Você está na página 1de 3

Practical Exam in Quantitative Research Writing

First Sem
S.Y. 2017-2018

Name: ______________________________ Section: _______________ Score:

Directions: UNDERLINE THE IMPORTANT DETAILS IN THE PARAGRAPH. REWRITE the review of related literature ON A
YELLOW PAD (dont forget the essentials such as paraphrasing, chapter introduction, ORDER/ format for rrls, synthesis,
and transition words). (100 pts)

ACCEPTABILITY OF THE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING IMPROVEMENT PLAN


TOWARDS ICT LEARNING INSTITUTION

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Local Literature

Caputo and Rastelli (2014) said that it is no surprise that many environmental education programs include outdoor
experiences as a foundational part of their curriculum; after all, who better to teach ecological lessons than nature itself?
In contrast, there are inherent challenges to teaching environmental education while restricted inside a classroom. The
average student currently spends two-thirds of thirds of the year in classroom environment. Educators and former
students themselves can easily visualize the standard school: a concrete box that contains multiple climate controlled,
rectangular classrooms, often devoid of natural elements such as plants, fresh air and sunlight. The sheer amount of time
spent by youth in these built environment demands greater attention to their design. There are many ways to design
schools and their surroundings to embody and teach ecological principles, both explicitly and implicitly. The construction
of educational institutions is just as important as what is taught within them. The author emphasizes that integrating
ecologically efficient technologies, developing outdoor learning spaces, and bringing the outside in are all strategies that
can be employed to foster greater ecological awareness in students. Building a sustainable future literally begins with the
foundation.
Macalino (2014) stated that educational facilities as all the physical properties of a school, consisting the grounds,
buildings, and various facilities within the school grounds and inside the school buildings. He explained that an excellent
school plant and facilities had the following: school gate with main entrance and service gate a good strong fence around
the school site to secure the school against stray animals and squatters; display of Philippine National flag and shall occupy
a prominent place in front of the main building in the assembly area; sign board (in Filipino and English) to identify the
name and location of the school displayed in front of the main building. He believed that a good seating is necessary for
comfort and good posture and is crucial to the proper physical development of the child. School tables such students
table, teachers table library table, demonstration table, dining table, and conference table must be designed according
to its use and function.

Foreign Literature

According to Abramson (2012), an important factor in achievement is the number of square feet per student. He
advocated large media centers, dining halls, and courtyards that can serve as important meeting places for students and
teachers and help establish identities for schools. He found higher achievement in schools with adequate space, and
further found that if the functions of those spaces were related to curricular programs the success of the programs were
greater.
The aesthetics of a building can impact student achievement and behavior. How a building looks and is maintained
was found to have a direct influence on learning and performance (Hathaway, 2011). How often and how quickly is graffiti
removed? Responses to a national opinion poll by Hawkins and Stack (2012) indicated that the public appeared to
associate higher student achievement with the quality of the school building.
Lunenburg (2010) explained that a key responsibility of school administrators is facilities management. School
buildings across the nation are aging and becoming a barrier to optimal learning and teaching. This results in escalating
school infrastructure costs. A case can be made to renovate or build new facilities that maximize an effective learning
environment. This will involve allocation of funds for building renovation or new construction.

Local Studies
Limon (2016) mentioned that Practice House in a school must be designed as self-contained Filipino home consists
of sala set, bedroom, kitchen, toilet, bath, storage room, classroom and back porch. He added that excellent school plant
and facilities must have functional facilities. Functional means complete equipments and furniture and the said facility
must useful to all the students in the institution. Practice house in secondary schools is very important because of the
offering of K to 12 program.
Avila (2012) pointed out, school site affects the importance the public holds of its schools. It also conditions how
visitors and newcomers perceive the school. It is possible that it also affects how children in a school perceive it. The
location of the site may also affect the childrens attitude to school attendance and possibly the achievements of some of
them at school.
Germo (2011) revealed that the government develops a legal framework to suggest the primary goals of education
as presented the content of the Basic Education Act of 2001. The Act embodies the overall aim of Basic Education to train
Filipino students to develop in them competencies in literacy, numeracy, and critical thinking with the help of buildings
and adequate facilities that were useful in the transfer of learning.
Bago (2013), effective instruction is the primary aim of effective school plant and facilities. Research findings
revealed that two of the important things can be correlated with effective school students learn with specific allotted time
task assigned to them. She explained that instructional leadership is considered the most crucial variable together with
the facilities that were used inside the school.
Cruz, Villena, Navarro, Belecina and Garvida (2016) pointed out that the main purpose of this study was to
determine the level of managerial performance of school heads, their strengths, and weaknesses in the different areas of
school heads, their teachers, and senior students. It attempted to propose an enhancement plan based on the identified
weaknesses to propose a vis--vis the managerial performance of school heads in performing their functions. The study
used a descriptive method of research that involved in the participation of four (4) schools in the Division of Cavite, with
their ten (10) school heads, thirty eight (38) teachers, and one hundred thirty four (134) senior students. The validated
survey instrument containing 50 questions were used and covered assigned seven (7) areas of school management namely
the (1) vision-mission-goals, (2) curriculum and instructional management, (3) financial and budgeting management, (4)
school plant and facilities, (50) student services management, (6) community relations management, and (7) management
of school development plan. The findings and results of the study revealed school heads exhibited very satisfactory level
in performing their managerial functions in all management areas identified. It also revealed that there were significant
differences in the managerial performance of school heads in the areas of vision-mission goals, financial and budgeting,
physical plant and facilities, community relations and management of school development plan. The data on the
weaknesses of school heads in performing managerial functions in identified areas of school management provided the
basis in proposing a development plan that may be used in improving their functions and in providing a key to more
development programs for school heads in the division.
De Dios (2013) mentioned that the school can provide education program to strengthen teachers competencies
in oral communication and art of questioning, teaching problem solving, and preparation of teaching aids and devices and
utilization of evaluative instruments together with adequate school facilities that can facilitate learning and accommodate
the students inside the building comfortably.

