0 visualizações

Enviado por sdetov

- Measurements and Instrumentation Test Examples
- DD CEN ISO TS 12780-2-2007
- 01 Chapter1 Csound Book
- LabVIEW Sound and Vibration Analysis User Manual (2007)
- digital signal processing
- IJCCMS
- ijccms
- Atp to Mathcad[1]
- 0922765001121243194
- T400
- CG Animation
- Signals and Systems
- ELG4112L305.pdf
- Lab Modicom 2
- NI Tutorial 3000 En
- Multi Rate
- Anti Ali A
- PAN Syllabus 3900 2013Fall
- Control System Commissioning for Enhanced Building Operations.pdf
- 0107

Você está na página 1de 13

Solutions

time at the beginning of the exam

maximum grade. The number of points is indicated in front

of each question separately.

A pocket calculator will be provided.

The assistants are not allowed to answer technical questions

and you are not permitted to use any electronic devices

(exception is the pocket calculator provided officially).

Important: Use only these prepared sheets for your solutions. You may

ask for extra sheets if you need more space.

Page 2 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

You have to develop a controller for an instable plant, which will run on a microprocessor

allowing for a sampling time of T = 0.3 s. The spectra of the plant, of the disturbance and of

the measurement noise are shown in Figure 1. The plant has one unstable pole at + = 1. The

reference for the control is r(t) = 0.

20

|P|

|D|

10 |N|

unstable pole

0

Magnitude (dB)

-10

-20

-30

-40

-1 0 1 2

10 10 10 10

(rad/s)

Figure 1: Spectra of the plant (P), the disturbance (D) and the measurement noise (N)

a) (1 point) Draw the block diagram of a generic, complete discrete-time control system,

including interfaces, filters, and all relevant signals.

b) (2 points) Can you do controller emulation in the case at hand? Justify your answer.

d) (1 points) Based on your answers to the previous questions, what plant model do you use

to design your controller?

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 3

Solution 1

d(t)

r(t) = 0 y(t)

AAF ADC P DAC Plant

n(t)

b) It is generally advisable to have the crossover frequency of the loop gain centered between

the crossover frequencies of the disturbance and the noise, which is at approximately 8 rad/s.

Also, the control system should be at least one octave (better: one decade) faster than the

fastest unstable pole of the plant. This requirement also forces a crossover frequency of at

least 8rad/s.

The sampling frequency is s = 2 T 21 /s, and thus only 2.6 times faster than the

rad

required crossover frequency. For emulation to possibly work well, a factor of approximately

10 is required. Therefore, we cannot do emulation.

c) Yes. Even if the control system has a steep descent after the crossover frequency (and thus

the sampled signal does not have substantial energy at frequencies higher than the Nyquist

frequency of roughly 10.5rad/s), an anti-aliasing filter (AAF) is still needed to attenuate

the noise.

d) The four combinations of emulation/discrete controller design and with/without AAF are

possible. For emulation, the continuous representation of the plant is used when designing

the (continuous) controller. In the case of real discrete-time controller design, the plant

(and possibly the AAF) have to be discretized first. All four cases are listed here, the

correct one based on the answers to b) and c) is the discrete-time design with AAF.

n n o o

AAF (s)P (s)

with AAF (1 z 1 )Z L1 s AAF (s) eT s P (s)

t=kT

n n o o

P (s)

no AAF (1 z 1 )Z L1 s eT s P (s)

t=kT

Page 4 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

For a continuous-time plant model, an engineer obtained the following continuous-time con-

troller:

2s + 1

C(s) = ,

s+

whereas R is a tuning factor.

a) (2 points) The engineer implements the controller on a microprocessor using the Euler

backward emulation approach. What is the resulting transfer function C(z) for a generic

sampling time T (T R+ )?

b) (3 points) What is the range of the tuning factor to produce an asymptotically stable

discrete-time controller using the Euler backward emulation approach?

controller C(s) and an asymptotically stable discrete-time controller using the Euler back-

ward emulation approach?

Solution 2

z1

s= .

Tz

Inserting this equation into the controller C(s) yields

2 z1

Tz + 1 z(2 + T ) 2

C(z) = = .

Tz +

z1 z(1 + T ) 1

b) The controller C(z) is asymptotically stable if its pole zp fulfills the condition |zp | < 1.

The pole zp is obtained from the equation z(1 + T ) 1 = 0, i.e. zp = 1

1+T . From the

condition above, must satisfy

1

1 < < 1.

1 + T

c) For C(s) being asymptotically stable, its pole sp = must lie in the left half of the

complex plane, i.e. Re{sp } < 0 > 0.

Together with the results from b), the condition on is that > 0.

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 5

a) (3 points) Derive the discrete-time transfer function of the following continuous-time plant:

1

P (s) = (1)

s2 + 3s + 2

Use a zero-order hold element and assume the sampling time T to be known.

