that the peak of the dynamic

tensile stress history in the center of BD sample can be considered

as synchronous with the rupture onset in the center of BD sample

(Xia et al., 2008; Zhou et al., 2012). Thus, the dynamic tensile

strength from dynamic BD tests can be obtained from the peak

Fig. 7. Stressestrain curves for typical dynamic compression tests for different loading

rates. loading force in the quasi-static stress analysis (Eq. (7)).

812 W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817

loading rate is the slope of this regime and can be determined by

the least square t method (the red dash line in Fig. 9). For all

dynamic tension tests of this study, the loading rates were deter-

mined in the same way.

shear method (Huang et al., 2012) was employed in the SHPB sys-

tem. The specimen and specimen holder for dynamic punch shear

tests are shown in Fig. 4c. A stainless steel holder attached to the

transmitted bar was employed to support and protect the sample

during the dynamic punch test. As shown in Fig. 4c, this holder

consists of a front cover and a rear supporter, which are screwed

together to reduce the bending deformation and additional damage

on specimen during tests. The incident bar with 25.4 mm diameter

is used as the punch head. The inner diameter of the rear supporter

is 0.4 mm larger than the punch head in order to provide shear

deformation. A Teon ring is utilized to attach the rear supporter to

the transmitted bar tightly. The outer diameter of holder is 56 mm.

The diameter and thickness of the specimen in the punch shear test

are 42 mm and 11 mm, respectively (Huang et al., 2011).

With the pulse-shaping technique, the dynamic force equilib-

rium on sample is achieved and the inertial effect is ignored. The

punch shear stress st can be obtained by (ISRM, 1978):

Pt

st (8)

pDb T

strength s0 is calculated as the maximum value of s. Moreover,

similar to other punch shear methods (Mazanti and Sowers, 1965;

Stacey, 1980), the shear stress in Eq. (8) is calculated by dividing the

load P(t) by the total shear area pDbT.

Fig. 8. Dynamic force balance check for a typical dynamic tension test with pulse-

Besides, Eq. (8) can be used for stress analysis in both static and

shaping: (a) Dynamic force balance; and (b) The stress equilibrium factor R(t) of dynamic punch shear tests when the force equilibrium in the

sample. specimen is maintained through the punch shear tests (Dai et al.,

2010). Similar to the dynamic compression and tension tests, the

pulse-shaping technique was also applied to dynamic punch shear

The loading rate is calculated by the time evolution of tensile tests. Since the steel holder was employed in the dynamic punch

stress in the middle of the BD specimen. The typical dynamic shear tests, a different size of C1100 copper pulse shaper disc

tensile stress history in the middle of the BD sample is shown in (7.3 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness) was chosen to

Fig. 9. Similar to the compression test, there is an approximate maintain the force balance in the specimen. The dynamic forces P1

and P2 are also obtained using Eqs. (1) and (2) for dynamic punch

shear tests. Fig. 10 shows the dynamic force balance check for the

FM specimen in a typical dynamic punch shear test. Fig. 10a shows

that the dynamic forces on two loading ends of the disc sample are

at equilibrium (P1 z P2) during the dynamic loading in punch shear

tests. It should be noted that since the time to reach force equi-

librium in the rock specimen will be 3e4 times the round-trip time

of stress wave in rock sample (Zhou et al., 2012), the initiation time

of stress equilibrium for dynamic punch shear tests can be esti-

mated using the same method as dynamic compression and ten-

sion tests. For the dynamic punch shear sample with 11 mm

thickness, the initiation time of stress equilibrium is theoretically

11.2e14.9 ms (Zhou et al., 2012). Thus, compared with the total

dynamic loading duration in the typical punch shear test, the

initiation time of stress equilibrium is too short to be identied

from Fig. 10a. In order to determine the initiation time of stress

equilibrium in a typical dynamic punch shear test, the stress

equilibrium factor R(t) (see Fig. 10b) is obtained. The value of stress

equilibrium factor in punch shear tests approaches about zero at

64 ms approximately after dramatic decrease. It indicates that the

Fig. 9. Typical stressetime curve for determining loading rate in dynamic tension test. force equilibrium is achieved at about 64 ms. The stress equilibrium

