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Planets: Orbital Properties

1 A.U. = 1.496 108 km


Planet distance revolution eccentricity inclination
(A.U.) (deg)
Mercury 0.387 87.969 d 0.2056 7.005
Venus 0.723 224.701 d 0.0068 3.3947
Earth 1.000 365.256 d 0.0167 0.0000
Mars 1.524 686.98 d 0.0934 1.851
Jupiter 5.203 11.862 y 0.0484 1.305
Saturn 9.537 29.457 y 0.0542 2.484
Uranus 19.191 84.011 y 0.0472 0.770
Neptune 30.069 164.79 y 0.0086 1.769
Pluto 39.482 247.68 y 0.2488 17.142
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Planets: Physical Characteristics

1 ME = 5.9736 1024 kg
Planet Mass Diameter density oblateness rotation axis tilt mag. field
3
( ME) (km) (g/cm ) [=(De Dp)/De] (deg) ( Earth's)
Mercury 0.0553 4879 5.427 0.000 58.785 d ~0 0.0006
Venus 0.815 12,104 5.243 0.000 243.686 d 177.36 0.00
Earth 1.000 12,742 5.515 0.00335 23.9345 h 23.45 1.000
Mars 0.107 6779 3.933 0.00648 24.6229 h 25.19 0.00
Jupiter 317.83 139,822 1.326 0.06487 9.9250 h 3.13 19,519
Saturn 95.159 116,464 0.687 0.09796 10.656 h 26.73 578
Uranus 14.536 50,724 1.270 0.02293 17.24 h 97.77 47.9
Neptune 17.147 49,244 1.638 0.01708 16.11 h 28.32 27.0
Pluto 0.0021 2390 1.750 0.000 6.405 d 122.53 0.00
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Planets: Atmospheres
(1 gE = 9.798 m/s2)
g vesc distance albedo temperature atm. press.
Planet
(gE) (km/s) (A.U.) (%) (K) ( Earth's)
100 night,
Mercury 0.378 4.3 0.387 11.9 10-15
590725 day
Venus 0.905 10.36 0.723 75 737 92
Earth 1.000 11.186 1.000 30.6 283 night, 293 day 1.000
Mars 0.379 5.03 1.524 25.0 184 night, 242 day 0.0040.009
Jupiter 2.530 59.5 5.203 34.3 165 >>1000
Saturn 1.065 35.5 9.537 34.2 134 >>1000
Uranus 0.905 21.3 19.191 30.0 76 >>1000
Neptune 1.14 23.5 30.069 29.0 72 >>1000
Pluto 0.059 1.2 39.482 40 to 60 ~50 3 x 10-6
...............................................................................................................
Planet atm. comp.
42% O2, 29% Na, 22% H2, 6% He, 0.5% K (note that it is
Mercury
essentially a vacuum)
96.5% CO2, 3.5% N2,
Venus 0.015% SO2, 0.007% Ar, 0.002% H2O, 0.002% CO, 0.001% He,
0.001% Ne
78.08% N2, 20.95% O2, 0.934% Ar, 0.038% CO2,
Earth
H2O highly variable ( <1%)
95.32% CO2, 2.7% N2, 1.6% Ar,
Mars
0.13% O2, 0.08% CO, 0.021% H2O, 0.01% NO
89.8% H2, 10.2% He,
Jupiter 0.3% CH4, 0.026% NH3. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice,
ammonium hydrosulfide
96.3% H2, 3.25% He,
Saturn 0.45% CH4, 0.0125% NH3, 0.0110% HD, 0.0007% C2H6. Clouds
made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium hydrosulfide
82.5% H2, 15.2% He, 2.3% CH4,
Uranus 0.0148% HD. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water ice, ammonium
hydrosulfide, methane ice
80.0% H2, 19.0% He, 1.5% CH4,
Neptune 0.0192% HD, 0.0002% C2H6. Clouds made of ammonia ice, water
ice, ammonium hydrosulfide, methane ice
Pluto CH4, N2
.............................................................................................................

Astronomical Constants

Quantity Value
astronomical unit (A.U.) 149,597,870.691 kilometers
9.460536207 1012 km = 63,240
light year (ly)
A.U.
3.08567802 1013 km = 206,265
parsec (pc)
A.U.
sidereal year 365.2564 days
tropical year 365.2422 days
Gregorian year 365.2425 days
Earth mass 5.9736 1024 kilograms
Sun mass 1.9891 1030 kg = 332,980 Earth
mean Earth radius 6371 kilometers
Sun radius 6.96265 105 km = 109 Earth
Sun luminosity 3.827 1026 watts

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Physical Constants

Quantity Value
speed of light (c) 299,792.458 kilometers/second
gravitational constant (G) 6.6726 10-11 m3 /(kg sec2)
Boltzmann constant (k) 1.380658 10-23 Joules/Kelvin
Stefan-Boltzmann constant (s) 5.67051 10-8 J/(m2 K4 s)
Wien's law constant 2.897756 106 nanometers Kelvin
Planck constant (h) 6.6260755 10-34 Joules second
electron mass 9.1093898 10-28 grams = 5.48579903 10-4 amu
proton mass 1.6726231 10-24 grams = 1.007276470 amu
neutron mass 1.6749286 10-24 grams = 1.008664904 amu
deuterium nucleus mass 3.3435860 10-24 grams = 2.013553214 amu