Introduce a state vector x and find the matrices F , G, C, D describing the state-space

representation of the discretized system:

yk = Cxk + Duk (3)

Solution 3

can be done by evaluating the following formula:

z1 1

P (z) = Z L1 P (s) (4)

z s t=kT

1 1 A B C

P (s) = = + + (5)

s s(s + 1)(s + 2) s s+1 s+2

A(s + 1)(s + 2) + Bs(s + 2) + Cs(s + 1)

= (6)

s(s + 1)(s + 2)

s (A + B + C) + s(3A + 2B + C) + 2A

2

= (7)

s(s + 1)(s + 2)

Comparing coefficients of the numerator obviously yields A = 0.5 and solving the remaining

two equations for B and C results in B = 1, C = 0.5. By inserting these values we obtain

a transfer function in a form suitable for direct transformation:

1 0.5 1 0.5

P (s) = + (8)

s s s+1 s+2

Using the transformation table results in:

z1 z z z

P (z) = 0.5 + 0.5 (9)

z z 1 z eT z e2T

introduced:

z1 z z z

P (z) = 0.5 + 0.5 (10)

z z1 za z a2

Page 6 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

P (z) = (11)

(z a)(z a2 )

z(0.5a2 a + 0.5) + (0.5a3 a2 + 0.5a) Y (z)

= = (12)

z 2 z(a2 + a) + a3 U (z)

b) Based on the discrete-time transfer function derived in the foregoing question, the in-

put/output system description is readily obtained by applying the shift property of the Z

transformation:

yk+2 (a2 + a)yk+1 + a3 yk = (0.5a2 a + 0.5)uk+1 + (0.5a3 a2 + 0.5a)uk . (14)

| {z }

=:k

By looking at equation (16), the system can be described using two states k = yk and k

as designated (which contains all information from the previous step), yielding:

k+1 = a k + (0.5a a + 0.5a)uk ,

3 3 2

(18)

2

(a + a) 1 0.5a2 a + 0.5

xk+1 = xk + uk (19)

a3 0 0.5a3 a2 + 0.5a

| {z } | {z }

F G

yk = 1 0 xk + |{z} 0 uk . (20)

| {z }

D

C

c) The poles of the system determine whether it is stable or not. There are three ways to

calculate the poles of the discrete-time system:

ii) Zeros of the denominator of P (z) calculated above (most direct way);

iii) Calculate the poles of the continuous-time plant (e.g. from its transfer function P (s))

s

and use iz = ei T to obtain the poles of the discrete-time system.

All three ways lead to 1 = a = eT and 2 = a2 = e2T . Since T > 0, it can be concluded

that |1,2 | < 1 and hence the system is asymptotically stable.

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 7

y(t) = x(t) + n(t)

x(t) = 2 sin(0 t) + 1 sin(1 t)

n(t) = 0.5 sin(n t)

with: 0 = 20 rad

s , 1 = 30 s and n = 70 s

rad rad

(Use the first prepared frame on the next page)

ii) (2 points) Now assume that the signal is sampled with the sampling time T = 40

s.

Calculate the sampling frequency as well as the Nyquist frequency. Draw vertical

lines to indicate both frequencies. Sketch the amplitude spectrum of the sampled

signal |Y ()|. Indicate where the amplitude spectrum of the original signal |Y ()|

is distorted by the aliasing of the noise.

(Use the second prepared frame on the next page)

To avoid aliasing, the following idealized filter F is placed before the sampling

1

|F ()|

0.5

0

F F + 1

s ]

[ rad

The filter parameters are > 0 R and F > 0 R.

i) (1 point) Now apply the filter F to the signal y(t). Use the filter parameters =

0.05 rad

s

and F = 40 rad

s . Draw the magnitude of the filter |F ()| and the amplitude

spectrum |YF ()| of the filtered signal yF (t).

(Use the third prepared frame on the next page)

ii) (1 point) Now assume that the filtered signal yF (t) from question c) i) is also sampled

with sampling time T = 40

s. Sketch the amplitude spectrum of the filtered and

sampled signal |YF ()|.

(Use the fourth prepared frame on the next page)

iii) (1 Point) You want to use the filter described in b) i) for another unknown signal.

What is the maximum sampling time you have to use in order to suppress aliasing

completely?