Foreign Studies
Lackney, (2012) revealed that between grades one and 12, one out of every three children attends a school that
is in disrepair. As a result, many American students and teachers find themselves in physical environments that may
adversely affect them physically and psychologically. Unfortunately, school districts often elect to postpone repairs and
delay construction of new facilities to save money during periods of financial shortage. A national survey conducted by
the American Association of School Administrators found that 74 percent of school facilities should be replaced or repaired
immediately; another 12 percent were identified as inadequate places of learning. Due to fiscal restraints and obligations
to mandated state and federal programs, making cuts in facility maintenance is often considered less devastating than
slashing academic programs.
Lemasters, (2011) pointed out that deferred maintenance can create an environment of peeling paint, crumbling
plaster, nonfunctioning toilets, poor lighting, inadequate ventilation, and inoperative heating and cooling systems.
McGuffey, (2013) found that old and obsolete buildings do have a negative effect upon the learning process of
students and that safe, modern, and controlled environment facilities enhance the learning process. He also stated that
school facilities might have a differential impact upon the performance of students in different ages and subjects. Eight of
the nine studies McGuffey reviewed found a significant relationship between a controlled environment and student
achievement. Good lighting quality was found to relate positively to increases in student achievement and performance.
Cash (2011) examined the relationship between the conditions of school facilities. The targeted population for the
study was the students in small rural high schools in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Schools that were included in the
study were high schools located outside urban areas with a senior class population of less than 100 students. Cash
identified a total of 47 high schools to include in her study. Their total student populations ranged in size from 90 to 695
and their senior class populations ranged in size from 12 to 99. The main data elements in the study were school building
condition, student achievement, student behavior and the socioeconomic status of the students in the school. School
building condition, the independent variable, was determined by data received from the Commonwealth Assessment of
Physical Environment (CAPE).
Lanham (2013) examined the relationship between the condition of school facilities and student achievement and
behavior in elementary school students in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Lanham used a random sample of 300 of the
989 elementary schools in Virginia that housed both third and fifth grades students. Of the schools selected, 197 actually
participated. The data elements that were used in the Lanham study were building and classroom conditions, student
achievement, the socioeconomic status of the schools, and demographic information related to each school. School
building condition, the independent variable, was determined by data received from the Commonwealth Assessment of
Physical Environment (CAPE). Although the survey was based on the CAPE used in the Cash (2011) study, some
modifications were made such as eliminating those items that related strictly to high school and including items that had
been developed concerning the availability and use of technology. The information from the CAPE was used to rate
buildings overall as either substandard or standard.
Branham (2012) studied the relationship between inadequate school infrastructures using the 226 schools in
Houston Independent School District (HISD) for the 1995-96 school year. The focus of the study was the relationship
between problematic school infrastructure and student achievement. According to the author the HISD was the ideal
school district for this study. The HISD was represented by schools with groups of students from various ethnic
backgrounds. Some schools had a high percentage of students with limited English proficiency (LEP) while other schools
had very few LEP students.
ONeill (2013) investigated the possible impact of school facilities on student achievement, behavior, attendance,
and teacher turnover rates at selected Central Texas middle schools in Region XIII Educational Service Center (ESC) area.
The principals of all 76 middle schools in the area were sent survey packets and invited to participate. The actual number
of principals who participated in the study was 70, a 92 percent participation rate. In addition to the survey data, personal
interviews were conducted with ten percent of the principals collecting first hand qualitative data concerning the impact
of school facilities on student achievement, behavior, attendance, and teacher turnover rate. Data related to student
achievement, behavior, attendance, and teacher turnover rate were also obtained through the Texas Education
Lair (2012) explored the relationship between school facilities including library facilities, guidance counseling
facilities, athletic facilities, home economics and industrial facilities, school lunch facilities and sanitary facilities and
student achievement as measured by the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) in high performing, high poverty
school districts in Texas. This study investigated whether the condition of the school facilities in the Ysleta
Lewis (2011) studied 139 Milwaukee public schools and examined the association of building condition with
student test scores compared to other influences such as family background, socioeconomic status, attendance,
race/ethnicity, and student discipline. The study analyzed the performance on the Wisconsin Student Assessment System
Mathematics, Science, Language, and Social Studies tests of fourth, eighth, and tenth grades of each school in 2010, 2011,
and 2012. The Construction Control Corporation provided the facility scores from information they had for a study done
in 2011. The facility score consisted of four separate measures: an
Lemaster (2011) meta-analysis also reviewed the relationship between student achievement and school facilities.
Her investigation found that students had higher achievement scores in newer facilities. In addition, there were fewer
discipline problems, and attendance records were better in new facilities. Further, the social climate perceived by students
was considerably more favorable in new schools. She also found that as the condition of the facility improved,
achievement improved. Her study indicates that higher student achievement was associated with schools with better
science laboratories and that the attitude toward the science classroom predicted science achievement. In fact, there was
higher achievement in air-conditioned schools and schools with pastel painted walls; a cause-effect relationship between
the variables of color and light was that shades of blue significantly reduced blood pressure. Finally, she found that there
was higher student achievement with less external noise.