Você está na página 1de 15


00 Tutorial 11


Goals of this Tutorial

Understand utility methods
equals(), toString(), hashCode()
Understand HashTables
what a HashTable is
how to use a HashTable
Understand hash codes
what is a hash code?
what makes a good hash code?
The Object Class
Object class methods:
public boolean equals (Object obj) Indicates whether another
object is equal to this one.

public String toString() Returns a string

representation of the object.

public int hashCode() Returns a hash code value

for the object.
The equals() Method

public class Student {

int id;
public Student(int id){
this.id = id;
public static void main(String args[]){
Student s1 = new Student(12); // student id is 12
Student s2 = new Student(12); // student id is also 12
Student s3 = s1; // reference same object
s1.equals(s2); // what will default equals() method return?
s1.equals(s3); // what will default equals() method return?

QUESTION: how do you make equals() return true if two students

objects have the same ID? (Hint: override the default equals()
The equals() Method (contd)
public class Student {
public Student(int id){
this.id = id;
public boolean equals (Object obj) {
if (obj != null && obj instanceof Student)
return id == ((Student) obj).id;
return false;
public static void main(String args[ ]){
Student s1 = new Student(12); // student id is 12
Student s2 = new Student(12); // student id is also 12
Student s3 = s1;
s1.equals(s2); // what does it return now?
s1.equals(s3); // what does it return now?
The toString() Method
public class Student {
int id;
public Student(int id){
this.id = id;
//we override the default toString() method
public String toString()
{ return new String ("ID: " + id);}
public static void main(String args[]) {
Student s = new Student(12);
System.out.println(s); // ID: 12
System.out.println ("Student " + s); //
Student ID: 12
System.out.println (s.toString()); // ID: 12
hashCode() method

hashCode(): returns reasonably uniform

distribution of integers based on object

equals(): returns true if the objects data

are equal.

Note: if two objects a and b are equal

(a.equals(b) returns true), then their

hashCodes must have the same value.

Recollection of our collections

item 1 item 2 item 3
elem[2] linked list


Pop quiz: what is the average search
time for each of these? Worst case
search time? We want to improve
the average search time.
Contents of a bucket are a collection
of objects whose keys hash to the same value
Bucket index is the (0 in this case). Can be a linked list, array,
hash code of the key Vector, binary tree, etc.

In general,
bucket [0] Obj 1 Obj 2 null
objects in the
bucket [1] hash table have
bucket [2] two components:
a key, and a
value. The hash
bucket [n] Obj 2: key code is computed
on the key. The
Obj 2: value value is the data
that is stored. In
some cases, the
key and value will
be the same.
Super Simple Example
We will design hash table with the
following restrictions
Key is the same as the value
Can only hold Strings
Hash function is the length of the String
Always has just 5 buckets

Let's go through the file


In reality, it is often very difficult to come

up with a good hash code algorithm
hash codes should be evenly distributed
across the range of integers
if we are using the modulo operator (%) to
find the right bucket, the hash table should
use a prime number of buckets
hashCode (2)

What was wrong with our hash code

algorithm in the SuperSimpleHashTable?
Why was it okay?
Let's think about a hash code algorithm for
the Person class used in PS#9, and
Person (PS9 & 10)

public class Person {

String name;
int[] myProfile; // me
int[] yourProfile; // desired

public int hashCode() {

/* ? */
public boolean equals(Object o) { /* ? */
} }

You don't necessarily need these methods for PS#10;

we just use the Person class as an example.
Hash Table Questions
1. What would be the result if hashCode()
returned the same value for all objects?
2. How many objects can a hash table
3. What is the effect of adding objects to a
hash table if they are sorted vs. in
random order?
4. What can you say about a hash table
that has n buckets and 10n objects?

1. All objects would get stored in the same

bucket, making the hash table useless.
2. In theory, there is no limit. (In practice,
limited by memory and hard disk space.)
3. No effect. Hash tables do not store
objects in order.
4. It is very inefficient; there will necessarily
be many hash collisions. Load factor (#
objects/#buckets) should be between 0.5
and 1.