Você está na página 1de 33

OIL & GAS

Environmentally Assisted Fatigue and Fracture of


Offshore Pipelines Current Status and Future Needs
DNV GL Technology Week
November 2nd, 2016

Colum Holtam, Ramgo Thodla

Ungraded

1 DNV GL 2016 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER


Agenda

Introduction to pipeline engineering critical assessment (ECA)


Corrosion fatigue and fracture testing
Influence of key variables
Technical challenges
Representative material properties

Ungraded

2 DNV GL 2016
Introduction to Pipeline ECA

Ungraded

3 DNV GL 2016
BS 7910

Ungraded

4 DNV GL 2016
DNV-OS-F101 (Appendix A)

Requirements for ECA


Maximum longitudinal strain, l,nom, larger
than 0.4%
Aggressive (e.g. sour) environments

Standard ECA
Overmatching welds

Ungraded

5 DNV GL 2016
DNVGL-RP-F108 New RP for ECA (Coming Soon)

DNV-OS-F101 >> DNVGL-ST-F101


New fatigue and fracture limit state
in Section 5
DNV-RP-F108 >> DNVGL-RP-F108
RP for ECA
Appendix A from OS-F101
SENT testing guidance removed
BS 8571
Easier to update

Ungraded

6 DNV GL 2016
Principals of Fracture Mechanics

Equilibrium evaluation between:


The Crack Driving Force (CDF) (load)
The fracture toughness (capacity)

CrackDrivingForce(CDF) Fracture toughness(materialsresistance)

Who is the
strongest?

Analyses/Calculations Testing

CDF < CTODmat : Crack is stable


CDF CTODmat : Crack is unstable (fracture or crack growth)
Ungraded

DNV GL 2016

7
Fracture Mechanics Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA)
Distinguishing between what is safe and unsafe



Ungraded Failure Assessment Diagram used to model failure by fracture / plastic collapse
DNV GL 2016
Pipeline ECA
Crack growth modelled to calculate critical initial flaw sizes

Ungraded

9 DNV GL 2016
Static and Cyclic Stresses

Installation Fatigue
Extreme loads Thermal cycles
VIV (free spans)
VIM

TDP Top Weld


1.0E+08

1.0E+07

1.0E+06
Number of Cycles

1.0E+05

1.0E+04

1.0E+03

1.0E+02

1.0E+01

1.0E+00
4

6
2

10

-1

-1

-2

-2

-3

-3

-3

-4

-4

-5

-5

-5

-6

-6

-7

-7

-7

-8

-8
0-

4-

8-

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

52

56

60

64

68

72

76

80

84

Stress Range (MPa)

Ungraded

10 DNV GL 2016
Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness parameter


CTOD
K
J

Specimen type
Compact Tension (CT)
Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB)
Single Edge Notched Tension (SENT)

Ungraded

11 DNV GL 2016
Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis
Fracture mechanics used to model fatigue crack
growth through life
Fatigue crack growth rate law (C, m)

1

Ungraded

DNV GL 2016
12
Fracture Mechanics Software

FlawSizer (DNV GL internal software)


BS 7910
DNV-OS-F101 App. A
DNV-RP-F108

CRACKWISE (TWI commercial software)


BS 7910

Signal (Quest Integrity commercial software)


API/ASME 579
BS 7910

FEA
ABAQUS

Spreadsheets/MathCAD

Ungraded

DNV GL 2016
Corrosion Fatigue and Fracture
Testing

Ungraded

14 DNV GL 2016
Corrosion Fatigue and Fracture

Presence of H2S (sour service) and/or CO2 (sweet service) in production fluids can
reduce fracture toughness and increase fatigue crack growth rate
No standard/published guidance for assessment of environmentally assisted
fatigue and fracture of offshore pipelines
Several JIPs to develop test methods and data
Published data typically not available
Project specific testing often required

Ungraded

15 DNV GL 2016
Corrosion Fatigue and Fracture Testing

Ungraded

16 DNV GL 2016
Environmental Severity - ISO 15156-2 Domain Diagram

Ungraded

17 DNV GL 2016
Fatigue and Fracture Toughness in Aggressive Environments
Critical Factors
Environmental Variables Loading Variables
pH K (FCGR)
pH2S / pCO2 Frequency (FCGR)
Temperature K-rate (FT)
Inhibitors Loading Modes
Sample Geometry FCGR
CT vs. SENB vs. SENT Constant/Increasing/Decreasing K
Fully exposed vs Coated Constant R/Constant Kmax
Pre-soak duration FT
Shallow notch vs Deep notch Rising Displacement
Material issues Constant Load
Microstructure (PP/HAZ/WCL) Step Load
Strength Constant Displacement
Strain level (e.g. reeling installation) Constant K
Ungraded

DNV GL 2016

18
What is the impact of the different
test methods and variables on the
sour/sweet service fatigue crack
growth and fracture toughness
behavior of line pipe steel?

