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We also have lagna (ascendant), which is the point that rises on the eastern horizon as the

earth rotates around itself. In addition, we have some mathematical points known as
special ascendants".

Abbreviati Gende
Sanskrit Name English Name Guna
on r
Surya () Sun Sy or Su M
Chandra ( ) Moon Ch or Mo F
Mangala ( ) Mars Ma M
Budha ( ) Mercury Bu or Me N Rajas
Brihaspati ( Sattv
Jupiter Gu or Ju M
) a
Shukra ( ) Venus Sk or Ve F Rajas
Shani () Saturn Sa M
North Lunar Tama
Rahu () Ra M
Node s
South Lunar Tama
Ketu ( ) Ke M
Node s
Planets in maximum exaltation, mooltrikona (own sign), and debilitation, are:[12]
Graha Exaltation Mooltrikona Sign Rulership
Sun 10 Aries 4-20 Leo 10 Libra Leo
Moon 3 Taurus 4-20 Cancer 3 Scorpio Cancer
28 28
Mars 0-12 Aries Aries, Scorpio
Capricorn Cancer
15 Virgo 16-20 Virgo 15 Pisces Gemini, Virgo
Jupite 0-10 5 Sagittarius,
5 Cancer
r Sagittarius Capricorn Pisces
Venus 27 Pisces 0-15 Libra 27 Virgo Taurus, Libra
0-20 Capricorn,
Saturn 20 Libra 20 Aries
Aquarius Aquarius
Rahu and Ketu are exalted in Taurus/Scorpio and are also exalted in Gemini and
The natural planetary relationships are:[13]
Graha Friends Neutral Enemies
Moon, Mars,
Sun Mercury Venus, Saturn
Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Venus,
Moon Sun, Mercury
Saturn Saturn
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury
Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon
Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus
Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon
Saturn Venus, Mercury Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars
Rahu, Ke Mercury, Venus,
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter
tu Saturn

The angular difference between the vernal equinox and the Vedic starting point of
the zodiac is known as the Ayanamsha. When the Vedic starting point is with
reference to Chitra nakshatra, the Ayanamsha is refered to as the Chitrapaksha
Ayanamsha. According to this system the first point of Sayana zodiac and Nirayana
zodiac coincided in the year 285 A.D. The corresponding value of this Ayanamsha on
January 1997 is 2348'56".

Grahas (planets) :

The words planet and

star are used in a slightly
different sense in astrology
than in astronomy. For
example, Sun (a star) and
Moon (a satellite of earth)
are called planets in astrology, along with Marsetc. Basically, a graha or a planet is a body
that has considerable influence on the living beings on earth. Distant stars have
negligible influence on us, but Sun, Moon and planets in the solar system have a great
influence on our activities. So the word graha (or planet) is used to describe them.

Seven planets are considered in Indian astrology. They are Sun, Moon,
Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn. In addition, two chaayaa grahas
(shadow planets) are considered in Indian astrology Rahu and Ketu. These are also
called the north node and the south node respectively (or the head and tail of
dragon). Rahu and Ketu are not real planets; they are just some mathematical
points. Apart from these 9 planets, there are 11 moving mathematical points known
as Upagrahas (sub-planets or satellites).

We also have lagna (ascendant), which is the point that rises on the eastern horizon as
the earth rotates around itself. In addition, we have some mathematical points known as
special ascendants".

Abbreviatio Gend
Sanskrit Name English Name Guna
n er
Surya () Sun Sy or Su M
Chandra ( ) Moon Ch or Mo F
Mangala ( ) Mars Ma M
Budha ( ) Mercury Bu or Me N Rajas
Brihaspati ( ) Jupiter Gu or Ju M
Shukra ( ) Venus Sk or Ve F Rajas
Shani () Saturn Sa M
North Lunar Tama
Rahu () Ra M
Node s
South Lunar Tama
Ketu ( ) Ke M
Node s
Planets in maximum exaltation, mooltrikona (own sign), and debilitation, are:[12]
Graha Exaltation Mooltrikona Debilitation Sign Rulership
Sun 10 Aries 4-20 Leo 10 Libra Leo
Moon 3 Taurus 4-20 Cancer 3 Scorpio Cancer
Mars 28 0-12 Aries 28 Cancer Aries, Scorpio
15 Virgo 16-20 Virgo 15 Pisces Gemini, Virgo
Jupiter 5 Cancer 0-10 Sagittarius 5 Capricorn Sagittarius, Pisces
Venus 27 Pisces 0-15 Libra 27 Virgo Taurus, Libra
Saturn 20 Libra 0-20 Aquarius 20 Aries
Rahu and Ketu are exalted in Taurus/Scorpio and are also exalted in Gemini and
The natural planetary relationships are:[13]
Graha Friends Neutral Enemies
Sun Moon, Mars, Jupiter Mercury Venus, Saturn
Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Venus,
Moon Sun, Mercury
Saturn Saturn
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury
Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon
Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus
Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon
Saturn Venus, Mercury Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars
Rahu, Ket Mercury, Venus,
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter
u Saturn


Imagine a belt or a path in the sky, some 18 degrees of are in

width, running around the earth

in an east-west direction.
Groups of stars, to all
appearance fixed, are studded
along this
imaginary belt. Twenty seven
(or twenty eightl) such groups
stars are in Vedic astrology. Because of lack of
apparent motion, these are called as Nakshatras. This imaginary
belt, with nakshatras studded on it, is called the zodiac.
The zodiac forms the reference point for fixing up the position
of any planet or star in the sky. Since it encircles the earth, it
is comprised of 360 degrees. The twenty-seven nakshatras being
evenly placed on it each have a span of 132O' arc. The various
nakshatras are numbered from one to twenty-seven.
In contrast to the fixed nakshatras, there are the moving
heavenly bodies called the Grahas. These move along the zodiac
from the west to the east. They derive their name from the
fact that, while moving against the background of the
nakshatras, they appear to get hold of one nakshatra after the
other (graha = to catch hold 00. Vedic astrology recognises nine
grahas. They are the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter,
Venus, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu. Of these, the Sun is a star, the
Moon is a satellite of the earth, Rahu and Ketu are mere
mathematical points on the zodiac, while the remaining ones
are planets.