W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817 813

Fig. 11. Typical stressetime curve for determining loading rate in dynamic punch

shear test.

from the slope of this linear regime (the red dash line in Fig. 11) and

calculated by the linear tting method. For all the dynamic punch

shear tests, the loading rates were determined in the same way.

momentum-trap technique is adopted (Song and Chen, 2004). A

large impedance mass is used to absorb the rst reected wave in

the momentum-trap method. This leads to a low-amplitude

Fig. 10. Dynamic force balance check for a typical dynamic punch shear test with pulse compressive portion and a tensile portion in the following

shaping: (a) Dynamic force balance; and (b) The stress equilibrium factor R(t) of loading pulse. The tensile portion of the pulse will separate the

sample. incident bar from the specimen, resulting in soft recovery of the

sample for valid post-loading examination. The details of the

momentum-trap technique can be found in Song and Chen (2004)

is maintained to the post-peak moment of incident wave. In the and reviewed by Xia and Yao (2015). Thus, the sample will expe-

typical punch shear test, the force equilibrium initiation time rience a single pulse loading essentially. In this study, the multiple

(t0 64 ms) is slightly larger than the theoretical initiation time loadings in FM samples are avoided by using this method.

(about 11.2e14.9 ms). This may be attributed to the steel holder, Typical intact and tested specimens for compression, tension

with which the stress wave takes more time to propagate from the and punch shear tests are shown in Fig. 12. Specimens tested in

specimen to the transmitted bar. Compared to the whole dynamic compression tests were compressed into fragments and nes. After

loading period, such a slightly longer force initiation time is the tension tests, specimens were broken into two halves along the

acceptable in the dynamic punch shear test. Therefore, the pulse loading direction. After the punch shear tests, the thin disc spec-

shaper is successfully employed to maintain the force balance in imen was punched into a plug and a ring. Several radial cracks can

dynamic punch shear tests and Eq. (8) can be applied to calculating be found on the ring.

the dynamic shear stress in the specimens. The dynamic force Dynamic compression, tension and punch shear tests were

equilibrium has been checked for dynamic punch shear tests in this conducted under different loading rates to study the rate depen-

study. dence of UCS, tensile strength and punching shear strength for

In addition, because of the achievement of dynamic stress FM. Fig. 13 illustrates the UCS, shear strength and tensile strength

equilibrium in the punch shear specimen during the loading his- as a function of the loading rate. The dynamic compressive

tory, the time the peak loading force achieved in the dynamic strengths were obtained in this study at the loading rate from

punch shear test is synchronous with the shear failure time of 2455 GPa/s to 8480 GPa/s. The maximum dynamic compressive

specimen (Huang et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2012). Since the dynamic strength is 352.7 MPa. Moreover, the dynamic tensile strengths

shear strength of FM specimen can be determined as the peak were obtained in this study at the loading rate from 201 GPa/s to

punch shear stress, the shear strength in specimen can be derived 1492 GPa/s. The maximum dynamic tensile strength is 44.1 MPa.

from the peak loading force using Eq. (8). The typical dynamic The dynamic punching shear strengths were obtained at the

punch shear stress in the disc sample is shown in Fig. 11. loading rate from 227 GPa/s to 2103 GPa/s. The highest dynamic

Moreover, similar to the compression and tension tests, before punching shear strength is 78.5 MPa. It is evident that the UCS,

the failure onset, there is an approximately linear regime in the tensile strength and punching shear strength are strongly rate-

punch shear stress history. The loading rate s_ shear can be derived dependent, i.e. the UCS, the tensile strength and the punching

814 W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817

Fig. 13. Strengths of FM under different loading rates. Inset is the zoom of the dynamic

tensile strength and shear strength.

