pressure buildup for wells produced at a constant pressure

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pressure buildup for wells produced at a constant pressure

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C.A. Ehlig-Economides, * SPE, Stanford U.

H.J. Ramey Jr., SPE, Stanford U.

Abstract

Conventional well test analysis has been developed throughout the reservoir approach a static value.

primarily for production at a constant flow rate. Analysis of the pressure increase, or pressure

However, there are several common reservoir buildup, often provides useful information about the

production conditions which result in flow at a reservoir and the well bore itself. Techniques exist for

constant pressure instead of a constant rate. In the determination of well bore storage, skin effect,

field, wells are produced at constant pressure when reservoir permeability and porosity, and either the

fluids flow into a constant-pressure separator and initial reservoir pressure or the volumetric average

during the rate decline period of reservoir depletion. reservoir pressure at the time the well was shut in.

In geothermal reservoirs, produced fluids may drive Effects of fractures penetrated by or near the

a backpressured turbine. Open wells, including wellbore also can be detected, as well as nearby faults

artesian water wells, flow at constant atmospheric or reservoir drainage boundaries.

pressure. Most of the techniques for pressure buildup

Most of the existing methods for pressure buildup analysis were developed for wells which, prior to

analysis of wells with a constant-pressure flow shut-in, were produced at a constant rate. When the

history are empirical. Few are based on sOUIid production rate before shut-in changes rapidly,

theory. Hence, there is a need for a thorough conventional analysis is often suspect. If the exact

treatment of pressure buildup behavior following rate history is known, the theory of superposition in

constant-pressure production. time of constant-rate solution leads to the method

In this work, the method of superposition of derived by Horner 1 which compensates for changing

continuously changing rates was used to generate an production rates. This method results in long

exact solution for pressure buildup following con- calculations. However, in the same paper Horner

stant-pressure flow. The method is general. Storage proposed a simplified procedure in which the last

and skin effects were incorporated into the theory, established rate was assumed constant and the flow

and both bounded and unbounded reservoirs were time was set equal to the cumulative production

considered. Buildup solutions were graphed using divided by the last established rate. Other methods

conventional techniques for analysis. Horner's for analysis of pressure buildup after a variable-rate

method for plotting buildup data after a variable-rate production history were proposed by Odeh et al. 2-4

flow was found to be accurate in a majority of cases. A special case of variable-rate production results

Also, the method by Matthews et al. for determining when a well is produced at constant pressure. The

the average reservoir pressure in a closed system was first published application of pressure buildup

determined to be correct for buildup following analysis for a well produced at constant pressure

constant-pressure flow. prior to shut-in was by Jacob and Lohman. 5 Their

graph of residual drawdown vs. total time divided by

shut-in time results in a semilog straight line. The

Introduction permeability thickness was computed from the slope

When a flowing well is shut in, the pressure in the of the recovery line using the average discharge rate

well bore increases with time as the pressures

0197 7520181100027985$00.25

'Now with the U. of Alaska. Copyright 1981 Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME

TABLE 1 - UNIT CONVERSIONS

Variable Darcy, SI Metric Units English Units

kt 0.000264 kt

to

<Pllctr; <Pllctr;

qBIl 141.2qBIl

qo

27rkh(Pi-P wf) 27rkh(Pi -Pwf)

No N/[27r<pcthr; (Pi -Pwf) N/[27r<pcthr; (Pi -Pwf)

0.1832qBIl 162.6 qBIl

m

kh kh

kh(p*-p) 1

'Ci Ci = 27r Ci = --

qtpBIl 141.2

c atm- 1 , Pa- 1 psi -1

h cm,m ft

k darcy, m 2 md

P atm, Pa psi

q cm 3 /s, m3 /s BID

r cm,m ft

t seconds hours

Il cp, Pas cp

during the immediately preceding period of flow. where P 'wD is the time derivative of the dimensionless

The value computed in this way agreed with trans- well bore pressure drop for constant-rate production.

missivity values determined by type-curve matching If production is at a constant pressure Pwj' Eq. 1 can

of transient rate data from the flowing period for be written in dimensionless variables as

several wells tested.