Rasis (zodiac signs) :

The positions of all these

planets, upagrahas, lagna and
special lagnas in the zodiac
are measured in degrees,
minutes and seconds from the
start of the zodiac (which is a
fixed point in the sky). These
positions are measured as seen
from earth and they are
called geocentric positions". These positions are measured in
longitude and sphuta. When watched from earth, the longitude of any planet in the
skies can be from 00'0'' (0 degrees 0 minutes 0 seconds) to 35959'59''. It should be
noted that 00'0'' corresponds to the beginning of the zodiac.
Sidereal zodiac is also an imaginary belt of 360 degrees (as viewed from earth), divided
into 12 equal parts. Each twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called sign or rashi.
The zodiac (sky) lasts 360 as mentioned above and it is divided into 12 equal parts.
They are called rasis (signs). English names, Sanskrit names, two-letter symbols
and values of the start longitude and the end longitude (in degrees, minutes and
seconds) of all twelve rasis are given in below table.

Rasi name Sanskrit Name Symbol Start End

Aries Mesha Ar 00'0'' 2959'59''
Taurus Vrishabha/ Ta 300'0'' 5959'59''
Gemini Mithuna Ge 600'0'' 8959'59''
Cancer Karkataka/ Cn 900'0'' 11959'59''
Leo Simha Le 1200'0'' 14959'59''
Virgo Kanya Vi 1500'0'' 17959'59''
Libra Thula Li 1800'0'' 20959'59''
Scorpio Vrischika Sc 2100'0'' 23959'59''
Sagittarius Dhanus Sg 2400'0'' 26959'59''
Capricorn Makara Cp 2700'0'' 29959'59''
Aquarius Kumbha Aq 3000'0'' 32959'59''
Pisces Meena Pi 3300'0'' 35959'59''

Western/Greek Name Tattva Rulin

Sanskrit Name (Elemen Quality g
t) Planet
Aries ( "ram") Cara
1 Mea ( ) "ram" (Movable Mars
Prithivi Sthira
2 Vabha ( ) "bull" Taurus ( "bull") Venus
(Earth) (Fixed)
Mithuna () Vayu Mercu
3 Gemini ( "twins") ava
"twins" (Air) ry
4 Karkaa ( ) "crab" Cancer ( "crab") (Movable Moon
Tejas Sthira
5 Siha ( ) "lion" Leo ( "lion") Sun
(Fire) (Fixed)
Prithivi Mercu
6 Kany () "girl" Virgo ( "virgin") ava
(Earth) ry
7 Tul ( ) "balance" Libra ( "balance") (Movable Venus
Vcika ( ) Jala Sthira
8 Scorpio (o "scorpion") Mars
"scorpion" (Water) (Fixed)
Tejas Jupite
9 Dhanus () "bow" Sagittarius ( "archer") ava
(Fire) r
10 Makara () "sea- Capricorn ( "goat- Prithivi Cara Saturn
monster" horned") (Earth)
Kumbha () Aquarius ( "water- Vayu Sthira
11 Saturn
"pitcher" pourer") (Air) (Fixed)
Jala Jupite
12 Mna () "fish" Pisces ( "fish") ava
(Water) r

Rashi Notation

If a planet is at 22137', then you can find from above table that it is between 2100'0''
and 23959'59''. So, that planet is in Scorpio (or Vrischika). Its advancement from the
start of the rasi occupied by is 1137'. Its position in the zodiac (22137') is shown by
some people by the notation 1137' in Sc or simply 11 Sc 37. This means advanced by
1137' from the start of Sc (Scorpio)".

The whole zodiac is nothing but a manifestation of Lord Vishnus body. Aries is the
head. Taurus is the face. Gemini is the arms. Cancer is the heart. Leo is the stomach.
Virgo is the hip. Libra is the space below navel. Scorpio is the private parts.
Sagittarius is the thighs. Capricorn is the knees. Aquarius is the ankles. Pisces is the
feet. These are the limbs that rasis in the natural zodiac stand for. Because we are all part
of the Supreme energy governing this world, the above mapping applies to us too.
For example, we should pay attention to Leo for analyzing stomach problems and to
Pisces for analyzing problems related to feet and so on.

The Sage Parashara gives many details about each rasi. There is a lot of information
we can learn about each sign by delving into this information. This table has several
of the important attributes of each rasi.

Sign Elemen Modalit Polarit Guna Feet Appearanc Lord

t y y e
Aries Fire Moveabl Male Rajas Quadrupe Prominent Mars
e d
Taurus Earth Fixed Female Rajas Quadrupe Long Venus
Gemini Air Dual Male Rajas Biped Even Mercur
Cancer Water Moveabl Female Sattw Watery / Bulky Moon
e a Insect
Leo Fire Fixed Male Sattw Quadrupe Large Sun
a d
Virgo Earth Dual Female Tamas Biped Medium Mercur
Libra Air Moveabl Male Rajas Biped Medium Venus
Scorpio Water Fixed Female Tamas Insect Slender/ Mars
Sag Fire Dual Male Sattw Biped/ Even Jupiter
a Quadrupe
Capricor Earth Moveabl Female Tamas Quadrupe Large Saturn
n e d/ Watery
Aquarius Air Fixed Male Tamas Biped Medium Saturn
Pisces Water Dual Female Sattw Footless Medium Jupiter

It is through the Rasis (signs) that the planets express their nature as psychological forces
and as house / sign lords. The planet that rules the house / sign will be the Lord of any
planet that is contained in it and determine the energy behind what is produced through
the house.

