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Report On


In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor's of Technology


Under the Guidance of

Astt. Prof. ____

Ankit |Biodiesel | Date


I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my
guide Astt. Prof. Mr.______________ as well as Mr.______________ (HOD Mech department)
for their exemplary guidance, supervision and constant encouragement throughout
the Seminar and who gave me the opportunity to do this wonderful project on the
topic Biodiesel, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to
know about so many new things. The blessing, help, and guidance given by him from
time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to

Secondly, I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been
possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to
extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I am making this report not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge.



Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting of short chain alkyl
(methyl or ethyl) esters, made by Transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat
(tallow), which can be used (alone, or blended with conventional petrodiesel) in
unmodified diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel is distinguished from the straight vegetable
oil (SVO) (sometimes referred to as "waste vegetable oil", "WVO", "used vegetable oil",
"UVO", "pure plant oil", "PPO") used (alone, or blended) as fuels in some converted
diesel vehicles. "Biodiesel" is standardized as a mono-alkyl ester.

Biodiesel is a biofuel produced from various feedstocks including vegetable oils (such as
oilseed, rapeseed, and soya bean), animal fats or algae. Biodiesel can be blended with
diesel for use in diesel engine vehicles. Biofuel The term biofuel applies to any solid,
liquid, or gaseous fuel produced from organic (once-living) matter. The word biofuel
covers a wide range of products, some of which are commercially available today, and
some of which are still in research and development. Biodiesel is a fuel made from plant
oils that can be used in a conventional diesel engine.

Biodiesel is an environmentally safe, low polluting fuel for most diesel internal
combustion and turbine engines. Can be mixed with petroleum diesel fuel and stored
anywhere petroleum is. It is made from fresh or waste vegetable oils (triglycerides) that
are a renewable energy source.

Bio-diesel is an eco-friendly, alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable

resources that are vegetable oils (edible & non-edible oil) and animal fats. These natural
oils & fats are made up mainly of triglycerides. These triglycerides when reacted
chemically with lower alcohols in presence of catalyst result in fatty acid esters. These
esters show a striking similarity to petroleum derived diesel and are called Biodiesel.

Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel are products most
commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel marketplace. Much of the world
uses a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix.

100% biodiesel is referred to as B100
20% biodiesel, 80% petro diesel is
labeled B20
5% biodiesel, 95% petro diesel is
labeled B5
3% biodiesel, 45% petro diesel is
labeled B4

Blends of 20% biodiesel and lower can be used in diesel equipment with no, or only
minor modifications, although certain manufacturers do not extend warranty coverage if
the equipment is damaged by these blends. The B6 to B20 blends are covered by
the ASTM D7467 specification. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100) but
may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance
problems. Blending B100 with petroleum diesel may be accomplished by:

Mixing in tanks at manufacturing point prior to delivery to tanker truck

Splash mixing in the tanker truck (adding specific percentages of biodiesel and
petroleum diesel)
In-line mixing, two components arrive at tanker truck simultaneously.
Metered pump mixing, petroleum diesel, and biodiesel meters are set to X total
volume, transfer pump pulls from two points and mix is complete on leaving pump.

Developed in the 1890s by inventor Rudolph Diesel, the diesel engine has become the
engine of choice for power, reliability, and high fuel economy, worldwide. Early
experimenters on vegetable oil fuels included the French government and Dr. Diesel
himself, who envisioned that pure vegetable oils could power early diesel engines for
agriculture in remote areas of the world, where petroleum was not available at the time.
Modern biodiesel fuel, which is made by converting vegetable oils into compounds called
fatty acid methyl esters, has its roots in research conducted in the 1930s in Belgium, but
todays biodiesel industry was not established in Europe until the late 1980s.

The diesel engine was developed out of a desire to improve upon inefficient, cumbersome
and sometimes dangerous steam engines of the late 1800s. The diesel engine works on
the principle of compression ignition, in which fuel is injected into the engines cylinder
after air has been compressed to a high pressure and temperature. As the fuel enters the
cylinder it self-ignites and burns rapidly, forcing the piston back down and converting the
chemical energy in the fuel into mechanical energy. Dr. Rudolph Diesel, after whom the
engine is named, holds the first patent for the compression ignition engine, issued in
1893. Diesel became known worldwide for his innovative engine which could use a
variety of fuels.

