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AstronomyC121/25

BrighteststarintheskyiscalledSirius
IntheSouth
OriontheHunter
3starsishisbelt
TryingtoshootTaurus
TaurustheBull
TheVishishorns
Brightstarinhorns
ThePleiades
7sisters
JupiterisaboutasbrightasSirius
OffSW
Yellowishbrownishtint

Thesunrisesintheeast,goesoverhead,andthensetsinthewest.
Inthesummer,thesunriseshigherandstaysuplonger
Moonandthestarsalsoriseintheeastandsetinthewest
Seasonsoccurregularlyeveryyear
Moongoesthroughphases(new,crescent,quarter,gibbous,full)
Tidesaresometimeshigh,andsometimestheyarelow

Constellations
Apatternofgroupingofstars
Arbitrarybecausetheydonotrepresentthedistancebetweenstars
TheIAUsetstheofficialbordersofconstellations
NamescomefromAncientArabsandGreeks
Somenamedby17thand18thcenturyexplorers

TheCelestialSphere
Theskylookslikeadome(hemisphere)
Thisisa2dimensionalrepresentationofthesky
Lacksdistances
Earthisthecenterofthecelestialsphere
Celestialequatorisanextensionofearthsequator
Celestialpolesareextensionsofearthspoles
Eclipticisthesunspathagainstthestarbackground
OrbitalplaneofEarth

EarthsAnnualMotion
Earthorbitsthesuncausingthesuntoappeartomoveeastwardwithrespecttothe
backgroundstars.
Thesunappearstocirclethecelestialsphereonceeveryyear
TheMilkyWay
Bandoflightacrossthenightsky
Composedoftonsofstars

ToSpecifyAnyLocationintheSky
Zenithisdirectlyoverheadat90degrees
Horizonis0degrees
AltitudeandDirectionangleareneeded
Alt.=degrees

Rotation
Becausetheearthspinsonacounterclockwiseaxis
Objectsintheskygotheoppositeways
Thingsdontriseorsetatthepoles.

DailyMotion
Starslocatedatananglelessthanyourlatitude
Neverset=circumpolar

Northcelestialpole/NorthStarisPolaris
Southcelestialpoleisnotactuallyastar

Seasons
Seasonsareoppositebetweenthetwohemispheres
Theyoccurbecausetheearthsaxisistilted
SummersolsticeJune21st
Firstdayofsummerandlongestdayoftheyear
Earthsspinaxisistiltedtowardthesun
Sunhitsmoredirectly
TakestimeforthemoredirectsunlighttoheattheEarthup
ThatswhyJulyhasthehottestdays
Distancevariationdoesntmatter
Itsonly3%
Itdoesmatterforsomeotherplanets
Ex.Mars

PrecessionofEarthsAxis
Wobbles/precessesevery26,000years
PolariswontbetheNorthStaranymore

PhasesoftheMoon
29.5daycycle
Newmoonwaxingcrescent1stquarterwaxinggibbousfullmoon
Fullmoonwaninggibbous3rdquarterwaningcrescentnewmoon
HalfthemoonisilluminatedbytheSunandhalfisdark
Weseesomecomboofthebrightanddarkfaces
Eclipses
Solareclipse
Moonblocksthesun
Onlyatanewmoon
LunarEclipse
Earthblocksthesunlightfromgettingtothemoon
Happensonlyatfullmoon