n Indian Astrology when a zodiac is divided into twelve equal parts, each such part
has an extension of 30 degrees of arc. Such a division is called a sign or Rasi.
There are 12 houses of Rasi's.
No Indian System of Houses
1 Mesha (21-March to 20-April )
2 Vrishaba (21-April to 20-May )
3 Mithuna (21-May to 20-June)
4 Karkata (21-June to 20-July)
5 Simha (21-July to 20-August)
6 Kanya (21-August to 20-September)
7 Tula (21-September to 20-October )
Vrischika (21-October to 20-
November )
Dhanus (21-November to 20-
Makara (21-December to 20-
January )
11 Kumbha (21-January to 20-February)
12 Meena (21-Februaryto 20-March)
Lords of Houses
Each Rasi has a planet assigned to it as Lord of the House.
No Houses Lord of House
1 Mesha Kuja (Mars)
2 Vrishaba Sukra (Venus)
3 Mithuna
4 Karkata Chandra (Moon)
5 Simha Surya (Sun)
6 Kanya
7 Tula Sukra (Venus)
8 Vrischika Kuja (Mars)
9 Dhanu Guru (Jupiter)
10 Makara Sani (Saturn)
11 Kumbha Sani (Saturn)
12 Meena Guru (Jupiter)
Exalted Houses
Each planet has a point in the zodiac where it attains maximum strength. The
houses where they have the maximum strength are called the houses of exaltation.

Planets and their exaltation houses (Uchacha)

No Planet Exalted House
1 Ravi (Sun) Mesha
2 Vrishaba
3 Kuja (Mars) Makara
4 Kanya
5 Guru (Jupiter) Karkata
6 Shukra (Venus) Meena
7 Sani (Saturn) Tula
Debilitated Houses
Each planet has a point in the zodiac where it has the minimum strength. The
houses where the planets have the minimum strength are called the houses of
Planets and their debilitated houses
No Planet Debilitated House
1 Ravi (Sun) Tula
2 Chandra (Moon) Vrischika
3 Kuja (Mars) Karkata
4 Meena
5 Guru (Jupiter) Makara
6 Shukra (Venus) Sukra
7 Sani (Saturn) Mesha
Period of stay of Planets in each House
Planet Period of Stay
Sun 30 days
Moon 2 1/4 days
Mars 45 days
30 days
Jupiter 1 year
Venus 30 days
2 years & 6
Rahu 1 year & 6 months
Ketu 1 year & 6 months
Types of Houses
Common (Dwiswabhav
Movable (Chara) Fixed (Sthira)
Mesha Vrishaba Mithuna
Karkata Simha Kanya
Tula Vrischika Dhanu
Makara Kumbha Meena

Houses or Bhavas:

Another important concept is

house (Sanskrit name: bhava).
In each chart, houses can be
found with respect to several
reference points and the
reference points most commonly
employed are lagna and special
lagnas. Starting from the rasi occupied by the selected reference point and proceeding in
the regular order across the zodiac, we associate each rasi with a house (first, second etc).
Always the rasi containing the reference point chosen is the 1st house. Next rasi is the
2nd house. The rasi after that is the 3rd house. We proceed until the 12th house like that.If
no reference point is specified when houses are mentioned, it means that lagna is used as
the reference.

Our lives here on Earth through our physical bodies are shown through the Bhavas. The
Sanskrit term literally means, "Coming into existence, Birth. It is through what is shown
through the houses that our karma is born materially. It is here that Purusha is expressed
as Prakriti in a world of consequence. Each house has many attributes, yet underneath
there is a deeper concept key to that house. Different houses stand for different matters.
Looking at the rasis and houses
occupied by various planets, we can say a lot of things about the person.

In Hindu astrology, the natal chart is the bhava chakra (Sanskrit: chakra, 'wheel'.)
The bhava chakra is the complete 360 circle of life, divided into houses, and
represents our way of enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has
associated karaka (Sanskrit: karaka, 'significator') planets that can alter the
interpretation of a particular house.

Name Karakas Meanings
outer personality, physique, health/well-being, hair,
1 Lagna Sun
Jupiter, Mercury, wealth, family relationships, eating habits, speech,
2 Dhana
Venus, Sun, Moon eyesight, death
natural state, innate temperament, courage, valor,
3 Sahaja Mars
virility, younger siblings
inner life, emotions, home, property, education,
4 Sukha Moon
5 Putra Jupiter creativity, children, spiritual practices, punya
acute illness, injury, openly known enemies,
6 Ari Mars, Saturn
litigation, daily work, foreigners, service
business and personal relationships, marriage, spouse,
7 Yuvati Venus, Jupiter
war, fighting
Randha length of life, physical death, moka, chronic illness,
8 Saturn
ra deep and ancient traditions
9 Jupiter, Sun luck, fortune, spirituality, dharma, guru, father
Mercury, Jupiter, dream fulfillment, knees and spine, current karmas,
10 Karma
Sun, Saturn career, sky themes (being 12am/mid heavens
gains, profits from work, ability to earn money, social
11 Labha Jupiter
contexts and organizations
loss, intuition, imprisonment, feet, foreign
12 Vyaya Saturn
travel, moksha

Chakras (charts)
A chart (Sanskrit name: chakra) is prepared with the information of
rasis occupied by all planets. For preparing any chart, we need to first determine the
rasis occupied by all planets, upagrahas, lagna and special lagnas. In the
visual representation of a chart, there are 12 boxes (are some other visual areas)
with each representing a rasi. All planets, upagrahas and lagnas are written in the
boxes corresponding to the rasis they occupy.

There are 3 popular ways of drawing charts in India:

(1) South Indian style chart ruled by Jupiter (rasi based),

In the south Indian style of

casting a chart, the position of
the zodiacal signs, from Aries
to Pisces always remains fixed,
as shown in the picture below
left. The counting of the houses
and the positioning of the
planets is done clockwise, as
shown in the picture below right. This changes from individual chart to chart. So it
can be said that the south style chart follows the fixed sign method. The sign which
becomes the ascendant or lagna is marked with the words As or Asc or Lagna. In
some cases astrologers also draw two parallel lines at the top corner of the
ascendant, the way we cross a bank cheque, to mark the ascendant
(2) North Indian style diamond chart ruled by Venus (bhava based) and

In the north Indian method of

casting the chart, as in the
above example, the ascendant
or lagna is always kept at the
top center and the signs are
denoted by their zodiacal
sequence number, i.e., Aries is
1, Taurus is 2, Gemini 3,
Cancer 4, Leo 5, Virgo 6, Libra 7, Scorpio 8, Sagittarius 9, Capricorn 10, Aquarius
11 and Pisces 12. Here the charting of the houses and the planets is anti-clockwise.
In the above demonstration the same chart with the same planetary positions is
shown. The lagna is Vrischika and denoted by the sign number 8 and placed at the
top center. The planets are placed in the same houses, but charted in the anti-
clockwise fashion. For example sun is in Vrishabha or Taurus which is the zodiac
house number 2. So we can say that the northern chart chart follows the fixed house
(3) East Indian style Sun chart ruled by Sun (rasi based).