The concept of biofuel dates back to 1885 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel built the first diesel
engine with the full intention of running it on the vegetative source. In 1912 he observed,
"the use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils
may in the course of time become as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of
the present time."

In 1970, scientists discovered that the viscosity of vegetable oils could be reduced by a
simple chemical process and that it could perform as diesel fuel in the modern engine.
Since then the technical developments have come a long way and the plant oil today has
been highly established as biofuel, equivalent to diesel.

Today 21 countries worldwide produce biodiesel. India is one of the largest petroleum-
consuming and importing countries. India imports about 70 % of its petroleum demands.
The current yearly consumption of diesel oil in India is approximately 40 million tons
constituting about 40% of the total petroproduct consumption.

Biodiesel, derived from the oils and fats of plants like sunflower, rape seeds, Canola or
Jatropha (Bhagveranda) can be used as a substitute or an additive to diesel. As an
alternative fuel biodiesel can provide power similar to conventional diesel fuel and thus
can be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced
locally thus helping reduce the countrys dependence on imported crude petroleum diesel.

The early diesel engines had complex injection systems and were designed to run on
many different fuels, from kerosene to coal dust. It was only a matter of time before
someone recognized that, because of their high energy content, vegetable oils would
make excellent fuel. The first public demonstration of vegetable oil based diesel fuel was
at the 1900 Worlds Fair when the French government commissioned the Otto Company
to build a diesel engine to run on peanut oil. The French government was interested in
vegetable oils as a domestic fuel for their African colonies. Rudolph Diesel later did
extensive work on vegetable oil fuels and became a leading proponent of such a concept,
believing that farmers could benefit from providing their own fuel. However, it would
take almost a century before such an idea became a widespread reality. Shortly after Dr.
Diesels death in 1913 petroleum became widely available in a variety of forms,
including the class of fuel we know today as diesel fuel. With petroleum being
available and cheap, the diesel engine design was changed to match the properties of
petroleum diesel fuel. The result was an engine which was fuel efficient and very
powerful. For the next 80 years diesel engines would become the industry standard
where power, economy, and reliability are required.


Due to the widespread availability and low cost of petroleum diesel fuel, vegetable oil-
based fuels gained little attention, except in times of high oil prices and shortages. World
War II and the oil crises of the 1970s saw brief interest in using vegetable oils to fuel
diesel engines. Unfortunately, the newer diesel engine designs could not run on
traditional vegetable oils, due to the much higher viscosity of vegetable oil compared to
petroleum diesel fuel. A way was needed to lower the viscosity of vegetable oils to a
point where they could be burned properly in the diesel engine. Many methods have been
proposed to perform this task, including pyrolysis, blending with solvents, and even
emulsifying the fuel with water or alcohols, none of which have provided a suitable
solution. It was a Belgian inventor in 1937 who first proposed using Transesterification to
convert vegetable oils into fatty acid alkyl esters and use them as a diesel fuel
replacement. The process of Transesterification converts vegetable oil into three smaller
molecules which are much less viscous and easy to burn in a diesel engine. The
Transesterification reaction is the basis for the production of modern biodiesel, which is
the trade name for fatty acid methyl esters. In the early 1980s concerns over the
environment, energy security, and agricultural overproduction once again brought the use
of vegetable oils to the forefront, this time with Transesterification as the preferred
method of producing such fuel replacements.



Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification
whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind
two products -- methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable
byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products).


The term biodiesel is described as a clean-burning alternative fuel, produced from
domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel does not contain petroleum; However, it can be
blended with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. There are many positive
attributes to biodiesel including its nontoxic and biodegradable characteristics. It is also
one of the only fuel products that do not emit sulfur into the earths atmosphere.


Acid Esterification - Esterification increases the yield of biodiesel. When oil feedstocks
contain an excess of free fatty acids they have to go through the process of
esterification. The key to effectively preparing for the esterification process is to make
sure the feedstocks have been sufficiently filtered by removing all contaminants and
water. Upon filtration, the feedstocks are fed to the acid esterification process. The
catalyst, sulfuric acid, is dissolved in methanol and then mixed with the pretreated oil.
Once the mixture is heated and stirred, the free fatty acids are converted to biodiesel.
The final step of esterification is to dewater and feed the product to the
transesterification process.

Transesterification - Oil feedstocks containing small amounts of free fatty acids are
fed directly to the transesterification process. The catalyst, potassium hydroxide, is
dissolved in methanol and then mixed with the pretreated oil. The co-products of this
reaction are biodiesel and glycerin.