Clegg 6 produced an approximate analytical rID

solution for pressure buildup that implied that the l=-J qD(r)p'wD(tD-r)dr, .......... (2)

o

method used by Jacob and Lohman should not result

in a correct estimate of the permeability. Clegg's where dimensionless variables for constant pressure

solution demonstrated the need for a sound method production are defined by

for analyzing pressure buildup after constant-

pressure production.

Sandrea 7 concluded that Horner's method of

using the last established rate and an adjusted flow and

time was not valid for wells which had reached the

period of exponentially declining rates due to limited

reservoir extent. Exponential rate decline is a natural

consequence of constant-pressure production of a and rD and ID are defined as usual for circular

reservoirs.

closed-boundary system. It is a state which naturally

follows constant-rate production of a closed Referring again to Eq. 1, if production at constant

system. 8,9 pressure is changed to constant rate after time I p' the

well bore pressure at time t is given by

In this study, the solution for pressure buildup

after a constant-pressure production period is

derived through superposition in time of con- /.t rtp

Pwj(t) =Pi + 27rkh J0 q( r)p'wD (t- r)dr

tinuously varying flow rates prior to shut-in. Results

indicate that a slight modification of the Horner -qd (tp )PwD (t- tp ) . ........... (5)

method of graphing pressure buildup provides a

theoretically correct determination of the reservoir If the well is shut-in, pressure buildup is determined

permeability and static reservoir pressure. Fur- exactly from

thermore, well bore storage and skin effect and ef-

fects of a fracture can be determined by techniques /.t rIp

analogous to conventional pressure buildup analysis. Pws(fl.!) =Pi+ 27rkh Jo q(r)p'wD(t-r)dr,

Application of the principle of superposition in time

to a continuously varying rate q(t) results in an where fl.! is the elapsed time after shut-in. The in-

expression for flowing well bore pressure given by tegral in Eq. 6 is difficult to evaluate because a q D (0)

is infinite. However, the equation can be written in a

/.t rID more easily evaluated form by using Eq. 2:

Pwj(t) =Pi+ 27rkh Jo q(r)p'wD(t-r)dr, . (1)"

p. -P (M D ) ~/pD+t:.ID

'In this paper, mathematical derivations are given in Darcy units. Table 1 is a

I ws =- qD (r)p'wD (tpD

conversion table for Darcy, English, and the preferred Sl metric units. Pi-Pwj 0

TABLE 2 - REFERENCES TO AVAILABLE TABULATED

SOLUTIONS FOR TRANSIENT RATE DECLINE

FOR WELLS PRODUCED AT A CONSTANT PRESSURE

No vs. to

Without With Without With

Skin Skin Skin Skin

--- --

Infinitely large system 14 11 15

Closed boundary at re 9 11 9 11

Constantpressure boundary 11 11

at re

boundary conditions for qD and PwD. The pressure

solutions for constant-rate production are well

known, but the transient rate solutions still are being

+!:J.t D -7)d7, ..................... (7) developed. Existing solutions for q D for circular

reservoirs were derived through use of Laplace

or transforms. Unfortunately, the solutions in Laplace

space cannot be inverted easily to analytical func-

tions in real space. Hence, only numerically

tabulated solutions are available. References to the

tabulated solutions are given in Table 2. The

solutions used for this work were generated using a

numerical Laplace transform inversion algorithm by

Stehfest. 10 Limiting forms for long production times

Eq. 6 is completely generaL The functions used for are given in Table 3 for several of the solutions. The

qD andpwD can be chosen for any appropriate set of limiting forms for the exponential decline function

inner and outer boundary conditions. Examination given by Fetkovich 8 contain a small error.

of the integration limits reveals that q D ( 7) is Derivation of the correct functions is provided in

evaluated for late times (7)tpD ) and P'wD is Appendix A. Figs. 1 and 2 are type curves for

evaluated beginning with time zero. Thus, dimensionless flow rate and dimensionless

phenomena such as well bore storage, skin effect, or cumulative production vs. dimensionless time.