Page 8 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

2.5

1.5

|Y ()|

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

1.5

|Y ()|

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

2

|F()| , |YF ()|

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

1.5

|YF ()|

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

[ rad

s

]

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 9

Solution 4

a) i) (1 point) The frequencies i and amplitudes Ai can be read directly from the signal

definition:

0 = 20 rad

s , 1 = 30 s and n = 70 s

rad rad

A0 = 2, A1 = 1 and An = 0.5

2 rad

S = = 80

T s

and the Nyquist frequency N is

1 rad

N = S = 40

2 s

The sampling has the following effect on the sampled signal: The signal y(t) gets

superimposed with infinitely many copys of the signal yn (t), with each of their am-

T respectively. This creates the signal components at

plitude spectra shifted by 2n

the frequencies = {10, 50, 60} rad

s . The alias of the noise at = 10 s < N lies in

rad

b) i) (1 point) The filter suppresses all signal components above 60 rads . The noise is

suppressed, whereas the two signal components at frequencies lower than the Nyquist

frequency are left untouched.

ii) (1 point) Now, that there are no more components above the Nyquist frequency

(noise) in the filtered signal, no aliases appear for frequencies lower than the Nyquist

frequency. In the frequency range of interest the signal is not distorted anymore.

iii) (1 Point) The filter cuts off all signal content above a frequency of 60 rad

s . This is the

lower limit for the Nyquist frequency N :

1 rad

N,min = S,min = 60

2 s

2

Tmax = = = s

S,min N,min 60

Page 10 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

2.5

1.5

|Y ()|

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

Nyquist Limit Sampling Frequency

2

1.5

|Y ()|

1 Alias of noise

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

2

|F()| , |YF ()|

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2.5

Nyquist Limit Sampling Frequency

2

1.5

|YF ()|

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

[ rad

s

]

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 11

You have to design a discrete controller C(z) for the plant P (z) and the given feedback structure

in figure 3.

reference output

C(z) P (z)

z +

P (z) = , with 6= 0, 6= 0, , R, and T = 1s

z 2 + z +

a) Root-Locus Design:

Assume the controller is C(z) = kp , with kp R+

i) (2 Points) Where do the poles of the transfer function of the closed-loop control

L(z)

system T (z) = 1+L(z) converge to for kp = 0 and for kp ?

ii) (2 Points) Assume = 1.05, = 0.45, = 1.2, = 0. Figure 4 (next page) shows

the Nyquist diagram of the plant P (z). Does the Nyquist diagram ensure stability

of T (z) for kp = 1? Give reasons for your answer.

b) Plant Inversion:

that the transfer function T (z) becomes: T =

0.5 2

0.4

A 0.3 T =

T (z) = 2 , with A, B R

10

z + Bz + 0.1 0.2

0.1

Nice

Find a pair of numerical values for A and B such 0 Pole

that all poles of T (z) are inside the nice pole -0.1

Region

-0.3

-0.4 = 0.5

-0.5

ii) (2 Points) Determine the controller C(z) which realizes T (z) for the plant P (z) with

the poles in the nice pole region and the steady state gain of T (z) equal to one. Does

C(z) contain an open integrator?

c) MIMO-tuning:

Assume now, that a discrete-time plant of the following form is given:

Page 12 Sample Examination Digital Control Systems

1.5

0.5

Imaginary Axis

P z = ej(2)

p = {1, 0}

0 =0

P z = ej

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0

Real Axis

observer (observer gain H) to control this system. To find the gains K and H, he solved

the LQR problem for {F ,G,Q, I} and {F T ,C T ,GGT , I}, respectively. He proposed

three different designs which only differ in and . The poles of these designs are given

in the plots below, with: (*= F , o= F GK, += F HC).

1 1 1

0 0 0

Im

Im

Im

-1 -1 -1

-1 0 1 -1 0 1 -1 0 1

Re Re Re

Note: Please answer the following questions with a,b,c or none and explain why.

i) (1 point) Which of the designs has the slowest state-feedback-controller?

ii) (1 point) Which design has the slowest state-observer?

Solution 5

p

( + kp ) ( + kp )2 4( + kp )

zp,1,2 =

2

Sample Examination Digital Control Systems Page 13

kp = 0: The poles of the closed-loop system T (z) are equal to the poles of the plant

P (z):

p

2 4

kp = 0 zp,1,2 =

2

kp : The poles of the closed-loop system T (z) have to fulfill the following

equation:

2

zp,1,2 + zp,1,2 + + kp (zp,1,2 + ) = 0

For kp the poles of T (z) move to the zeros of the plant P (z):

kp zp,1 sign() , zp,2

ii)

...