Methanol recovery - Methanol is usually removed after the biodiesel and glycerin have
been separated into two layers, preventing reaction reversal. The methanol is then
cleaned and recycled back to the beginning of the process.

Biodiesel Refining - Once separated from the glycerin, the biodiesel goes through a
purification process, removing all remaining alcohol and catalyst. It is then dried and
stored. To guarantee the biodiesel is without color, odor, and sulfur, an additional
distillation process may be implemented.

Biodiesel has promising lubricating properties and cetane ratings compared to low sulfur
diesel fuels. Depending on the engine, this might include high-pressure injection pumps,
pump injectors (also called unit injectors) and fuel injectors.

The calorific value of biodiesel is about 37.27 MJ/kg. This is 9% lower than regular
Number 2 petrodiesel. Variations in biodiesel energy density are more dependent on the
feedstock used than the production process. Still, these variations are less than for petrol
diesel. It has been claimed biodiesel gives better lubricity and a complete combustion
thus increasing the engine energy output and partially compensating for the higher energy
density of petrodiesel.

The color of biodiesel ranges from golden to dark brown, depending on the production
method. It is slightly miscible with water, has a high boiling point and low vapor
pressure. *The flash point of biodiesel (>130 C, >266 F) is significantly higher than
that of petroleum diesel (64 C, 147 F) or gasoline (45 C, -52 F). Biodiesel has a
density of ~ 0.88 g/cm, higher than petrodiesel (~ 0.85 g/cm).

Biodiesel contains virtually no sulfur, and it is often used as an additive to Ultra-Low

Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel to aid with lubrication, as the sulfur compounds in petrodiesel
provide much of the lubricity.


The power output of biodiesel depends on its blend, quality, and load conditions under
which the fuel is burnt. The thermal efficiency for example of B100 as compared to B20
will vary due to the differing energy content of the various blends. The thermal efficiency
of a fuel is based in part on fuel characteristics such as viscosity, specific density, and
flash point; these characteristics will change blends as well as the quality of biodiesel

Regarding brake thermal efficiency one study found that B40 was superior to a traditional
counterpart at higher compression ratios (this higher brake thermal efficiency was
recorded at compression ratios of 21:1). It was noted that, as the compression ratios
increased, the efficiency of all fuel types - as well as blends being tested - increased;
though it was found that a blend of B40 was the most economical at a compression ratio
of 21:1 over all other blends. The study implied that this increase in efficiency was due to
fuel density, viscosity, and heating values of the fuels.

Fuel systems on the modern diesel engine were not designed to accommodate biodiesel,
while many heavy-duty engines are able to run with biodiesel blends e.g. B20.

Traditional direct injection fuel systems operate at roughly 3,000 psi at the injector tip
while the modern common rail fuel system operates upwards of 30,000 PSI at the injector
tip. Components are designed to operate at a great temperature range, from below
freezing to over 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Diesel fuel is expected to burn efficiently and
produce as few emissions as possible. As emission standards are being introduced to
diesel engines the need to control harmful emissions is being designed into the
parameters of diesel engine fuel systems. The traditional inline injection system is more
forgiving to poorer quality fuels as opposed to the common rail fuel system. The higher
pressures and tighter tolerances of the common rail system allow for greater control over
atomization and injection timing. This control of atomization, as well as combustion,
allows for greater efficiency of modern diesel engines as well as greater control over
emissions. Components within a diesel fuel system interact with the fuel in a way to
ensure efficient operation of the fuel system and so the engine. If an out-of-specification
fuel is introduced to a system that has specific parameters of operation, then the integrity
of the overall fuel system may be compromised. Some of these parameters such as spray
pattern and atomization are directly related to injection timing.