This type of chart, which is

popular in Andhra Pradesh
and parts of Orissa and
Bengal, is drawn differently
and follows the fixed sign
method of the south style
chart, but the charting is done
anti-clockwise as shown in the picture bellow.

North Indian

South Indian
In rasi-based chart drawing formats, a rasi is always at a fixed position. Ar is always
one particular position and Ta is in another position and so on. Planets, lagna etc are
placed in the box (or the visual area) representing the rasi occupied by it. In
chart drawing formats, a bhava (house) is always at a fixed position. Lagna
(denoted by Asc for ascendant) is always in a particular visual area of the chart
the 2nd, 3rd etc houses are in fixed positions.

Varga chakras (divisional charts)

We saw that charts can be drawn with the information of which planet occupies
which rasi. Based on the longitude of a planet, we can find the rasi occupied by it
and mark its position in rasi chart.
In addition, we have what are known as divisional charts (Sanskrit name: varga
chakras). These are based on dividing rasis into 2 parts, 3 parts, 4 parts and so on.
We divide each rasi into n parts and map each part to a rasi again. Based on the
occupied by planets in these divisional mappings, we draw divisional charts (or
harmonic charts). Each divisional chart throws light on a specific area of ones life.
In each divisional chart, we find houses and analyze the chart as if it were an
independent chart.
There are sixteen varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'), or divisional, charts used
in Hindu astrology]
Diviso Char
Varga Purpose
r t
Rasi 1 D-1 Natal chart
Hora 2 D-2 Overall wealth
Drekkana 3 D-3 Siblings
Chaturtamsha 4 D-4 Properties
Trimshamsha 5 D-5 Morals, ethics, spiritual values
Saptamsha 7 D-7 Children
Navamsha 9 D-9 Spouse, Etc.
Dashamsha 10 Earning Career
Dwadashamsh D-
12 Parents, Grandparents
a 12
Shodhashams D-
16 Vehicles
ha 16
Vimshamsha 20 Upasana-s, Sdhana-s
Chaturvimsha 24 Education (higher)
Saptavimsham D-
27 Vitality
sha 27
Khavedamsha 40 Quality of life
Akshavedams D- (From here on out,the birth time must be absolutely precise
ha 45 or the divisional chart is incorrect!!)
Shastiamsha 60 Used to differentiate between twins, etc., etc.

The science of Vedic astrology stands on the basis of 4 pillars

(1) grahas or planets, (2) rasis or signs, (3) bhavas or houses, and, (4) varga chakras
or divisional charts.

Nakshatras (constellations)

In Vedic astrology, the zodiac is divided into 27 nakshatras. Each nakshatra has a
length of 360/27 = 13 20'. The first nakshatra, for example, stretches from the
beginning of Aries to 13 20' in Aries. The second nakshatra stretches from there to
26 40' in Aries. The third nakshatra stretches from there to 10 in Taurus.

Each nakshatra is again divided into 4 quarters. They are called padas (legs/feet).
The length of a nakshatra pada is 3 20'.

Pada Pada
# Name Location Ruler Pada 3 Pada 4
1 2
0 1320'
1 Ashvin () Ketu Chu Che Cho La
2 Bharan () Venus Li Lu Le Lo
2640' Aries
2640' Aries
3 Krittik () 1000' Sun A I U E
4 Rohini () Moon O Va/Ba Vi/Bi Vu/Bu
2320' Taurus
2320' Taurus

