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ASSIGNMENT

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
Manufacturing System Lab. Industrial Engineering Dept. 5th Semester 2017 - 2018
TITLE (MAX 14 WORDS)

The writer(s) states that this assignment is my (our) own work


and has done it as the best as I (we) can. All the usage of others idea, thought
and written statement have been written with sufficient citation -
I (we) commit to accept all the consequences towards the plagiarism
that has been made starting from no mark for this assignment, mark
deduction of other evaluation for this subject and other academic consequences.

AUTHOR(S)

QUALITY CONTROL ENGINEERING


Student *
No. Fullname Signature Score
Number

1. Made Gilang S 02411540000076

2. Evita Nuriya R 02411540000094

Taufan Andika Lecturers


3. 02411540000096
N Signature

4.

5.

6.

Your academic success which is made honestly


is the proof of your excellent integrity,
for the bright future

Submission Date:
7 DECEMBER 2017
___ (Receivers Signature)
Class

X
TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................................... i


CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background .................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Problem Formulation ................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Objectives .................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Benefit .......................................................................................................................... 2
1.4.1 Benefits for Writers .............................................................................................. 2
1.4.2 Benefit for Alpha Kimia ....................................................................................... 2
1.5 Assumptions and Limitations ...................................................................................... 2
1.5.1 Assumptions ......................................................................................................... 2
1.5.2 Limitations ............................................................................................................ 2
CHAPTER 2 ............................................................................................................................... 3
STUDY LITERATURE ............................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Quality ......................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Quality System ............................................................................................................. 3
2.3 Quality Assurance ........................................................................................................ 4
2.4 KAIZEN....................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 3 ............................................................................................................................... 7
WORK METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 7
3.1 Flowchart of Methodology .......................................................................................... 7
3.2 Flowchart Explanation ................................................................................................. 7
CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................... 9
ANALYSIS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE ............................................................................... 9
4.1 Analysis of Alpha Kimia Quality Assurance ............................................................... 9
4.1.1 Analysis of recipe for product .............................................................................. 9
4.1.2 Analysis on final checking of Alpha Kimia production process ........................ 10
CHAPTER 5 ............................................................................................................................. 13
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ..................................................................................... 13
5.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 13
5.2 Suggestions ................................................................................................................ 13
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 14
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3. 1 Flowchart of Methodology....................................................................................... 7


Figure 4. 1 Alpha Kimia recipe for handsoap product ............................................................... 9

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the explanation of background, problem formulation, objective, benefit,


assumption and limitation of the assignment will be provided.

1.1 Background
Small and medium enterprise (SME) business has been the main activity of
generating money for Indonesian community in this years. SME business also has been
one of the main concern of Indonesian government to be developed in order to elevate
the prosperity level of Indonesian citizen. Nowadays, there are so many types of SME
business that run by Indonesian, such as food business, handcraft business, and many
more. One of the rare SME Business on Indonesia is Hygiene product business. Hygiene
product SME business usually sell hygiene product such as soap, detergent, carbolic,
and many more. Writers have a chance to review one hygiene product business in
Surabaya, which is Alpha Kimia. Alpha Kimia located in Sidoarjo, on Brigjen Katamso
street No.85, Kepuhkiriman, Waru. Alpha Kimia has several products, such as
handsoap, detergent, softener, ironing aid product, and perfume. Writers have a chance
to review one of their product, which is handsoap.
There are so many aspect affecting the product output. We can mention, the raw
material of the product, the process of product making, the worker skills, and the last
but not the least is quality management aspect. Quality management aspect can be
divided into 3 main aspect, which are Quality Planning (QP), Quality Assurance (QA),
and Quality Control and Improvement (QC&I). Quality Planning is a sequence of action
to plan the quality that want to be implemented to the product, while Quality Assurance
have a close relation to the course of action to assure the quality that have been planned
is implemented into the product, and Quality Control and Improvement is a course of
activities to control the quality of the product and also improve the quality of the product
into the next level of quality standard. In this opportunity, writers try to analyze the
Quality Assurance (QA) aspect of Alpha Kimia. There are several ways to analyze
Quality Assurance system of a company, such as Kaizen, Malcolm Bridge, Total Quality
Management, ISO, and Six Sigma. Writers assigned Kaizen as the method to be use to
analyze the Quality Assurance (QA) of the company.
Kaizen comes from Japanese language that means continous improvement.
Kaizen has commonly used to analyze quality assurance of a company, and one of the
most succes application of Kaizen is on Toyota. Kaizen concept is simply to make
continous improvement in every aspect of the bussiness, which started by disenchant all
the worker on the company to have the same perception about quality assurance, that
can be started by the lowest level of the worker. Kaizen concept believe that all
improvement, even the minimum one, can lead into a big effect to the business. Writers
try to analyze the implementation of quality assurance in Alpha Kimia, whether they
have implement the Kaizen concept or not. Writers would also give some feedback and
suggestion for the business so they can improve their business in the future.