One study found that during atomization biodiesel and its blends produced droplets were
greater in diameter than the droplets produced by traditional petrodiesel. The smaller
droplets were attributed to the lower viscosity and surface tension of traditional petrol. It
was found that droplets at the periphery of the spray pattern were larger in diameter than
the droplets at the center this was attributed to the faster pressure drop at the edge of the
spray pattern; there was a proportional relationship between the droplet size and the
distance from the injector tip. It was found that B100 had the greatest spray penetration,
this was attributed to the greater density of B100. Having a greater droplet size can lead
to; inefficiencies in the combustion increased emissions and decreased horsepower. In
another study, it was found that there is a short injection delay when injecting biodiesel.
This injection delay was attributed to the greater viscosity of Biodiesel. It was noted that
the higher viscosity and the greater cetane rating of biodiesel over traditional petrodiesel
lead to poor atomization, as well as mixture penetration with air during the ignition delay
period. Another study noted that this ignition delay may aid in a decrease of NOx

Emissions are inherent to the combustion of diesel fuels that are regulated by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.). As these emissions are a byproduct of the
combustion process, in order to ensure E.P.A. compliance a fuel system must be capable
of controlling the combustion of fuels as well as the mitigation of emissions. There are a
number of new technologies being phased in to control the production of diesel
emissions. The exhaust gas recirculation system, E.G.R., and the diesel particulate filter,
D.P.F., are both designed to mitigate the production of harmful emissions.

A study performed by the Chonbuk National University concluded that a B30 biodiesel
blends reduced carbon monoxide emissions by approximately 83% and particulate matter
emissions by roughly 33%. NOx emissions, however, were found to increase without the
application of an E.G.R. system. The study also concluded that, with E.G.R, a B20
biodiesel blend considerably reduced the emissions of the engine. Additionally, analysis
by the California Air Resources Board found that biodiesel had the lowest carbon
emissions of the fuels tested, those being ultra-low-sulfur diesel, gasoline, corn-based
ethanol, compressed natural gas, and five types of biodiesel from varying feedstocks.
Their conclusions also showed great variance in carbon emissions of biodiesel based on
the feedstock used. Of soy, tallow, canola, corn, and used cooking oil, soy showed the
highest carbon emissions, while used cooking oil produced the lowest.

While studying the effect of biodiesel on a D.P.F. it was found that though the presence
of sodium and potassium carbonates aided in the catalytic conversion of ash, as the diesel
particulates are catalyzed, they may congregate inside the D.P.F. and so interfere with the
clearances of the filter. This may cause the filter to clog and interfere with the
regeneration process. In a study on the impact of E.G.R. rates with blends of Jatropha
biodiesel, it was shown that there was a decrease in fuel efficiency and torque output due
to the use of biodiesel on a diesel engine designed with an E.G.R. system. It was found
that CO and CO2 emissions increased with an increase in exhaust gas recirculation but
NOx levels decreased. The opacity [disambiguation needed] level of the Jatropha blends
was in an acceptable range, where traditional diesel was out of acceptable standards. It
was shown that a decrease in NOX emissions could be obtained with an E.G.R. system.
This study showed an advantage over traditional diesel within a certain operating range
of the E.G.R. system. Currently blended biodiesel fuels (B5 and B20) are being used in
many heavy-duty vehicles especially transit buses in US cities. Characterization of
exhaust emissions showed significant emission reductions compared to regular diesel.


Plastics: High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is compatible but polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
is slowly degraded. Polystyrene is dissolved on contact with biodiesel.

Metals: Biodiesel (like methanol) has an effect on copper-based materials (e.g. brass),
and it also affects zinc, tin, lead, and cast iron. Stainless steels (316 and 304) and
aluminum are unaffected.

Rubber: Biodiesel also affects types of natural rubbers found in some older engine
components. Studies have also found that fluorinated elastomers (FKM) cured with
peroxide and base-metal oxides can be degraded when biodiesel loses its stability caused
by oxidation. Commonly used synthetic rubbers FKM- GBL-S and FKM- GF-S found in
modern vehicles were found to handle biodiesel in all conditions.



All Vehicles having Diesel Engine can be powered by Biodiesel without any


Natural Biodiesel fuel can be used for construction, mining, and farm machinery.


Natural Biodiesel can be used in marine engines safely. Marine use is especially
attractive due to the elimination of any possibility of contamination of waterways.


With new power generation capacity coming online, Natural biodiesel makes an
attractive choice to meet the regulations. Many stationary applications are
permitted sources requiring exhaust emission control system, which will work
well with biodiesel but will not work with diesel fuel.


With natural gas prices rising high, biodiesel can be substituted easily for natural
gas with minor changes necessary to the burner train.


With many states now mandating hybrid electric vehicles (including the fuel cell
hybrid), biodiesel will make excellent reforming fuel.


