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What is an At-Risk Student?

1. National Center for Education StatisticsStatistical Analysis Report 1997

Defined as: Those who had risk characteristics that increased their chances of dropping out of high school.
These included being from a single parent household, having an older sibling who dropped out of high
school, changing schools two or more times other than the normal progression (e.g., from elementary to
middle school), having C's or lower grades between sixth and eighth grades, being from a low
socioeconomic status(SES) family, or repeating an earlier grade.

At-risk students most differed from their counterparts not at risk in relation to their educational
aspirations and academic preparation.

2. ADVISING AT-RISK STUDENTS IN COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY SETTINGSCollege Student Journal,


2002

Defined as: Students who: are ethnic minorities, are academically disadvantaged, have disabilities, are of
low socioeconomic status, and are probationary students.

Is GPA alone enough?


Titos Model (indicating various factors of success)
What Other Criteria is being used?
1. Identifying atrisk students in videoconferencing and webbased distance education (Taylor and
Francis, 2009)

Nine indicators: Seven Predictors:


- Computer confidence - Age
- Enrollment encouragement - grade-point average,
- Financial stability - educational level
- Locus of control - hours worked per week
- Motivation - credit hours taken in the current
- Need for support semester
- Preparation for the course - Number of previous distance learning
- Study environment courses taken
- Tenacity - years out of college

2. Course Signals at Purdue: Using Learning Analytics to Increase Student SuccessApril 2012
(Might be conference paper)

A risk status has four components:


- Performance (points earned in course to date)
- Effort (interaction with Blackboard Vista)
- Prior academic history (academic preparation, high school GPA, and standardized test scores)
- Student characteristics (residency, age, or credits attempted)

3. Who Succeeds at University? Factors predicting academic performance in first year Australian
university students (Taylor and Francis, 2010)

Hypothetical Predictors:

- Higher grades in secondary school and well developed study skills


- Integration, commitment, satisfaction with university, social support, lack of financial difficulty,
and a clear career
- Psychological health
- High self-efficacy and optimism
- Full-time students with limited employment responsibilities