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1.2 Problem Formulation
The problem formulation that need to be answered after finsihing this assignment
is as follows.
1. How is the implementation of Quality Assurance (QA) on Alpha Kimia?
2. How is the Kaizen Quality Assurance implementation on Alpha Kimia?
3. What improvement can be made for Quality Assurance of Alpha Kimia?

1.3 Objectives
The objective that can be obtained after finishing this final projecy is as follows.
1. To know how to implement Quality Assurance on a business.
2. To know how to implement Kaizen Quality Assurance on a business.
3. To make improvement on Quality Assurance on a business.

1.4 Benefit
The benefit that can be obtained after finishing this final project can be divided
into two, which is benefit for the writers and benefit for Alpha Kimia, which are:
1.4.1 Benefits for Writers
The benefit that can be obtained for the writers by making this final
project is as follows:
1. Writers can know how to implement Quality Assurance on a
business.
2. Writers can know how to implement Kaizen Quality Assurance on a
business.
1.4.2 Benefit for Alpha Kimia
The Benefit that can be obtained for the Alpa Kimia from this final
project is as follows:
1. Alpha Kimia can have input in the form of suggestion in order to
improve their business process.

1.5 Assumptions and Limitations


The assumption and limitations that is used in the making this final project will
be explained.
1.5.1 Assumptions
The assumptions that is used in making this final project is as follows.
1. The data that is used for this final project is valid
2. The data that is used does not affected by the change of time.
1.5.2 Limitations
The limitation that is used in making this final project is as follows.
1. The data is compounded by interview technique.
2. The data collection is held on 13 October 2017.

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CHAPTER 2
STUDY LITERATURE

In this chapter, the study literatures that are needed for this final project will be
explained. The study literature will cover the the theory about quality, quality system, quality
assurance and KAIZEN thoroughly.

2.1 Quality
The traditional definition of quality is based on the viewpoint that products and
services must meet the requirements of those who use them. In another words, quality
means fitness for use. But, those traditional definition is outdated now. There is a
modern definition of quality. Quality is inversely proportional to variability. It implies
that if the variability in the important characteristic of a product decreases, the quality
of the product increases.
Quality is also the customers' perception of the value of the suppliers' work
output. The process and human factor cant be separated, therefore when quality is built
into a product, it will generates emotions and feelings within those who have taken part
in its creation. High quality is not an added value; it is an essential basic requirement.
Quality does not only relate solely to the end products and services a Company provides
but also relates to the way the Company employees do their job and the work processes
they follow to produce products or services. The work processes should be as efficient
as possible and continually improving. Company employees constitute the most
important resource for improving quality. Each employee in all organizational units is
responsible for ensuring that their work processes are efficient and continually
improving. Top management should provide the training and an appropriate motivating
environment to foster teamwork both within and across organizational units for
employees to improve processes. Ultimately, everyone in a Company is responsible for
the quality of its products and services.