Natural biodiesel can also be used as a lubricity agent/enhancer in many

applications. It is especially useful in marine applications where water
contamination with petroleum lubricity agents can create problems. With the low-

sulfur fuel regulation of future, biodiesel can be used as a lubricity additive. A 1-
2% biodiesel added to diesel fuel can increase diesel lubricity by 65%.


Biodiesel can also be used as a diesel fuel additive for the purpose of keeping the
injectors, pumps and other combustion components clean. A 1-2% blend should
be sufficient for this purpose.

Biodiesel produced from a 30 MTPD Processing Plant set up at Domjur, Howrah for one of our
clients by Biodiesel Technologies Kolkata, India is surpassing ASTM, BIS, and EN Standards.


Bio-diesel is the most valuable form of renewable energy that can be used directly in any
existing, unmodified diesel engine.

I. Energy Independence: Considering that oil priced at $ 60 per barrel has had a
disproportionate impact on the poorest countries, 38 of which are net importers and 25 of
Which import all of their oil; the question of trying to achieve greater energy
independence one day through the development of biofuels has become one of when
rather than if, and, now on a near daily basis, a biofuels programme is being launched
somewhere in the developing world.

II. Smaller Trade Deficit: Rather than importing other countries ancient natural
resources, we could be using our own living resources to power our development and
enhance our economies. Instead of looking to the Mid-east for oil, the world could look
to the tropics for bio-fuels. producing more bio-fuels will save foreign exchange and
reduce energy expenditures and allow developing countries to put more of their resources
into health, education and other services for their neediest citizens.

III. Economic Growth: Biofuels create new markets for agricultural products and
stimulate rural development because biofuels are generated from crops; they hold
enormous potential for farmers. In the near futureespecially for the two-thirds of the
people in the developing world who derive their incomes from agriculture. Today, many
of these farmers are too small to compete in the global market, especially with the
playing field tilted against them through trade-distorting agricultural subsidies. They are
mostly subsistence farmers who, in a good year, produce enough to feed their families,
and in a bad year, grow even poorer or starve. But bio-fuels have enormous potential to
change this situation for the better. At the community level, farmers that produce
dedicated energy crops can grow their incomes and grow their own supply of affordable
and reliable energy. At the national level, producing more bio-fuels will generate new
industries, new technologies, new jobs and new markets.

IV. Cleaner Air: Biofuels burn more cleanly than gasoline and diesel. Using biofuels
means producing fewer emissions of carbon monoxide, particulates, and toxic chemicals
that cause smog, aggravate respiratorily and heart disease, and contribute to thousands of
premature deaths each year.

V. Less Global Warming: Biofuels contain carbon that was taken out of the atmosphere
by plants and trees as they grew. The Fossil fuels are adding huge amounts of stored
carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, where it traps the Earth's heat like a heavy

blanket and causes the world to warm. Studies show that bio-diesel reduces CO2
emissions to a considerable extent and in some cases all most nearly to zero.

The equipments required to expel the full quantity of oil are:

Oil Expellers
Solvent Extraction Plant

Biodiesel fuel burns up to 75% cleaner than diesel fuel made from fossil fuels. Biodiesel
substantially reduces unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter in
exhaust fumes. Sulfur dioxide emissions are 100% eliminated (biodiesel contains no
Sulphur). This alternative fuel is plant-based and adds absolutely no CO2 to the

Biofuel exhaust is not offensive and doesn't cause eye irritation. Vehicles do not spew out
vile black fumes/particulates. In fact, if you make your fuel from used cooking oil it may
even smell of chips. Biodiesel is environmentally friendly: it is renewable, "more
biodegradable than sugar and less toxic than table salt" (US National Biodiesel Board).

Biodiesel was the first renewable fuel to successfully complete the EPA-required Health
Effects testing under the Clean Air Act. Mutagenicity studies show that biofuel
dramatically reduces potential risks of cancer and birth defects.

Biodiesel helps preserve natural resources. For every unit of energy needed to produce
biodiesel, 3.24 units of energy are gained - nearly four times more than diesel.

Biodiesel is environmentally friendly and ideal for heavily polluted cities. Bio Diesel is
as biodegradable as salt Bio Diesel produces 80% less carbon dioxide and 100% less
sulfur dioxide emissions. It provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks.

BioDiesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with mineral oil diesel fuel. The
preferred ratio if mixture ranges between 5 and 20% (B5 - B20). Bio Diesel extends the
life of diesel engines.

Bio Diesel is cheaper than mineral oil diesel. Bio Diesel is conserving natural resources.