5 Mrigashrsha (
) 640' Mars Ve/Be Vo/Bo Ka Ke
640' 2000'
6 rdr () Rahu Ku Gha
Ng/Na Chha
7 Punarvasu ( ) Gemini Jupiter Ke Ko Ha Hi
320' Cancer
320' 1620'
8 Pushya ( ) Saturn Hu He Ho Da
1640' Cancer Mercu
9 shlesh ( ) Di Du De Do
000' Leo ry
1 000' 1320'
Magh () Ketu Ma Mi Mu Me
0 Leo
1 Prva or Prva Phalgun ( 1320'
Venus Mo Ta Ti Tu
1 ) 2640' Leo
1 Uttara or Uttara Phalgun ( 2640' Leo
Sun Te To Pa Pi
2 ) 1000' Virgo
1 1000'
Hasta () Moon Pu Sha Na Tha
3 2320' Virgo
1 2320' Virgo
Chitr () Mars Pe Po Ra Ri
4 640' Libra
1 Svt () 640' 2000 Rahu Ru Re Ro Ta
5 Libra
2000' Libra
Vishkh () 320' Jupiter Ti Tu Te To
1 320' 1640'
Anurdh ( ) Saturn Na Ni Nu Ne
7 Scorpio
1 Scorpio Mercu
Jyeshtha ( ) No Ya Yi Yu
8 000' ry
1 000' 1320'
Mla () Ketu Ye Yo Bha Bhi
9 Sagittarius
Bha/Ph Dha
Prva Ashdh () 2640' Venus Bhu Dha
0 a
2 Sagittarius
Uttara Ashdh () Sun Bhe Bho Ja Ji
1 1000'
Shravana () 2320' Moon Ju/Kh Je/Kh Jo/Khe Gha/K
2 i u ho
2 Capricorn
Shravishth () or Dhanist Mars Ga Gi Gu Ge
3 640'
2 Shatabhish ()or Shatatar 640' 2000'
Rahu Go Sa Si Su
4 aka Aquarius
Prva Bhdrapad () Aquarius Jupiter Se So Da Di
320' Pisces
2 320' 1640'
Uttara Bhdrapad () Saturn Du Tha Jha
6 Pisces
2 1640' Mercu
Revat ( ) De Do Cha Chi
7 3000' Pisces ry
The zodiac according to Indian
Astrology comprises of 360
degrees. There are 27
Nakshatras or constellations in
it.Therefore, the value of each
constellation is 13 degrees and
20 minutes when measured
from the fixed initial point. These 27 Nakshatras(stars) complete the entire circle of
360 degrees of the zodiac. A forecast based on the transit/ correlation/inter - relation
of planets in relation to the Nakshatras is more accurate than the results predicted
on the basis of any other system.
What is your Nakshatra (star)?
You can find it from the table given below. If you know the longitude of the Moon at
the time of your birth in your natal chart calculated according to the Indian/ Vedic
system, go to the 3rd column and go down till it lies between the two values given in
the row above and below. Your Nakshatra or star would be the one given in the
2ndcolumn the one at the start of range of longitude of your Moon.
Longitude Sign-Deg-
No Nakshatra(Star) Lords
1 Aswini 00-00-00 Ketu
2 Bharani 00-13-20 Venus
3 Kritika 00-26-40 Sun
4 Rohini 01-10-00 Moon
5 Mrigasira 01-23-20 Mars
6 Aridra 02-06-40 Rahu
7 Punarvasu 02-20-00 Jupiter
8 Pushya 03-03-20 Saturn
9 Aslesha 03-16-40
10 Magha 04-00-00 Ketu
11 Poorvaphalguni 04-13-20 Venus
12 Uttaraphalguni 04-26-40 Sun
13 Hasta 05-10-00 Moon
14 Chitra 05-23-20 Mars
15 Swati 06-06-40 Rahu
16 Visakha 06-20-00 Jupiter
17 Anuradha 07-03-20 Saturn
18 Jyehsta 07-16-40 Mercur
19 Moola 08-00-00 Ketu
20 Poorvashadha 08-13-20 Venus
21 Uttarashadha 08-26-40 Sun
22 Sravana 09-10-00 Moon
23 Dhanshita 09-23-20 Mars
24 Satabisha 10-06-40 Rahu
25 10-20-00 Jupiter
26 Uttarabhadrapada 11-03-20 Saturn
27 Revati 11-16-40
Each Nakshatra or star that comes under Indian Astrology has an astronomical
name associated with it and which is referred to by the Western Astrologers and
Table with Astronomical name equivalent of Indian Nakshatras.
No Nakshatra
1 Aswini Beta Arietis
2 Bharani 35 Arietis
3 Kritika Eta Tauri
4 Rohini Aldebaran
5 Mrigasira Lambda Orionis
6 Aridra Alpha Orionis
7 Punarvasu Beta Geminorium
8 Pushya Delta Cancri
9 Aslesha Alpha Hydroe
10 Magha Regulus
11 Poorvaphalguni Delta Leonis
12 Uttaraphalguni Beta Leonis
13 Hasta Delta Corvi
Spica Virginis
14 Chitra
15 Swati Arcturus
16 Visakha Alpha Libroe
17 Anuradha Delta Scorpio
18 Jyehsta Antares
19 Moola Lambda Scorpio
20 Poorvashadha Delta Sagittari
21 Uttarashadha Sigma sagittari
22 Sravana Alpha Aquiloe
23 Dhanshita Beta Delphinum
24 Satabisha Lambda Aquarius
25 Alpha Pegasi
26 Uttarabhadrapada Gama Pegasi
27 Revati Zeta Piscum
Nakshatras - their English translation, symbolic Deities and Animals &The
distribution of the padas of the 27 nakshatras in the 12 houses.


In lunar calendar, one day stands for one tithi. Tithi or lunar day is a period in
the difference between the longitudes of Moon and Sun changes by exactly 12.

When Sun and Moon are at

the same longitude, a new
lunar month of 30 tithis starts.
As time progresses, Moon will
go ahead of Sun. When Moons
longitude is exactly
12 greater than Suns
longitude, the first tithi or lunar day finishes and the second
tithi starts. When Moons longitude is exactly 24 greater than Suns longitude, the
second tithi finishes and the third tithi starts. When Moons longitude is exactly 36
greater than Suns longitude, the third tithi finishes and the fourth tithi starts. And
on. You can see that Sun-Moon longitude differential will be (12 x n) after exactly n
A lunar month consists of 30 tithis. Each month is divided into two fortnights
(pakshas). During Sukla/Suddha paksha or the brighter fortnight, Moon is waxing.
During this paksha, Moon is ahead of Sun by an amount that is between 0 and 180.
During Krishna/Bahula paksha or the darker fortnight, Moon is waning. During
paksha, Moon is ahead of Sun by an amount that is between 180 and 360.
At the end of a month, Sun-Moon longitude differential will be (12 x 30), i.e., 360.
That means that Moon will finish one cycle around the zodiac and catch up with Sun
again. So Sun and Moon will be at the same longitude again. Then a new month
We can find the tithi running on a day from the longitudes of Sun and Moon using
the following procedure.
(1) Find the difference: (Moons longitude Suns longitude). Add 360 if the result
is negative. The result will be between 0 and 360 and will show how advanced
Moon is with respect to Sun.
(2) Divide this result by 12. Ignore the remainder and take the quotient.
(3) Add 1 to the quotient. You get a number from 1 to 30. That will give the index of
the tithi running.
(4) Refer to Table 3 and find the name of the tithi. There are 15 tithis and the same
tithis repeat in the brigher and darker fortnights. For example, it can be seen from
the table that the 22th tithi out of the 30 tithis is in Krishna paksha and it is
Saptami. So the 22nd tithi is Krishna Saptami. We write the classification of
fortnight (Sukla or Krishna) first and then write tithi name. Sukla Saptami
stands for Saptami in the brighter fortnight (sukla paksha), i.e. the 7th tithi.
Krishna Saptami stands for Saptami in the darker fortnight (krishna paksha),
i.e. the 22nd tithi.

Yogas :

Add the longitudes of Sun and Moon. Remove 360 from the sum if it is greater than
360. Divide the sum by the length of one nakshatra (1320' or 800'). Ignore
fractions and take the integer part. Add 1 to it and the result is the index of the yoga
Refer to Table 5 and find the yoga corresponding to the index.