fracture effects will be included in the pressure Although the integral in Eq. 6 is similar to a

function, while possible boundary effects will in- convolution integral, it cannot be solved easily by

fluence qD and, for large t, P'wD as welL Laplace transformation. However, Eq. 6 can be

TABLE 3 - FUNCTIONS WHICH APPROXIMATE THE SOLUTIONS FOR TRANSIENT RATE DECLINE

FOR WELLS PRODUCED AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

Outer

Boundary Range of Relative

Condition Validity Approximate Solution Error

1

Unbounded qo (to) = [- (Into +0.80907 + 2s) ]-1 <1%

2

qo(to) 2

Boundary

1

Constant tOA~ - - - Exact

pressure 2.245871"

bounded

circular

'fOA =fOrW21A.

Replacing 'w by fW = rwe - S corrects for nonzero skin factor.

10

reD ~ 10 3

lOt /

, ,", _.,. M

00',\

5

10 ......

I

/ -2".1 IlInr _1)

o 00 4

N

I o

,."

\

o

a

'o-2f-----+:---/---+----+----+---~

..z

10

10-4 10-3 -2 -I I0:5,,-:.......--_ _.1.,O.....

3--.......J-,2.-----L,-'_ _---L_ _ _....J

10 10

10 10- 10 10

IDA 'OA

IInr -1) (Inr -~l

.04 .04

Fig_ 1 - Dimensionless flow rate for a well produced at a Fig. 2 - Dimensionless cumulative production for a well

constant pressure from the center of a closed- produced at constant pressure from the center of a

boundary circular reservoir. closed-boundary circular reservoir.

scheme used in this work is outlined in Appendix B. According to the Horner 1 method, buildup pressures

This method provides a mechanism for calculating are graphed vs, 10g[(tp+tJ.t)/tJ.t] to produce a

pressure buildup following constant-pressure semilog straight line, The slope of the line is used to

production for a variety of situations. A few cases determine permeability from the equation

are considered here.

qp. In 10

Pressure Buildup for atD < < t pD k= - - . - ...................... (12)

27fmh 2

For small shut-in periods, the rate function qD (T) is

essentially constant for t pD < T < (tpD + M D) . Horner suggested that for variable-rate production

Hence, examination of Eq_ 6 reveals that pressure prior to shut-in, the permeability should be

recovery can be approximated accurately by calculated using Eq. 12 with q equal to the last

established flow rate qj and with m determined from

the slope of a graph of P ws (tJ.t) vs.

log[ U; + tJ.t) / tJ.t] where t; =ND Up) /qj' Jacob and

Lohman 5 graphedpws(tJ.t) vs. 10g[tp+tJ.t)/M] and

calculated permeability from Eq. 12 with q equal to

_ ..... (9)

the average flow rate. Sandrea 7 concluded that

graphing buildup data using to Horner's method

or

would result in underestimation of the permeability

for wells with exponentially declining rates prior to

Pi - P ws (tJ.t) shut-in.

== 1- qD(tpD)PwD (tJ.t D ) .... (10) In this work, several cases involving pressure

Pi-Pwj

buildup after constant-pressure production for in-

whenever qD (tpD ==qD (tpD + tJ.t D ) finite, closed-boundary, and constant-pressure

Dividing by q D (t pD) and rearranging results in bounded circular reservoirs were computed by

numerical integration of Eq. 8. In every case, if there

P ws (tJ.t) - P wj - tJ.t was a period of time when the pressure buildup was

q(tp)p./21rkh -PwD( ). . ........... (11)

not dominated by early transient well bore effects or

Thus, a log-log graph of iPws (tJ.t) -Pwj]/q(tp) late transient boundary effects, the semilog straight

vs. time can be compared with type curves of line was present and the slope produced the correct

pressure drawdown for production at constant flow value for the permeability when the data were

rate. Effects of early transient behavior - such as graphed according to Horner's method.

well bore storage and skin effect, partial penetration, The following derivation shows that the Horner

or the evidence of a fracture - can be analyzed using method of graphing buildup data always will result in

conventional type-curve matching techinques. It can the correct straight line, provided that early transient

be demonstrated that the validity of this type of effects and late boundary effects are separated in

analysis is about the same as for constant-rate time. Referring to Eq. 10, we divide by

production. q D (tpD + tJ.t D ) :