The features are listed as:

Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel

Biodiesel does not have any toxic emissions like mineral diesel
Biodiesel is made from any vegetable oil such as Soya, Rice bran, Canola, Palm,
Coconut, mustard or peanut or from any animal fat like Lard or tallow.
Biodiesel is a complete substitute of Mineral diesel (HSD).
Biodiesel is made through a chemical process which converts oils and fats of
natural origin into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME).
Biodiesel IS NOT vegetable oil.
Biodiesel is intended to be used as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel or can
be blended with petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion.
Biodiesel does not require modifications to a diesel engine to be used.
Biodiesel has reduced exhaust emissions compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
Biodiesel has lower toxicity compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
Biodiesel is safer to handle compared to petroleum diesel fuel.
Biodiesel quality is governed by ASTM D 6751 quality parameters.
Biodiesel is biodegradable

WIN-WIN Situation:
A win-win situation is one in which all the participants can profit from it in one way or
the other. For instance, here the Biodiesel Producer and the Farmers can both earn a
profit and continue to operate in a successful market with the flexibility of feedstock.
Hence it leads to A WIN WIN SITUATION for all the participants in the industry.




1. Quite simple chemistry

2. Small volume bio-diesel machines are commercially available


1. Relatively high labor input

2. Higher capital investment

3. Methanol involved in process (toxic & derived from fossil fuel)

4. Glycerol is a by-product

5. Relatively high direct energy input/costs


1. Re-use glycerol (e.g. for heat process)

2. Methanol recovery (e.g. using waste heat)

3. Potential to develop process using bio-ethanol (rather than methanol)

4. Funding is currently available for biofuel production and research

5. Strengthening bio-fuel network


1. Potential for increase in cost of methanol

2. Potential for increase in cost of sodium hydroxide (catalyst)

3. Large companies introducing 5% blend

1. Ever increasing Crude oil price.

2. Employment generation capacity in rural areas.

3. Better Utilization of following cultivable waste land.

4. Low gestation period comparative to other non-edible oil sources.

5. Having carbon credit value (Kyoto protocol).

6. Required in large quantity to sustain huge demand.

7. With the use of Biotechnology encouraging primary result.

1. Over publicity.

2. The abundance of misleading information.

3. Mall practices in input materials.

4. Costly input materials.

5. Low (no) support price for seed.

6. No sustainable Procurement Mechanism available in the Market.

7. The requirement of seed in large quantity even to fulfill the demands of 5% blending
with the diesel.

8. Government strategies towards Biodiesel project are not implemented properly.


Standards Biodiesel Hydrogen

Technological Can be used in existing diesel Electrolyzing water (most likely

Readiness engines, which have already using fossil fuel energy) or
been in use for 100 years reforming fossil fuels. Most likely
non-renewable methods with large
net CO2 emissions
Fuel Can be distributed to existing No system currently exists, would
Distribution filling stations with no take decades to develop. Would
System changes. cost $176 billion to put one
hydrogen pump at each of the
filling stations in the US.
Fossil Energy 3.2 units (soy) 0.66 units (steam reforming of
Balance 4.3 units (rapeseed) natural gas)

Large scale For an estimated $1691 billion, To produce enough clean

fuel enough algae farms could be hydrogen for our transportation
development built to completely replace needs would cost $2.5 trillion
cost analysis petroleum transportation fuels (wind power) or $25 trillion
with biodiesel (solar)

Safety Flashpoint over 300 F Highly flammable, high-pressure

(considered not flammable) storage tanks pose a large risk due
to store mechanical energy, as
well as
Timescale for 5-15 years 30-70 years optimistic assumption
wide scale use
Cost of Comparable to existing Currently 50-100 times as
engines vehicles expensive as existing engines.

Tank 20 gallons /1000 mile range in 268 gallons /1000 mile range in
capacity a conventional sedan. conventional sedan.


Alternative fuels and energy sources such as Biodiesel provide an excellent

opportunity for the future. Lessons on biodiesel can demonstrate that clearly, by
showing the overlapping of biology, chemistry, and physics in studying this and
other alternative fuels.

Advancements in science can yield considerable benefit to the general public (i.e.
shifting from petroleum fuels to domestically produced biofuels would create
millions of jobs, improve our economy, reduce pollution enormously, and
eliminate a key strategic concern for all countries - the dependence on foreign