propagate at the same time, and there is no sufcient time for the

microcracks to communicate and interact. Thus, in higher loading

rate, the distribution of failure is broader, the consumption of

energy is higher, and the material strength is higher (Huang et al.,

2013). Consequently, the main reasons for the rate dependence of

strength of FM may be the change in the fracture mode of

microstructure and the increase of activated microcracks with the

loading rate. The dynamic UCS and tensile strength in the litera-

ture are also illustrated in Fig. 13. Both the tensile strength and the

UCS in the literature are close to those measured in this study at

almost the same loading rate. The little disparity between the UCS

(or the tensile strength) measured in this study and that in the

literature may be attributed to the different sources of FM in this

study and in the literature. Thus, the measured dynamic tensile

strength and UCS in this study can be considered consistent with

the dynamic tensile strength and UCS reported in the literature

(Zhang and Zhao, 2013a).

For reference, the tensile strength, UCS and punching shear

strength under quasi-static loading condition were also measured

and shown in Fig. 13. The static strength tests were carried out by a

material test system (MTS) hydraulic servo-controlled testing sys-

tem with a loading speed of 0.001 mm/s. The specimens for

measuring the UCS and tensile strength under static loading are the

same with that for determining the dynamic UCS and tensile

strength. For static punch shear tests, the samples and holder are

the same with that for the dynamic punch shear test. Instead of the

incident bar, a short bar was introduced as a cylindrical punch head

in static punch shear test.

Fig. 12. Typical original and tested samples for (a) dynamic compression tests, (b)

dynamic tension tests, and (c) dynamic punch tests.

4.2. Application of the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb model

shear strength increase with the loading rate. Both dolomite and Several empirical formulas have been developed to use the

quartz in FM are classied as the rhombohedral crystal system, shear strength to predict the UCS and tensile strength in static tests

and both rhomb diagonals and polysynthetic twinning are very (Schrier, 1988; Sulukcu and Ulusay, 2001; Sonmez and Tunusluoglu,

common in the dolomite. Thus, the fracture modes of FM can be 2008). The possibility of using the punching shear strength to

classied into two categories: intergranular fracture and trans- predict the tensile strength or UCS for dynamic tests also has been

granular fracture. The transgranular fracture is accompanied by proposed within the theoretical framework of the Mohr-Coulomb

more energy absorption during the fracture process than inter- theory (Huang et al., 2011, 2012).

granular fracture. It has been proved that the failure mode of FM According to the Mohr-Coulomb theory, the static UCS C0s and

transfers from intergranular fracture to transgranular fracture static tensile strength T0s can be given as (Jaeger et al., 2007):

with the increase of the loading rate (Zhang and Zhao, 2013b).

p f

Moreover, when the loading rate is low, the failure tends to be C0s 2 tan c (9a)

localized to form a dominant crack (Lockner et al., 1991). When

4 2 0

W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817 815

p f

T0s 2 cot c (9b)

4 2 0

s0s; and f is the angle of internal friction. The static UCS of FM used

in the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is the average value of the measured

static UCS in this study. The same method was used for determining

the static tensile strength and shear strength used in the Mohr-

Coulomb criterion. Thus, C0s 156.4 MPa and s0s 21.7 MPa, and

then f is calculated as 59 , within the range of the angle of internal

friction of marbles (Zhang et al., 2011). Furthermore, Zhao (2000)

compared the strength envelopes at different loading rates. It is

observed that the change in strength is primarily due to the change

in cohesion, while the angle of internal friction almost remains

unchanged at difference loading rates. It also reveals that the ten-

sile strength, UCS and shear strength are proportionally related in (a)

the Mohr-Coulomb criterion when f is a constant. This observation

is also supported by a theoretical study (Li et al., 2000) using a

micromechanical model. The theoretical study suggests that the

angle of internal friction is not affected by the loading rate, but the

cohesion changes with the loading rate. Both the theoretical study

(Li et al., 2000) and the experimental study (Zhao, 2000; Zhang and

Zhao, 2014) verify that the angle of internal friction is not affected

by the loading rate. This assumption is also physically meaningful

as explained in the following. Before the onset of the rock failure,

there should be no sliding in the rock materials. As a result, the

internal friction can be assumed equal to the static friction. It is well

known that static friction is constant and thus the corresponding

friction angle should be loading rate independent. For the above

arguments, it is assumed here that the angle of internal friction is

time-invariant but the strengths are dependent on the loading rate.