108 SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JOURNAL

---- CONSTANT RATE BEFORE SHUT-IN

1.0

- CONSTANT PRESSURE BEFORE

SHUT-IN

",e~

FOR FLOW AT A CONSTANT PRESSURE AND ------

AN INFINITE OUTER BOUNDARY

3.0

tpo tpo = Npo IQo (tpO)

104 1.122 X 104

10

10 5 1.096 X 105

106 1.079 X 106

10 7 1.067 X 10 7

Fig. 3 - Dimensionless pressure buildup for short flow

108 1.058 X 108 times.

conventional manner.

For dimensionless flow times less than 10 4 , the

semi log straight line never develops. However, the

same is true for buildup data after a very short period

of constant-rate flow, as shown in Fig. 3. Thus, the

error involved in using the Horner method for

analysis after short flow times is a problem whether

or not the well is flowed at a constant rate prior to

shut-in.

The Jacob and Lohman s method of using the

+O.80907]-P wD(M D ) . .............. (14) average rate prior to shut-in is justified by the

following arguments. If the variation in q D is small

For 1:11D ~ 5, the log approximation is valid for PwD for O<t D <tpD ' Eq. 6 may be approximated by the

and following.

27rkh

1 -P wd(I:1t)], ................. (17)

== "2ln[(tPD+MD)/I:1IDl, ........ (15)

and

_ q(tp +1:1t). 1

P ws (1:1t) =P i - I n [ (tp + 1:11) /l:1t. . (16)

47rkh

Pi-P ws (l:1tD ) - - (I )

Noting that q (tfJ ) == q (t + 1:1t) for M < < t P' this =qD pD

expression is identical to the result for constant-rate Pi-Pwf

flow, except that if q (tp) were constant, t would be 1

equal to the Horner corrected flow time t;.

Thus, the . "2 ln [(tPD+l:1t D )/I:1ID ], ............. (18)

Horner method of graphing the data preserves the

material balance and produces the correct slope for or

the semilog straight-line portion of the pressure

buildup data. ql'-

P ws (M) =Pi - - In[tp + 1:11) /l:1t]. . ..... (19)

In Table 4, values of tpD and NpD /q(tpD) (calcu- 47rkh

lated from tabulated solutions in Ref. 11) are The last expression is identical to the result for

compared. For dimensionless flow times greater than constant-rate flow except that q is computed from

10 4 , the error in the slope will be less than 1.5070 if the N (t p) /1 p. This method is less accurate than the

actual flow time tp is used instead of t; in the Horner lforner method because the assumption required for

buildup graph. Thus, the Horner corrected flow time Eq. 17 is less valid than the assumption used to

FEBRUARY 1981 109

develop Eq. to. Once exponential decline has begun, Matthews et at. 12 for pressure buildup after con-

the approximation in Eq. 17 is no longer valid. Thus, stant-rate production. The average reservoir pressure

use of the average rate in calculating permeability at shut-in for a circular reservoir is given by

from the slope of the semilog straight line for a graph 2

Pi-jJ(tpD) _ N p (tpD)7rc t hr e

of buildup data is not recommended for wells which

were produced at constant pressure prior to shut-in. Pi -Pwj Pi -Pwj

The last rate will yield a more accurate estimate of =2NpD (tpD) IreD2 . ........ (24)

the permeability.

At infinite shut-in times, the extrapolated pressure

Hence, the departure of the extrapolated pressure p*

for Eq. 16 is Pi. Thus, the behavior of the Horner

from the actual average reservoir pressure jJ is given

pressure buildup curve following constant-pressure

by

production that has not shown a boundary influence

is identical to the constant-rate case. 27rkh (p* - jJ)

In the next section, boundary effects are con- qtp

sidered. The Horner method is shown to be an ef-

fective means of analysis, even when boundary ef- Pi-P*

fects are evident prior to shut-in. (Pi -Pwj)qD (t pD )

Effect of a Closed Boundary _ 2NpD (tpD) 1

The Horner method also applies for wells shut in - qD (tpD )reD 2 - qD (tpD)

after the onset of an exponentially declining

production rate. When tp > t pSS' the Horner method 1

still produces a semilog straight line for D.t suf- + 2 (lntpD +0.80907) ....... (25)

ficiently small, because q D (t pD) may be assumed to

Substituting the exact exponential function for qD

be constant. However, unlike Eq. 16, the ex-

and NpD derived in Appendix A,

trapolated pressure is not Pi' but, to use the con-

ventional notation, p*.