Each tithi is divided into 2

karanas. There are 11
karanas: (1) Bava, (2) Balava,
Kaulava, (4) Taitula, (5) Garija, (6) Vanija, (7) Vishti, (8) Sakuna, (9) Chatushpada,
(10) Naga, and, (11) Kimstughna. The first 7 karanas repeat 8 times starting from
2nd half of the first lunar day of a month. The last 4 karanas come just once in a
month, starting from the 2nd half of the 29th lunar day and ending at the 1st half of
first lunar day.

Each day starts at sunrise and ends at next days sunrise. This period is divided into
24 equal parts and they are called horas. A hora is almost equal to an hour. These
horas are ruled by different planets. The lords of hora come in the order of
decreasing speed with respect to earth: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury
and Moon. After Moon, we go back to Saturn and repeat the 7 planets.
The first hora of any day (i.e. a period of one hour following sunrise) is ruled by the
lord of the weekday (Sun for Sunday, Moon for Monday, Mars for Tuesday,
Mercury for Wednesday, Jupiter for Thursday, Venus for Friday and Saturn for
Saturday). After that, we list planets in the order mentioned above.
For example, let us take 9:40 pm on a Wednesday on which sunrise was at 6:10 am.
The time elapsed since sunrise is 21:40 6:10 = 15:30. So the 16th hour since sunrise
was running then. This is ruled by the 16th planet from Mercury. After subtracting
multiples of 7 from 16, we get 2. So the hora (hour) is ruled by the 2nd planet from
Mercury. From the list given above, we see that the 2nd planet from Mercury is
Moon. So Moons hora runs at 9:40 pm.


Panchaanga means one with 5 limbs. Almanacs published in India with planetary
positions are traditionally called panchaangas. Along with the planetary positions,
they give the start and end times of tithi, vaara (week day Sunday, Monday etc),
nakshatra, yoga and karana running on each day. These five are the limbs of
When we choose a muhurta (an auspicious time for starting a venture), we should
choose an auspicious tithi, vaara, nakshatra, yoga and karana.

Dasa Systems

Dasa systems are a hallmark of Vedic astrology. Vedic astrology has hundreds of
dasa system. Each dasa system divides ones life into periods, sub-periods, sub-
and so on. All the periods are ruled by different planets or rasis. Some dasa
systems are planet-based and some are rasi-based. Each dasa system is good at
showing events of a specific nature. For each dasa system, we have some standard
rules, based on which we analyze the natal chart and attribute different results to
different periods and sub-periods. Each dasa system comes with rules for dividing
ones life into periods and sub-periods and rules for attributing different results to
different periods, based on the planetary positions in the natal chart. These periods
are called dasas or mahadasas (MD). Sub-periods are called antardasas (AD).
Sub-sub-periods are called pratyantardasas (PD).
Some dasas are good at showing matters related to longevity and death. They are
called ayur dasas (dasas of longevity). Some dasas are good at showing general
results. They are called phalita dasas (dasas of general results).
Mind is a very important part of our existence and Moon governs it. Some dasas are
computed based on the nakshatra occupied by Moon and they are called nakshatra
dasas. Some dasas are based on the rasis occupied by planets and they are called
rasi dasas.

The dasha system shows which planets will be ruling at particular times in Hindu
astrology. There are several dasha systems; however, the primary system used by
astrologers is the Vimshottari dasha system. The first maha dasha is determined by
the position of the natal Moon. Each maha dasha is divided into subperiods
called bhuktis. Vimshottari dasha lengths are:
Length Bhuktis
Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn,
Ketu 7 Years
20 Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury,
Years Ketu
Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu,
Sun 6 Years
10 Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus,
Years Sun
Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun,
Mars 7 Years
18 Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon,
Years Mars
16 Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars,
Years Rahu
19 Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu,
Years Jupiter
17 Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter,
Years Saturn

Drishtis the planetary aspects

Drishti (Sanskrit: drishti, 'sight'.) In Hindu astrology, the aspect is to an entire sign,
and grahas only cast forward aspects:[18]
Graha Houses
Sun 7th
Moon 7th
Venus 7th
Mars 4th, 7th, 8th
Jupiter 5th, 7th, 9th
Saturn 3rd, 7th, 10th
Rahu 5th,7th,9th
Ketu No aspect

Gocharas the transits

Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit'.) In Hindu astrology, a natal chart shows the
actual positions of the grahas at the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas
have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the natal chart grahas.
This period of interaction is called gochara.[19]

Yogas the planetary combinations

Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union'.) In Hindu astrology, yogas are planetary
combinations placed in specific relationships to each other.[20]
Kalasarpa Yoga is a dangerous yoga. If all planets (excepting Uranus, Neptune,
Pluto) are 1-side of Rahu & Ketu, it becomes Kala-Sarpa Yoga.
[]Dig bala the directional strength
Dig bala (Sanskrit: dig bala, 'directional strength'.) Graha-s gain strength when
they are placed in specific cardinal houses:[21]
Hou Directio
se n
1st East
4th Venus, Moon North
7th Saturn West
10th Sun, Mars South