Therefore, following the classical Mohr-Coulomb model, the

dynamic UCS C0 and the dynamic tensile strength T0 can be given

using the dynamic shear strength s0 as (Huang et al., 2012): (b)

p f Fig. 14. (a) Dynamic measured UCS and dynamic predicted UCS and, (b) dynamic

C0 2 tan s (10a) measured tensile strength and dynamic predicted tensile strength from punching

4 2 0

shear strength.

p f

T0 2 cot s (10b) cannot be achieved in the dynamic experiments. Furthermore, the

4 2 0

predicted UCS is consistent with the tting curve of the measured

In addition, based on the approach for obtaining the loading dynamic UCS, which is shown as a solid line in Fig. 14a. The tting

rates in dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory (Huang et al., 2012), the equation is also given in Fig. 14a. Similarly, the dynamic tensile

loading rates of the dynamic UCS and tension tests can be related to strength T0 s_ can be calculated from the dynamic shear strength

the loading rate of the dynamic punch shear test: s0 s_ by using Eqs. (10b) and (11b). Fig. 14b shows the measured and

predicted dynamic tensile strengths from punching shear strength.

p f It is noted that the predicted tensile strengths have a good agree-

s_ compression 2 tan s_ shear (11a)

4 2 ment with the tting curve of the measured dynamic tensile

strength. Both the tting equation and the tting curve are given in

p f Fig. 14b.

s_ tension 2 cot s_ shear (11b) Besides, Mohr-Coulomb theory also provides the relation be-

4 2

tween the static UCS C0s and static tensile strength T0s:

Consequently, the dynamic punching shear strength and

loading rate in dynamic punch shear test can be converted to the

p f 2

dynamic compressive strength and loading rate in dynamic C0s tan T0s (12)

4 2

compression test using Eqs. (10a) and (11a), respectively. Fig. 14a

shows the measured and predicted dynamic UCSs from punching Similarly, the relation between the dynamic UCS C0 and dy-

shear strength. It is evident that the loading rates of predicted UCS namic tensile strength T0 can be given as (Huang et al., 2012):

are higher than those of the measured UCS. In the rock dynamic

compression tests, the loading rate for dynamic UCS tests cannot be

p f 2

too high due to the requirement of dynamic force equilibrium C0 tan T0 (13)

4 2

condition and the limitation on the size of rock-like material

specimen (Zhang and Zhao, 2014). Thus, the formula proposed in Meanwhile, according to the method for calculating the loading

this study can predict the UCS of FM at higher loading rates, which rate in dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory (Huang et al., 2012), the

816 W. Yao et al. / Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9 (2017) 807e817

discussed. The pulse-shaping technique was implemented to

maintain force equilibrium during dynamic loading. The dynamic

force balance for the dynamic compression, tension and punch

shear tests are carefully veried. The measured dynamic UCS,

tensile strength and punching shear strength increase with the

loading rate. The dynamic punching shear strengths were obtained

at the loading rate from 227 GPa/s to 2103 GPa/s. The highest dy-

namic punching shear strength is 78.5 MPa.