The equation for p* is derived as follows. For the 27rkh(p* -jJ)

closed-boundary reservoir (early enough in shut-in qtp/l qD(tpD)

time that t p > > D.t but late enough that M D > 100),

1 1

Pi - P ws (D.t D ) + -2 (lntpD + 0.80907)

----- (

qD tpD )

(Pi-Pwj)qD(tpD) qD(tpD)

3 1

1 = - (lnreD - 4" ) + 2 (lnt pD + 0.80907)

- 2 (lnD.t D + 0.80907). . ............ (20)

Pi - P ws (D.t D ) 1

- 1 t

(Pi -Pwj )qD (tpD) qD (tpD) = - (ln~ +ln7r+1.5+0.80907)

2 reD

1

- 2lln(tPD+D.tD) +0.80907j 1

= 2 (lntpDA +3.4538), ............. (26)

1

+ 2In [(tpD + D.t D ) I D.t Dl or

1 1 47rkh (p* - jJ)

- - - (lntpD +0.80907) - - - - - = (lntpDA +3.4538) ........ (27)

qD(tpD) 2 qtp/l

1 This result is identical to the equation for the

= 2In[(tPD+MD)/D.tDj. . ......... (21)

Matthews et at. 12 curves for determining the average

pressure in a closed-boundary circular reservoir

Rearranging,

produced at a constant rate for tDA >0.1. Using Eqs.

q(t )/l A-9 and A-tO, a similar derivation shows that the

P ws (D.t) =p* - ~ In[ (tp + D.t) I D.tj, ... (22)

Matthews-Brons-Hazebroek method is valid for

pressure buildup after constant-pressure production

where

for closed reservoirs of arbitrary shape:

Pi-P*

m

(p i - P wj) q D (t pD ) q D (t pD) jJ=p* - 2 (lntpDA + InCA) ............ (28)

1

-2 (lntpD +0.80907). . .............. (23)

Example

Eq. 23 can be used to determine static pressure Well A was produced at a constant bottomhole

correction curves analogous to those derived by pressure for 1 year. At the time of shut-in,

110 SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JOURNAL

TABLE 5 - FLUID AND FORMATION PROPERTIES FOR 104r---------~----------~--------__,

BUILDUP TEST EXAMPLE

/l = 65 cp (0.065 Pa s) 3

B = 1.2 RB/STB (1.2 res m /stock-tank m 3 )

ct = 15x106 psi- 1 (2.2x10- 9 Pa- 1 )

fw = 0.33 ft (0.10 m)

<I> = 0.23

h = 130 ft(40 m)

tp +t:.t tp + t:.t Q.

'i

t:.t Pws t:.p -- I

000 0

(hours) (psig) (psi) t:.t t:.t

~,02~op:

0 41 0 o \S:A:T OF

0.1 75 34 87,600 624,413 SEMILOG STRAIGHT

0.25 110 69 35,041 249,766 LINE

0.5 112 133 17,521 124,883

1 202 161 8,761 62,442

2 249 208 4,381 31,222

3 272 231 2,921 20,815

5 295 254 1,753 12,489

7 302 261 1,252 8,921

10 310 269 877 6,245

20 319 278 439 3,123 Llt (hr.) 10 102

30 330 284 293 2,082

50 340 292 176 1,250 Fig. 4 - Log-log graph of buildup pressures for Example

WeIIA.

