Você está na página 1de 2

HVAC Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning

1. 1. Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning Prepared exclusively for COACH LEATHERWARE


2. 2. PanelModerator:Bob KeingsteinBoss Facilities Services631-361-7430bobk@bossfacilityservices.com
Slide 1
3. 3. COIL COOL AIR HEATSOURCE OF COOL AIR COIL Slide 3
4. 4. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM S.A. DUCTCOIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 4
5. 5. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINALCOIL COOL AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 5
6. 6. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL COOL WARM AIRCOIL AIR HEAT
S.A. FAN Slide 6
7. 7. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINALCOIL COOL AIR HEAT
S.A. FAN Slide 7
8. 8. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL COIL COOL
AIR HEAT S.A. FAN Slide 8
9. 9. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A. DUCT TERMINAL R.A.
DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER FILTER Slide 9
10. 10. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A.
DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER
FILTER Slide 10
11. 11. Economizer Provides cooling to space when outdoor air temperatures are below 55 degrees Switches
over automatically from mechanical cooling Adjusts R.A. and F.A. dampers to maintain space temp May
incorporate enthalpy control Mandatory in some states based on unit capacity Slide 11
12. 12. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A.
DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER
WATER PIPING FILTER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER Slide 12
13. 13. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A.
DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER
WATER PIPING FILTER HEAT COOLING TOWER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER
CONDENSER PUMP Slide 13
14. 14. TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM E.A.EXHAUST DAMPER AIR R.A. FAN R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. S.A.
DUCT TERMINAL R.A. DAMPER COIL COOL AIR FRESHOUTDOOR HEAT AIR S.A. FAN O.A. DAMPER
WATER PIPING FILTER HEAT BOILER COOLING TOWER CHILLED WATER WATER PUMP CHILLER
CONDENSER PUMP Slide 14
15. 15. Equipment Types ROOFTOP PACKAGE UNIT SPLIT SYSTEM CHILLED WATER AIR HANDLER
VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP Life expectancy 10 to 12 yrs for rooftop and
split systems Expect increase in repair costs as equipment ages Typically largest expense to operation of
store, energy/repair costs Repair or Replace? Slide 15
16. 16. Single Package Roof Top UnitMost commonEntire hvac system islocated on mall roofMost common to
haveroof leaks from roof curb,condensate overflow orroof punctures Slide 16
17. 17. Single Package Roof Top Unit HEAT COMP CONDR ELECTRIC COIL HEATERO.A. FANE.A. S.A.
DUCT S.A. R.A. DUCT TERMINAL HEAT Slide 17
18. 18. Single Package Roof Top Unit Rooftop package unit Mounted on adaptor curb Power exhaust and
economizer installed Slide 18
19. 19. Split System HVAC system split into 2 pieces Condensing unit located on roof (houses compressor,
condenser coil, condenser fan motor) Air handler located in space above ceiling (houses blower assembly,
evap coil, air filters) Connected electrically and with refrigerant piping Most prone to refrigerant leaks
especially if long distance between components Many times refrigerant lines are buried in construction and
inaccessible Slide 19
20. 20. SPLIT SYSTEM CONDENSING UNIT HEAT REFRIGERANT C LINES C O O N M AIR P D R AIR
HANDLING UNIT COILO.A. POSSIBLE FAN ELECTRIC HEATE.A. S.A. DUCT R.A. DUCT HEAT
OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY HEATING SYSTEM Slide 20
21. 21. SPLIT SYSTEM Slide 21
22. 22. Split System Air cooled condensing unit Compressor, condenser coil and condenser fans Connected
to indoor air handler Slide 22
23. 23. VAV BOXConsists of VAV terminal Variable Air Volumebox located in the spaceabove ceilingMay have
