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Mid Term & Final Exam



One of the fundamental aspects of the Chinese civilization is their military culture. For an

extended period, the Chinese pursued the concepts non-war and shenzhan.' Non-war means

that war cannot be a means of solving problems, while Shenzhen is a Chinese word that means

being cautious of war.' Going by these concepts, the Chinese took war as a last resort and only

fought when it became inevitable. Chinese philosophers such as Mo Tzu and Confucius strongly

advocated against the war. Mo Tzu pointed out that attacking another country is the most

prominent injustice to the world. This position taken by Chinese philosophers is entirely different

from some Western military strategists and thinkers. For instance, Carl von Clausewitz, a famous

German military strategist argued that attainment of significant political goals was only attained

by military means. War is associated with bloodshed and destruction, and therefore Western

countries need to learn from the Chinese army philosophy about the need to avoid conflict at all


Question 2
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The Chinese cuisine is uniquely different from food from other cultures. There are two

major divisions of the Chinese food: the FAN and the CAI. The FAN consists of grains and other

starchy food. The CAI is comprised of meat and vegetable dishes. A balanced meal must have

balanced proportions of both FAN and CAI. The Chinese cuisine should have harmoniously

blended colors, aroma, shapes, and texture.

Question 3

Mao Tse-tung is remembered for advocating for self-strengthening of China. This,

according to Mao was to be achieved by activity, not passively. This ideology was Maos basis of

cementing Chinese nationalism. Mao recommended that the Chinese people toughen themselves

in a set of gymnastic exercises. From this philosophy, the Chinese evolved a nationalist thought

and blamed the Manchu dynasty for their problems. However, things did not change for the

better even after the Manchu dynasty was overthrown. As a result, the Chinese authorities sought

to look for other scapegoats, for instance, the alien class elements who had to be expelled.

Following the militarization of Tibet, His Holiness, Dalai Lama proposed a peaceful solution

whose recommendations included abandonment of Chinas population transfer policy which he

said threatened the Tibetans. He also called for respect of the Tibetan peoples rights and

democratic freedoms and the eventual transformation of the whole Tibet into a zone of peace.

The Chinese government rejected Dalais proposals. From this case study, it is necessary for

world leaders to listen to voices of reason for the sake of peace.

Question 4

Confucius, a Chinese philosopher, argued that humanity was the essential goodness of

love for others. The philosophy of Confucianism has been the guiding principle for recognition
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of the family as a basic social unit. Family values are prioritized in China in contrast to the US,

where divorce cases are rampant.

Question 5

There are fundamental lessons on respect, humility, and diplomacy from Matteo Riccis

experience in China. Ricci was a Jesuit missionary to China in the sixteenth century and is

widely remembered for his innovative approach to introducing Christianity to China. This was a

period when China was a closed country due to the declining Ming dynasty, and therefore

foreign powers were looked upon with suspicion. He befriended several Chinese authorities and

quickly learned and respected the Chinese culture. Ricci and his fellow missionaries were

allowed to enter and live in China in 1553. He achieved this due to his respect for the Chinese

culture and his humility.

Final Exam

Question 1

The Chinese were traditionally a feudal agricultural society. There are many poor

peasants in the Chinese rural landscape. The Chinese peasants invented many technical skills in

weaving, building houses, and boat making. For an extended period, the Chinese agricultural

techniques have mainly remained traditional based heavily on slash-and-burn cultivation for

many years.

Question 2

The Three Gorges Dam built along the Yangtze River is the most extensive integrated

water project in the world. Serious problems have started to develop from this project. These

include landslides, pollution, and flooding. Moreover, the controversial relocation of millions of
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people has resulted in social and political unrest in China. The rest of the world should learn

from this experience and be ready to carry out a thorough environmental impact assessment

before initiating any mega development project.

Question 3

Fine arts form a significant segment of the Chinese social life. Fine arts also act as an

integral component of the Chinese cultural heritage. Currently, the export of the Chinese culture

is being emphasized by the Chinese educational system with more focus on fine arts education.

Question 4

The Chinese civilization has inspired the growth of many aspects of the modern

civilizations. A large number of the contemporary scientific and technological advancements in

the contemporary world have borrowed heavily from the ancient Chinese civilization.

Conversely, the world has a lot to learn from the mistakes made in China across different

historical epochs.