A recently developed dynamic Mohr-Coulomb theory was

applied to interpreting the relations among the dynamic tensile

strength, UCS and punching shear strength, considering the loading

rate effect. The static UCS and the punching shear strength were

used to determine the angle of internal friction f 59 . Thereafter,

the dynamic UCS can be predicted from the dynamic tensile and

punching shear strength through the dynamic Mohr-Coulomb

theory. The results demonstrate that the UCS obtained from the

Fig. 15. Dynamic measured UCS and dynamic predicted UCS from tensile strength. tensile strength and punching shear strength of FM is consistent

with the UCS values derived from experiments. We can thus draw a

relation between the loading rates of dynamic UCS tests and that of conclusion that the Mohr-Coulomb criterion can be utilized to

dynamic tension tests can be written as: expand the range of the dynamic loading rate for the dynamic UCS

of FM.

2

p f

s_ compression tan s_ tension (14)

4 2 Conict of interest

Using Eqs. (13) and (14), both the strength and the loading rate

interest associated with this publication and there has been no

in the dynamic UCS tests can be calculated by the parameters ob-

signicant nancial support for this work that could have inu-

tained in the dynamic tension tests. Consequently, both the

enced its outcome.

measured and the dynamic tensile strength in reference T0 s_ are

converted to dynamic UCS C0 s_ , as shown in Fig. 15. It is obvious

that the predicted UCS from tensile strength is consistent with the Acknowledgements

tting curve, which is the same as the tting curve in Fig. 14a.

Since both dynamic UCS and loading rate are theoretically Funding was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering

extrapolated by using Mohr-Coulomb theory, the dynamic UCS Research Council of Canada (NSERC) through the Discovery Grant

associated with the measured and extrapolated loading rates is No. 72031326.

reliable. Based on the formula proposed in this study, the dynamic

UCS of FM under higher loading rate can be predicted from dynamic References

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techniques for dynamic hysteretic loops. Experimental Mechanics 2004;44(6): Dr. Kaiwen Xia is currently an associate professor at the

622e7. Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Tor-

Sonmez H, Tunusluoglu C. New considerations on the use of block punch index for onto. He obtained both his BS and MS degrees from the

predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of rock material. International University of Science and Technology of China in 1994 and

Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 2008;45(6):1007e14. 1998, respectively, majored in Explosion Mechanics. Dr.

Ulusay R, Gokceoglu C. The modied block punch index test. Canadian Geotechnical Xia nished his PhD degree at the California Institute of

Journal 1997;34(6):991e1001. Technology in 2005, with major in Mechanical Engineering

Ulusay R, Gokceoglu C, Sulukcu S. Draft ISRM suggested method for determining and minor in Geophysics. After a year working as a post-

block punch strength index (BPI). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and doctoral research fellow at the Brown University, he joined

Mining Sciences 2001;38(8):1113e9. the University of Toronto in 2006 as an assistant professor

Ulusay R, Hudson JA. The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock character- and was promoted and granted the tenure in 2012. Dr.

ization, testing and monitoring: 1974e2006. Ankara, Turkey: International Xias research is focused on dynamic response of materials

Society for Rock Mechanics; 2007. and dynamic fractures. His academic contributions include

Ulusay R, Gokceoglu C, Sulukcu S. Suggested method for determining block punch the discovery of supershear earthquakes in the laboratory,

strength index. In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA, editors. The complete ISRM suggested systematic study of spontaneous fractures and the development of a series of dynamic

methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring: 1974e2006. Ankara, testing methods for rocks. He was the key member in the Commission on Rock Dy-

Turkey: International Society for Rock Mechanics, Commission on Testing namics of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM-CRD) from 2007 to 2011,

Methods; 2007. p. 1113e9. and championed the drafting of the rst three dynamic testing methods of rocks. He

Xia K, Nasseri MHB, Mohanty B, Lu F, Chen R, Luo SN. Effects of microstructures on chaired the commission from 2011 to 2015 and is currently the chair of the commis-

dynamic compression of Barre granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics sion. To date, Dr. Xia has published 65 journal papers, 3 book chapters, and numerous

and Mining Sciences 2008;45(6):879e87. conference abstracts and other papers.

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