The Vedic System of Calculating the Ascendant

The most important point in the construction of a horoscope is the Ascendant. The
ascendant is the point of cutting of the ecliptic by the eastern horizon of a place.
The earth spinning on its axis in a linear movement takes 24 hours to complete one
rotation. But what exactly is the duration of a day? There are many types of days
Sidereal day: The time taken by earth to spin one complete rotation of 360 degrees
on its axis. Average duration of one sidereal day is 23 hrs, 56 min, 4.091 sec.
Savana day: The duration of time between one sunrise to another sunrise is a
Savana day. For people living in northern hemisphere, from winter solstice day
onwards, the sunshine hours (dinamana) increases and night hours (ratrimana)
decreases. As the sunrise every day is earlier than the previous day, the duration of
the savana day is less than 24 hours till the Sun reaches its maximum declination at
summer solstice. After that the dinamana reduces and the ratrimana increases.
Since the sunrise of every day is later than the previous day, the duration of the
savana day is more than 24 hours till it reaches the winter solstice again.
Mean Solar Day: The average of all the days of a year. Its duration is equal to 24
The Vedic system recognises a day as the duration of time from one sunrise to the
next sunrise. This span, known as a Savana day, is measured in units of ghatis. One
Savana day is equal to 60 ghatis and each ghati is divisible into 60 palas or vighatis.
The earth continuously spins on its axis in a west to east direction. For a person
situated on the surface of the earth, different signs of the zodiac appear to rise in the
eastern horizon and set in the western horizon. With the completion of one rotation
of the earth, all the twelve signs of the zodiac rise and set during one sidereal day.
Rashimana (Oblique Ascension)
Rashimana is the rising periods of signs of the zodiac. As there are twelve equally
divided signs of the zodiac and it takes approximately 24 hours for all the signs to
rise, therefore, one sign should take about two hours to rise in the eastern horizon.
But its not so. As the plane of the ecliptic is inclined at an angle of 23.5 degrees to
the plane of the celestial equator, the rising time of different signs is not uniform.
The time taken by different groups of signs at the equator is given in Table 1.

Table 1.
Time taken by different group of signs
to rise at the Equator
Grou Rashimana in
p Signs Asu
I 167 1h51m3
Aries Virgo Libra Pisces
4 6s
II 179 1h59m4
Taurus Leo Scorpio Aquarius
5 0s
Gemin Cance 193 2h08m4
III Sagittarius Capricorn
i r 1 4s

Rashimana values are calculated for Sayana signs and are measured in units of Asus.
One unit of Asu is equivalent to 4 seconds of sidereal time. Rashimana values vary
from one latitude to another. These values once calculated for any place do not
change from year to year.
Charakhandas (Ascensional Differences)
Variations in the rising of different signs at different latitudes can be calculated with
the help of Charakhandas or ascensional differences for those latitudes.
To know the Charakhandas of a particular place with the help of Hindu Dial,
measure the length of the mid-day shadow, on the day of the equinox, of a shanku of
12 units length (please refer to Astrology Primer # 5, Vol.1, No.5). Put this figure at
three places and multiply the first figure with 10; second with 8 and; third with 10
divided by 3. This gives the Charakhandas for I, II, and III groups of signs respectively.
These Charakhanda values are in palas or vighaties. To convert these values to asus,
multiply the charakhandas by six.
Signs of Long Ascension and Short Ascension
For people living in the northern hemisphere of the earth, on the day of winter
solstice, when the Sun is at zero degrees Sayana Capricorn, the sunshine hours are
the shortest. With the rising of the Sun, sign Capricorn rises in the eastern horizon
followed by other signs in sequence. At the time of sunset, the point rising at the
eastern horizon would be 180 opposite the Suns longitude (thus zero degrees
Cancer). Therefore, during the daytime signs Capricorn to Gemini rise in the shortest
duration of time, while at night the signs Cancer to Sagittarius take the longest
duration of time.

Signs of Short
Signs of Long Ascension*

10 - Capricorn 4 - Cancer
11 - Aquarius 5 - Leo
12 - Pisces 6 - Virgo
1 - Aries 7 - Libra
2 - Taurus 8 - Scorpio
3 - Gemini 9 - Sagittarius
* For northern hemisphere; for southern hemisphere
short and long ascension rashis are reversed.
When the Sun is at summer solstice (zero degrees Sayana Cancer) during the
daytime signs Cancer to Sagittarius spend the longest duration of time to rise and
during night signs Capricorn to Gemini take the shortest duration of time.
Sign which takes longer time in rising than the time taken by same sign at the
equator, is the sign of long ascension and the sign which takes shorter time in rising
is the sign of short ascension. Signs Capricorn to Gemini are short ascension signs
while Cancer to Sagittarius are long ascension signs for norther latitudes. Reverse is
the case for people living in the southern latitudes.
As the latitude of the observer increases, the duration of signs of long ascension
become much longer while the duration of signs of short ascension become much
Calculation of rising times of different signs (Rashimana) for a particular place
After knowing the Charakhandas of a particular place, we can calculate the
rashimana of different signs. Add the Charakanda values, in asus, to the rashimana
values at the equator in their respective groups for signs of long ascension and
subtract the Charakhandas from their respective groups for signs of short ascension.
Correlation of the earth with the Zodiac
Calculation of ascendant for any given moment is an effort to establish a
relationship between the horizon of the observer on the earth with the zodiac.
The earth is spinning continuously on its axis. To an observer, being located on the
surface of the earth, it appears that the earth is stationary and the sky with all the
stars and heavenly bodies is drifting towards the west after rising in the east.
To establish a relationship of the earth with the zodiac, we have to refer to some
identifiable point on the zodiac. The rising, setting or the meridian passage of this
point is to be observed to find out the actual position of this point at any given
moment of time for the place of location of the observer. Once we know the position
of one point of the zodiac, we can relate the other points of the zodiac with respect to
this identifiable point.
This identifiable point could be a star or a planet or the vernal equinox (zero degrees
Sayana Aries point) of the zodiac. When we observe the passing of the Vernal
Equinox on the meridian of a place, it is zero hours Sidereal time for that place.
Sidereal time at any given moment indicates the time elapsed since the vernal
equinox crossed the meridian of that place.
The Indian system makes use of the position of the Sun in the zodiac to establish a
link between the earth and the zodiac. At the time of sunrise, the centre of the Sun is
touching the eastern horizon. Sunrise is considered to be the beginning to the day
and that day remains in force till the next sunrise. The duration of this day is
considered to be equal to sixty ghatis. One ghati is roughly equal to 24 minues of
The longitude of the Sun is identical with the cusp of the sign rising at the time of
sunrise. A track of the number of ghatis and palas passed since sunrise is kept and is
called Ishtakaala.
Since the rashimana values are for Sayana signs, the longitude of the Sun is also
considered in Sayana values.
Inputs to calculate the Ascendant
In order to calculate the cusp of the ascendant, we need the following:
1. The time of sunrise at the required place on the relevant day.
2. The Sayana position of the Sun at the time of sunrise at the place in question. In
case the available ephe-meris provides the nirayana position of the Sun, the Sayana
position may be obtained by adding to it the appropriate ayanamsha.
3. The ishtakala or the duration of time elapsed from the time of sunrise.
4. Rashimana or the duration of the rising of different signs at the particular
latitude of the place.
Steps to Calculate the Ascendant
The following steps describe the method of calculation of the ascendant for a given
place at a given date and time. For example, lets calculate the ascendant rising at
Gurdaspur, India (latitude 32N02' longitude 75E31') on April 1, 1997 at 12.00
hours IST.
Step 1. Calculate the Charakhandas
On the Hindu Dial, measure the length of the mid-day shadow, on the day of the
equinox, of a shanku of 12 units length.
Length of the equinoctial shadow of a Shanku of 12 units at different latitudes
Lati- Length Lati- Length Lati- Length Lati- Length Lati- Length Lati- Length
tude (units) tude (units) tude (units) tude (units) tude (units) tude (units)
01 0.21 11 2.33 21 4.60 31 7.21 41 10.43 51 14.82
02 0.42 12 2.55 22 4.85 32 7.50 42 10.80 52 15.35
03 0.63 13 2.70 23 5.09 33 7.79 43 11.19 53 15.92
04 0.84 14 2.99 24 5.34 34 8.09 44 11.58 54 16.52
05 1.05 15 3.21 25 5.59 35 8.40 45 12.00 55 17.13
06 1.26 16 3.44 26 5.85 36 8.71 46 12.42 56 17.79
07 1.47 17 3.66 27 6.11 37 9.04 47 12.87 57 18.46
08 1.69 18 3.90 28 6.38 38 9.37 48 13.33 58 19.20
09 1.90 19 4.13 29 6.65 39 9.72 49 13.80 59 19.97
10 2.11 20 4.37 30 6.93 40 10.06 50 14.30 60 20.78