(17 126 m 3 ) and the flow rate was measured at 41.4 2 3

BID (7_62 x 10- 6 m 3 Is)_ The well was located in the

10 10 10

area. Additional data are provided in Table 5. '00

ij=Np/tp

~ 400

....................... (29) <In,)no "ri/qTI<'\

less than ij, suggesting that the well flow rate was

undergoing exponential decline at the time of the

test. ['I hr

early shut-in pressures are controlled by afterflow

effects. Since the maximum shut-in time of 100 hours

is much less than the flow time of 8,760 hours, the Fig. 5 - Horner graphs of buildup test data using actual

and corrected flow times.

log-log graph can be compared with graphs of

conventional drawdown solutions. Deviation from

0

the 45 line on the log-log graph suggests that a

semilog straight line will result for all data with Llt

greater than 3 hours. The semilog graphs in Fig. 5

exhibit the expected straight line. From the slope, the

formation permeability is determined to be

k= 162.6 qfBp, 162.6(41.4)(1.2)(65)

mh (44)(130)

= 92.5 md. . ............. (30)

Llt = 1 hour provides a value for PI hr = 264 psig (1.82

MPa). Thus, the well bore skin factor can be

calculated as

m p,ctr w

....................... (31)

FEBRUARY 1981 III

The static pressure for Well A is determined from slope of Horner buildup graph

p*: cumulative production, L 3

m dimensionless cumulative production,

jJ=p* - - (lnt pDA + InCA)' ............ (32) N p /27rchr w 2 (Pi -Pwj)

2

P pressure, m/Lt 2

For the square drainage area, C A = 30.88. After 1 p* extrapolated pressure on Horner buildup

year of production, graph, m/Lt2

0.OO0264kt P volumetric average reservoir pressure,

tpDA = =0.137. . ............ (33) m/Lt2

fJ-ct A

Pi initial reservoir pressure, m/Lt2

Hence, jJ = 406 psig (2.80 MPa). Finally, by material PwD dimensionless well bore pressure,

balance, 27fkh(Pi -Pwj) /qfJ-

Pwj flowing bottomhole pressure, m/Lt2

P ws bottomhole pressure after shut-in, m/Lt2

q production rate, L 3 It

The initial reservoir pressure is determined from qD dimensionless production rate,

=p+ ~ =441 psig (3.04 MPa) ...... (35)

qfJ-/27fkh (Pi - Pwj)

Pi re reservoir radius, L

cthA

reD dimensionless reservoir radius, r e/r w

The graph in Fig. 5, using the Horner corrected rw wellbore radius, L

flowtime t;

=Np/q, has the same values for the t time

slope and PI hr but has a different value for p*. tD dimensionless time, kt / fJ-cr w 2

However, since tp production time, t

k N t* = Horner corrected production time, t

t D,A - - - ~ =0.976, ............. (36)

p rt - fJ-CA q l.t = shut-in time, t

fJ- = fluid viscosity, miLt

then T = variable of integration

m = porosity

jJ=p* - - (lnt;DA + InCA )

2 Acknowledgments

=406 psig(2.80 MPa) .................. (37) Portions of this study were completed in fulfillment

of degree requirements for graduate study at

The value for p* exceeds Pi in this case, but the Stanford U. Financial assistance was provided by

calculated results are identical using either method U.S. DOE Grant 1673500 to the Stanford

for plotting the data. Geothermal Program. Several persons gave helpful

The method of analysis proposed by Jacob and assistance and advice freely. We give special thanks

Lohman is grossly in error for closed systems in to Heber Cinco-Ley for his excellent suggestions.

exponential decline. Use of the average flow rate

instead of the last flow rate causes the permeability to References

be overestimated by more than 600%. I. Horner, D.R.: "Pressure Build-Up in Wells," Proc., Third

World Pet. Cong., The Hague (1951) Sec. II, 503-523,

Conclusions Presssure Analysis Methods, SPE Reprint Series, Society of

Pressure buildup analysis for wells produced at Petroleum Engineers, Dallas (1967) 9, 25-43.