supplementalblower motor for positiveairflow to spaceMay have air filtrationHas a damper inside thatopens
and closes on demandfrom thermostat to allowmore or less airflow tospace Slide 23
24. 24. Major System Components Compressor Condenser coil Evaporator coil Condenser fan motor
Evaporator fan motor Thermostatic expansion valve Evaporator blower assembly Economizers (Optional)
Slide 24
25. 25. HEAT REJECTION 95F DB (HIGH TEMPERATURE) 78F DB HEAT 95F 105F CONDENSER
CONDITIONED SPACE 85F COOLING TOWER COMPRESSOR95F 55F 75F 35F COOLER 45F
REFRIGERATION MACHINE HEAT GATHERING (REFRIGERATION CYCLE) (LOW TEMPERATURE)
Slide 25
26. 26. Compressor This component is the heart of the system.. Pumps refrigerant and oil throughout system
Separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side If compressor fails, no cooling is
possible Slide 26
27. 27. Condenser Condenser coil is what gets rid of the heat in the system Can be water or air cooled,
however most are air cooled in retail application Located outdoors (air cooled) Fins on coil are subject to
corrosion in salt water environment. Special coatings can be applied. Fins are subject to damage from hail
Traps dirt and requires periodic cleanings Slide 27
28. 28. Evaporator Coil Provides cold air to the space Located after the system air filters Return air is blown
over the coil and chilled Removes moisture from air (condensate) Traps dirt that gets past air filters,
reducing cooling capacity (95% is bacterial) Requires periodic chemical cleaning Slide 28
29. 29. Evaporator Fan Motor Located behind condenser coil Draws ambient air across condenser coil
System may have up to 4 or more motors based on system capacity Motors are direct drive with fan blades
attached Requires little if any maintenance (sealed bearings) Slide 29
30. 30. TXV Thermal Expansion Valve Located at the evaporator coil Provides the correct amount of
refrigerant to the evaporator coil for proper cooling Separates the high pressure side of the system from the
low pressure side Failure could cause compressor failure and loss of system cooling capacity Frequently
overlooked in diagnosing system problems Requires manual setting of superheat for proper operation. Slide
30
31. 31. Evaporator Blower Assembly Consists of: Blower motor Pulleys and fan belts Bearings Fan shaft
Fan wheels Housings Can be located indoors or outdoors Slide 31
32. 32. Control Types CONVENTIONAL THERMOSTAT DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE THERMOSTAT
PNEUMATIC LCD SYSTEM MALL INTERFACE Slide 32
33. 33. Low Ambient Controls Low ambient controls May be added to air cooled systems that must operate
when outdoor temperatures are below 55 degrees Cycles condenser fan/s to maintain correct system
pressures Used when economizer is not present Much less costly to install Much more costly to operate
Slide 33
34. 34. Conventional Thermostat Completely manual operation Will maintain a single heat or cool setting
System must be switched from heat to cool No energy savings Will allow system to operate all night while
store is closed wasting energy Easy to tamper with Least expensive to install Slide 34
35. 35. Programmable Thermostat Provides auto changeover from heat to cool Provides up to 4 heat/cool
settings per 24 hour period Can provide different weekend settings Keyboard can be locked out Set it and
forget it Slide 35
36. 36. Pneumatic Thermostat Uses air provided by mall to operate thermostat Very commonly used with VAV
systems Least commonly found in malls Parts are fairly expensive Slide 36
37. 37. LCD Thermostat Used in newer stores Programmable type Can be dialed into by monitoring company
for data Slide 37
38. 38. Rules Of Thumb1HP = 1KW = 1KVA 1KW = 3413 BTU1 Ton Cooling = 12,000 BTU 1 Ton = 400
CFMRetail = 380 SQ FT/ Ton coolingDelta T = 18 F across coil cooling Delta T = 25 F for heating CFM =
Building Volume in Cubic Feet Minute/Air Change Delta T = Difference between entering and leaving DB =
T Slide 39
39. 39. Servpro of Great Neck / Port Washington For Further Information Please Contact Us: 516-767-9600
ServproOfGreatNeck.com Slide 40