The length of the shadow at Gurdaspur (32 degrees latitude) from the above table is
7.5. Now multiply this figure with 10, 8, and 10/3 respectively to get the
Charakhanda values in palas or vighatis.
I 7.5 x 10 = 75 palas
II 7.5 x 8 = 60 palas
III 7.5 x 10/3 = 25 palas

Multiply each with 6 to convert the values in asus.

I 75 palas x 6 = 450 asus
II 60 palas x 6 = 360 asus
III 25 palas x 6 = 150 asus

The derived values of 450, 360 and 150 are the charakhandas for I, II and III groups
of signs respectively.
Step 2. Calculate the Rashimana
The Rashimana for different groups of signs at the equator are:
Group Signs Rashimana
I 1, 6, 7, 12 1674 asus
II 2, 5, 8, 11 1795 asus
III 3, 4, 9, 10 1931 asus

To the above rashimanas we apply the Charakhanda corrections as worked out

above to obtain the rashimana for different signs at the latitude in question. Add the
Charakandas to their respective groups for signs of long ascension and subtract the
Charakhandas from their respective groups for signs of short ascension.
Group Signs Rashimana in
Asus hr-mn-sc
Short Ascension
I 1, 12 1674 450 = 1224 1:21:36
II 2, 11 1795 360 = 1435 1:35:40
III 3, 10 1931 150 = 1781 1:58:44
Long Ascension
I 4, 9 1931 + 150 = 2081 2:18:44
II 5, 8 1795 + 360 = 2155 2:23:40
III 6, 7 1674 + 450 = 2124 2:21:36
Step 3. Find out the Sunrise time
From the ephemeris, calculate the sunrise time on the given date for the place of
birth. For Gurdaspur the sunrise time is 6h:20m:40s (IST).
Step 4. Find out the Sayana Sun
Again from the ephemeris, calculate the position of Sayan Sun at the time of sunrise.
If the available ephemeris provides the longitudes of planets in nirayana values, add
the ayanamsha to the Suns longitude to get the Sayana value. The nirayana
longitude of the sun at the time of sunrise on April 1, 1997 is 11s1731'16". Adding
to this the ayanamsha value on the given date, i.e., 2349'06", we get the Sayana
longitude of the Sun at the time of sunrise as 0s1120'22". This also indicates the
longitude of the ascendant at the time of sunrise.
Step 5. Find out the Ishtakala
Ishtakala is the time elapsed since the time of sunrise to the time of birth.
Traditionally the time of birth is recorded in ishtakala only. Since in our example
the time of birth is in hours-minutes, etc., it can be converted to ishtakala by
subtracting the time of sunrise from the time of birth.
Time of birth : 12h:00m:00s
Sunrise time : 06h:20m:40s
Ishtakala in hrs. : 05h:39m:20s
Step 6. Cusp of the Ascendant
From Step 4 above, we know the sign that the sun is in at sunrise and, therefore, the
cusp of the sign rising at the time of sunrise. The duration of this sign being known
(Step 2), it is possible to work out how much of this sign has yet to rise above
horizon and how much time it will take to do so.
Long. of Sun (Cusp at sunrise): = 0s1120'22"
Bal. of sign Aries yet to rise: (3000'00" 1120'22") = 1839'38"
Time taken by 30 degrees of Aries to rise: = 1h:21m:36s (Step 2)
Time taken by 1839'38" of Aries to rise:
= 0h:50m:45s
(1:21:36 / 30) x 1839'38"

After 50m:45s of sunrise (i.e. from 7h:11m:25s onwards), the sign Taurus will start
and last for 1h:35m:40s (i.e., upto 8h:47m:05s). The next sign Gemini (with a
duration of 1h:58m:44s) lasts until 10h:45m:49s. Cancer (duration of 2h:18m:44s)
lasts until 13h:04m:33s which includes our time of birth (12 noon). Thus we have
Cancer rising at 12 noon.
Time elapsed from the onset of Cancer lagna
= 1h:14m:11s
upto the time of birth (12:00:00 10:45:49)
Arc of Cancer rising in 2h:18m:44s = 30
Arc of Cancer rising in 1h:14m:11s =
= 1602'30"
(30 / 2:18:44) x 1:14:11