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Requirements for two components


to react with each other:
1. There should be collision between the
reactants

2. The activation energy supplied must be


sufficient

3. They must be in the correct position or


orientation

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Activation Energy

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Collision Theory

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Kinetic Energy

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Transition State Theory


 The activated complex is a hypothetical
species lying between reactants and
products at a point on the reaction
profile called the transition state.

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Catalysis on a Surface

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Enzyme Catalysis

k1 k2
E + S  ES ES → E + P
k-1

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Michaelis--Menten
Michaelis
d[P] k1k2[E]0 [S]
=
dt (k-1+k2 ) + k1[S]

d[P] d[P] k2[E]0 [S]


= k2[E]0 =
dt dt (k-1+k2 ) + [S]
k1
d[P] k2 d[P] k2[E]0 [S]
= [E]0 [S] =
dt KM dt KM + [S]

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Saturation Kinetics
k1 k2
d[P]
= k2[ES]
E + S  ES → E + P dt
k-1
d[P]
= k1[E][S] – k-1[ES] – k2[ES]= 0
dt
k1[E][S] = (k-1+k2 )[ES]

[E] = [E]0 – [ES]

k1[S]([E]0 –[ES]) = (k-1+k2 )[ES]

k1[E]0 [S]
[ES] =
(k-1+k2 ) + k1[S]

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Arrhenius Plot
N2O5(CCl4) → N2O4(CCl4) + ½ O2(g)

-Ea
= -1.2104 K
R

-Ea = 1.0102 kJ mol-1

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Types of Reactors

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Concentration Profiles in Reactors

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Backmix Reactor Plug Flow Reactor/Batch Reactor

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Comparison of Backmix and Plug Flow Reactors

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Reaction behavior in a semi-log plot

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-rA

CA For some isothermal rate equations and


Their integrals, see Table 7-4 P/7th
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If the number of reactors in the series of CSTRs approaches


infinity, the entire system will behave like a plug flow reactor.

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Discussion of Review Questions and Problems

Next

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