2. Odeh, A.S. and Nabor, G.W.: "The Effect of Production

constant pressure can be done using simple History on Determination of Formation Characteristics From

modifications of conventional techniques derived for Flow Tests," J. Pet. Tech. (Oct. 1976) 1343-1350; Trans.,

wells produced at constant flow rate. Early transient AIME,237.

behavior is analyzed best by type-curve matching. 3. Odeh, A.S. and Selig, F.: "Pressure Build-Up Analysis,

Variable-Rate Case," J. Pet. Tech. (July 1963) 790-794;

The Horner buildup method using the last flow rate Trans., AIME, 228.

and the actual flow time tp is valid and, in most 4. Odeh, A.S. and Jones, L.G.: "Two-Rate Flow Test, Variable-

cases, will produce a correct value for the reservoir Rate Case-Application to Gas-Lift and Pumping Wells," J.

permeability. Pet. Tech. (Jan. 1974) 93-99; Trans., AIME, 257.

The Jacob and Lohman method using the average 5. Jacob, C.E. and Lohman, S.W.: "Nonsteady Flow to a Well

of Constant Drawdown in an Extensive Aquifer," Trans.,

flow rate is less accurate and is not recommended. AGU (Aug. 1952) 559-569.

The extrapolation of the semilog straight line in the 6. Clegg, M.W.: "Some Approximate Solutions of Radial Flow

Horner buildup graph to infinite shut-in time gives a Problems Associated with Production at Constant Well

pressure p* which can be used to determine static Pressure," Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (March 1967) 31-42; Trans.,

AIME,240.

reservoir pressure from the method by Matthews et 7. Sandrea, R.: "An Evaluation of Horner's Approximation in

at. Pressure Buildup Analysis," U. Nacional de Mexico, Mexico

City (1971).

Nomenclature 8. Fetkovich, M.J.: "Decline Curve Analysis Using Type

B formation volume factor, dimensionless Curves," J. Pet. Tech. (June 1980) 1065-1077.

9. Tsarevich, K.A. and Kuranov, I.F.: "Calculation of the Flow

ct total compresibility, Lt 2 /m Rates for the Center Well in a Circular Reservoir Under

h reservoir thickness, L Elastic Conditions," Problems oj Reservoir Hydrodynamics,

k reservoir absolute permeability, L 2 Part I, Leningrad (1966) 9-34.

10. Stehfest, H.: "Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms," _ 1

Communications of the ACM(Jan. 1970) 13, No. 1,47-49.

II. Ehlig-Economides, c.A.: "Transient Rate Decline and

NpD (s) = -In-r-D---3-/-4 2/reD2 ]

e

Pressure Buildup for Wells Produced at Constant Pressure," s[ +s

lnreD-3/4

PhD dissertation, Stanford U., Stanford, CA (March 1979).

12. Matthews, C.S., Brons, F., and Hazebroek, P.: "A Method ........................... (A-6)

for Determination of Average Pressures in a Bounded

Reservoir," Trans., AIME (1954) 201,182-191.

13. van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: "The Application of the As before, taking the inverse Laplace transform

Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs," results in

Trans., AIME (1949) 186, 305-324. reD 2 [ - 21rtDAI (lnreD- 3/4) ]

14. Ferris, J., Knowles, D.B., Brown, R.H., and Stallman, R.W.: NpD(tD) = -2- l-e .

"Theory of Aquifer Tests," Water Supply Paper 1536E,

USGS (1962) 109.

15. Hurst, W., Clark, J.D., and Brauer, E.B.: "The Skin Effect

. .......................... (A-7)

in Producing Wells," 1. Pet. Tech. (Nov. 1969) 1483-1489;

Trans., AIME, 246. for tDA <0.1. Fig. 2 is a graph of cumulative

PJoduction vs. time.

For a closed drainage area of arbitrary shape:

APPENDIX A

1 4A

Rate Decline and Cumulative Production PwD (tD) = 27rtDA + -In 2" (A-8)

2 'YCArw

Function for a Well Produced at Constant By arguments similar to those given above, it was

Pressure From the Center of a Closed- shown in Ref. 11 that

Boundary Reservoir

The function presented by Fetkovich 8 for the ex-

ponentially declining rate case resulting from a ), (A-9)

constant-pressure production period in a closed-

boundary reservoir contains a small error. The

correct function is derived from the expression for

pseudosteady-state pressure drawdown resulting and

from constant-rate production. This expression for a

=~

closed-boundary circular reservoir is given by

NpD(tD) [1-exp ( -47rtDA

27rr w

PwD (tD) =2t D lreD 2 + lnreD - 3/4 ....... (A-I)

lIn 4A

'YCAr w

2)] ............. (A-lO)

Laplace transformation results in

for tDA >t

- pssD .