P (z) =

z2 + z +

p

2

poles: zp,1,2 = = {0, } = {0, 1.2}

2

P (z) has one unstable pole and the gain P (ej ) for [, 2 ] encloses the critical

point -1 one time ccw. According to the Nyquist criterion the closed-loop system

with kp = 1 is stable.

b) i) Steady state unity gain condition:

A = 1 + B + 0.1 (21)

B B 2 0.4

Poles: p1,2 = 2

make a simple choice and choose B = 0.4 to obtain a double real pole at 20.4 =

0.3162 which is clearly inside the nice pole region and calculate A = 1 0.4+0.1 =

0.4657.

ii)

1 T (z) z 2 + z + A

C(z) = = 2

P (z) 1 T (z) z + z + Bz + 0.1 A

an open integrator means a pole at z = 1. Looking at the denominator we obtain

the condition:

(z + ) (z 2 + Bz + 0.1 A)|z=1 = 0

+ B + 0.1 A + + B + 0.1 A = 0

(1 + B + 0.1 A) + (1 + B + 0.1 A) = 0

And from equation 21 follows that 1 + B + 0.1 A = 0. The controller C(z) therefore

contains an open integrator.

c) i) b) is the slowest state-feedback-controller because this design has its eigenvalues of

F GK in the slowest location (compared to the other designs) in the complex

plane.

ii) c) is the slowest state-observer because this design has its eigenvalues of F HC in

the slowest location (compared to the other designs) in the complex plane.

- Measurements and Instrumentation Test ExamplesEnviado porrthinchey
- DD CEN ISO TS 12780-2-2007Enviado porsandeep
- 01 Chapter1 Csound BookEnviado porEric Maestri
- LabVIEW Sound and Vibration Analysis User Manual (2007)Enviado porJefferson Martinez
- digital signal processingEnviado pordebd1989
- ijccmsEnviado porijccms
- Atp to Mathcad[1]Enviado porERIKA_UNI
- 0922765001121243194Enviado porPablo Yop
- IJCCMSEnviado porijccms
- T400Enviado porIvanBrkić
- CG AnimationEnviado porKavyaKathuria
- Signals and SystemsEnviado porbhaskar_mishra
- ELG4112L305.pdfEnviado porcleytonmarques1991
- Lab Modicom 2Enviado porIzzati Atiqah
- NI Tutorial 3000 EnEnviado porjakk234
- Multi RateEnviado porvkrekha
- Anti Ali AEnviado porsaske969
- PAN Syllabus 3900 2013FallEnviado porEliranPenkar
- Control System Commissioning for Enhanced Building Operations.pdfEnviado porstuxion
- 0107Enviado porAwang Melati
- the digital-decimation filter.pdfEnviado porMoh Zainal Abidin
- 1_2MHz_Wander.report_2018-11-29T01.15.45Enviado porDuy Le
- chapter_11.pptEnviado porJunaid Mughol
- 67ykhh_iEnviado porMohamed Oug
- chap1-2Enviado porFranch Maverick Arellano Lorilla
- 283080907-CAT-II.rtfEnviado porzeroseya
- Tao AdaptiveEnviado porCristian David
- AD73322LEnviado porAnirban Mitra
- Panagopoulos Et Al-2000-International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear ControlEnviado porSoumyadeep Bose
- Jig IpjEnviado porKarol Rios Villa

- week3 (1)Enviado porhgfhgfhf
- MUMBAI UNIVERSITY SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS UNIVERSITY QUESTIONSEnviado porshilpa
- Matched Filter Receiver PrintEnviado porSwet Patel
- DSP2Enviado porVilly Cenita
- Lecture 7 -Data Acquisition Basics and Intro to NI-ELVIS.pptEnviado porRohit Kumar Singh
- CentroidEnviado porDanny Cristiano Madrid
- Nyquist CriterionEnviado porleorom1234
- Signal And System Sampling.pdfEnviado porMajid Mehmood
- AD conversionEnviado porpavlestepanic9932
- exam94.psEnviado porAnjana Singh
- BloodEnviado porRazvan Craciunescu
- 5 UnitEnviado porசுந்தர் சின்னையா
- Pulse Code ModulationEnviado porPiyush Sahni
- EC2204QBEnviado porSridhar Raman
- Notes on Power Spectral Density (PSD) Estimation Using MatlabEnviado porPhilip Wang
- Modeling and Analysis of Digital Control SystemsEnviado porRonald George
- UIA CorrelationEnviado porjubora
- 39862_F0Enviado porPinky Guinto
- Random ConvolutionEnviado porazn
- The Noise Power Spectrum of CT ImagesEnviado porAlejandra Marquesin
- Delay Filters FractionEnviado pornitrosc16703
- S & S 2 marks (1)Enviado porpriyajega
- 3rd SEM POC IT Question BankEnviado porHusamHasko
- Unit4-SUEnviado porreenarathod
- DSP MathematicsEnviado porMasterbrain Brain
- A Comparison of Spotlight SAR Image Formation TechniquesEnviado poruranub
- Audio Compression notes(Data compression)Enviado porinfinityankit
- Long Report Dsp Tms320c6713 Input and Output SignalEnviado porNajwa Ishak
- 4 Ad ConversionEnviado porraduga
- ch21Enviado porAnonymous 2bfUtt