Ungraded

19 DNV GL 2016
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Effect of Frequency (Sour Service)

Parent Pipe
FCGR increases with
HAZ decreasing frequency and
WCL reaches a plateau
Data in triplicate is very
reproducible
KDFBS7910

10

As Fabricated FCGR of WCL samples is ~11x


5wt% NaCl above air
pH = 5
pH2S = 0.46psia FCGR of PP and HAZ is in the
RT range of about 20 to 30x.
-3/2
Kmax = 1150Nmm
-3/2
K = 1000Nmm
1 R = 0.13

1E-3 0.01 0.1 1


f (Hz)

Ungraded OMAE2015 - 42412


DNV GL 2016
20
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Effect of Environment (Sweet
Service)

Ungraded OMAE2013-10216
21 DNV GL 2016
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Effect of Inhibitor (Sour Acidizing
Service)
Tests performed in-situ in spent acid with
and without inhibitor with 0.21psia H2S
FCGR increases with decreasing frequency
With inhibitor
Maximum FCGR ~100x air
At 0.1Hz FCGR ~15x air
Without inhibitor
Maximum FCGR ~60x air
At 0.1Hz FCGR ~25x air
Difference in behavior may be associated
with higher corrosion rate in spent acid
without inhibitor causing crack tip blunting
and environmentally-induced closure due
to the build-up of voluminous corrosion
products inside the crack

Ungraded OMAE2016-54388
22 DNV GL 2016
Fracture Toughness Effect of Loading Rate (Sour Service)

Ungraded Corrosion2012-1577

23 DNV GL 2016
Fracture Toughness Effect of Loading Rate (Sour Service)

Ungraded
ISOPE2015-598

24 DNV GL 2016
Diffusion of Hydrogen - Hydrogen Profile in Uncoated and Coated
Samples

Back side of specimen

Back side of specimen


Crack Propagation Crack Propagation

Ungraded

25 DNV GL 2016
Fracture Toughness Effect of Coating (Sour Service)

Ungraded ISOPE2015-598
26 DNV GL 2016
Fracture Toughness Effect of Reeling (Sour Service)

200
5wt% NaCl Parent Pipe
pH = 5 HAZ
pH2S = 0.46psia WCL
150 K-rate: 0.05Nmm /s
-3/2
J0.2mm (N/mm)

100

50

0
As Fab

Intrados
Extrados

Ungraded OMAE2015 - 42413

27 DNV GL 2016
Technical Challenges

Ungraded

28 DNV GL 2016
Technical Challenges

Representative material properties in aggressive environments


Fracture toughness
Fatigue crack growth rate
Assessment clad/lined pipes
Installation method
Undermatching welds

Ungraded

29 DNV GL 2016
Loading Scenarios Lateral Buckling

Environmentally Assisted Crack Propagation Primary loading scenarios


Fatigue loading from pressure
Static Crack Growth transients
Controlled
Fatigue loading from thermal
Fatigue Controlled

transients
Load

Static loading associated with


long steady operations

Development of a single specimen


Ambient methodology to capture all of the
critical design parameters
Time

Ungraded

30 DNV GL 2016
FCGR Based on Average values of CGR

FCGR increases linearly


-3/2
with decreasing frequency.
Kmax = 1384Nmm
Plateau FCGR is about
H85400/R500
K = 519Nmm-3/2, R = 0.6
10x higher than the in-air
values.
1E-3
da/dN (mm/cycle)

Addition of hold times leads


H9000/R500

to a transition to a
constant CGR
H3600/R500

5wt% NaCl

H0/R50
H0/R500
pH = 3.5
1E-4 pH2S = 0.21psia
1000ppm Inh

In-Air Value - 3.910-5mm/s

1E-5 thold
1E-5 1E-4 1E-3 0.01 0.1
Frequency (Hz)
Ungraded

31 DNV GL 2016
Static Crack Growth Analysis
Fracture mechanics used to model static crack growth through life
Static crack growth rate law (C1, n(scc))

1
Ungraded

32 DNV GL 2016
Thank you

Questions?

Dr. Colum Holtam Dr. Ramgo Thodla


colum.holtam@dnvgl.com ramgopal.thodla@dnvgl.com
+1 281-396-1000 +1 614-761-1214

www.dnvgl.com

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

Ungraded

33 DNV GL 2016