_ 2 (lnreD-3/4)

Pwd(s) = --2-2 + --=~--.:. ...... (A-2) Replacing r w by r w ' = r we -s corrects for a non-

reD S S zero skin factor.

From the ~rinciple of superposition, van Everdingen

and Hurst 3 showed that APPENDlXB

_ 1

sPwD (s)NpD (s) = ""2' ............... (A-3) Calculation of Pressure Buildup After

s Constant -Pressure Production

SinceNpD(s) =qD(s)/s, When the flow rate has not begun to decline ex-

ponentially during constant-pressure production, Eq.

1

---2~--' .. (A-4) 6 can be approximated by

2/reD p. -P ( .M) rtDJ

-_..!:=::--+s

InreD -3/4 1 ws =1+ J qD (r)p'wD (tpD

Pi-Pwf tpD

Taking the inverse Laplace transform,

1 -21rt DA I(lnreD-3/4)

qD (tD) + lnreD _ 3/4 e

...................... (A-5)

were defined with 112 in place of the 3/4. The 'p wD(1 00) =11 (tDJ)' .............. (B-1)

beginning of the exponential decline period is at

t DA = 0.1. Fig. 1 shows the corrected exponential rate where tDJ -tpD +l:1t<tDN= (tpss),tD=I:lt D , and

decline type curve. qD(tD) -qD(tD I )<o>Ois arbitrarily small.

1 1+

From Eqs. A-2 and A-3, When.o was chosen to be 0.0005, the computed

FEBRUARY 1981 113

values for lPi -Pws (~tD) ]/[ (Pi -Pwj)qD (tpD)j vs. for tpD <tDN<tD and ~tD >tDN .

log[(t;D+~tD)/~tD] were within less than 1070 of For very long flow periods,

the values for (pws)D(M D ) vs. log

[(tPD+~tD)/~tD] for the constant-rate case. That Pi - P ws (t) =1- 12 (t D - t DN )

is, the solution for pressure buildup after constant- Pi-Pwj

pressure production matched the constant-rate

solution. + [e-a(tD-tDN ) _e-atPDJ . . . . . . . . . (B-4)

When the flow rate is declining exponentially, if

~tD <t DN, Eq. 6 becomes for tpD >tDN , ~tD >tDN , and

Pi -Pws (~t)

p. -P

I WS

(M)

== 1 - I I (t DN) _

~tD-tDN

Y- I

-'---"'--- = 1- 12 (tD) .............. (B-5)

Pi-Pwj

Pi-Pwj 0

for tpD >tDN and ~tD <tDN .

. (eay-1/4Y)dy= 1- II (tDN) - 12 (tD - tDN) Sandrea 7 showed that 12 (tD ) can be ap-

proximated by

............................... (B-2)

for tpD < tDN <tD and ~tD < tDN' where

y=tpD+~tD-7 and a=2Iln(4AI'yCA T w 2 ). The

integrand represents the product of the exponential-

rate-decline function and the integrand of the ex- ........... (B-6)

ponential integral solution, or PwD'

For very long shut-in times,

where " is the exponential of Euler's constant,

,,=1.781 ....

SI Metric Conversion Factor

~

tD-tDN

-a e- aT d7 psi, psig x 6.894 757 E - 03 MPa

tDN

= 1 - I I (t DN) - 12 (t D - t DN ) SPEJ

Original manuscript received in Society of Petroleum Engineers office March

+ [e-a(tD-tDN) _e-atDNJ . . . . . . . . (B-3) 5, 1979. Paper accepted for publication Nov. 29, 1979. Revised manuscript

received Oct. 14, 1980. Paper (SPE 7985) first presented at the SPE 1979

California Regional Meeting, held in Ventura, April 1820.

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