2.2 Quality System


Quality system is defined as the organizational structure, responsibilities,
processes, procedures and resources for implementing quality management. Its the
system that an organization used to manage the quality of their services or products.
Quality management includes those aspects of the overall management function that
determine and implement the company quality policy and quality objectives. Both
quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management.
A quality management system consist of several elements. Based on ISO 9001,
the elements can be categorized as follows.
Management planning, goals and objectives, reviewing progress
Resources people, tools, equipment, etc
Services and products realization whatever is involed in creating ot
delivering them
Monitor, measurement and checking the all important feedback loop
The scope of quality management system extends beyond just what company do
to make service or product itself. It includes how company:
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Manage the organization (planning, setting goals, reviewing progress and
result)
Make sure people are competent for their work and the right resources are
available
Check and analyse result to see what happened and why
Identify failures or problems systematically and fix them
Improve
All those elements work together in the system with two main overall aims, those
are as follows.
Producing sevices or goods of consistent quality which meets all applicable
requirements
Increasing customer satisfaction
In order to make quality management system works, there is a need for top
management commitment and active involvement in the establishment, management
and monitoring of quality systems is critical and is achieved by:
Defining and documenting a quality policy and quality objectives and
ensuring that both the policy and objectives are understood and
implemented by all employees at all levels;
Ensuring that appropriate processes are implemented to fully satisfy
customer needs and expectations and Company objectives;
Defining and documenting the responsibility, authority and interrelation of
key personnel managing the quality systems;
Providing adequate resources for implementing and maintaining the quality
systems;
Conducting scheduled management reviews of the quality systems to assess
their continued suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency; and
Deciding on actions for continual quality improvement;
Etc.

2.3 Quality Assurance


Quality assurance is methodology used in the development of products or
services that ensure a level of quality in production. It encompasses the processes and
procedures that systematically monitor different aspects of a service, process or facility
to detect and correct problems or variances that fall outside of established standards or
requirements. By ensuring a level of quality in its products or services, the business is
able to build a positive reputation for reliability and consistency. This bolsters consumer
trust and confidence in the business and helps it compete with other businesses in the
same market.
Quality assurance focus on providing confidence that quality requirements are
fulfilled. As related to clinical trials, it includes all those planned and systemic actions
that are established to ensure that the trial is performed and the data are generated,
documented (recorded), and reported in compliance with GCP and the applicable
regulatory requirements

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Quality assurance is the responsibility of the quality assurance department. The
mission of a quality assurance department is to provide an effective and efficient quality
assurance system and counsel for the operational units. The quality assurance
department must be manned by an adequate number of dedicated and adequately
qualified and trained personnel with well-developed interpersonal skills. The well-
developed interpersonal skills will provide the quality assurance personnel with
persuasive, diplomatic, tactful and resilient qualities generally required of them. The
quality assurance department must operate independently from the operational units and
it must regularly perform quality review activities (self-inspection audits/internal audits)
to ensure compliance within operational units with Company quality standards, good
working practices [GxPs: current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), Good
Laboratory Practice (GLP), GCP, etc.], and local, national, regional and international
legal, ethical and regulatory requirements.

2.4 KAIZEN
Kaizen is a lean manufacturing tool that improve quality, productivity, safety,
and workplace culture. It focuses on applying small, daily changes that results in major
improvement over time. The philosophy first appeared when several Japanese business,
shortly after World War II, embraced the idea that doing things the way theyve always
been done was a bad idea, especially when better options were available that would
make them more competitive. Inspired by western competitors and manufacturing
methods, Kaizen came to be synonymous with company wide efforts to improve upon
and intelligently streamline business practices and manufacturing methods while
simultaneously respecting the product, craft, or the people involved with making it. By
applicating Kaizen, there are several benefits that can be obtained. The benefits are as
follows:
Increased productivity
Improved quality
Better safety
Lower costs
Improved customer statisfaction
Improved communication and cooperation
Improced morale and employee statisfaction
Greater personal investment in the company among employee and
management
Kaizen works by reducing waste and eliminating work process that are overly
difficult. It has one simple principle: look at how things can be improved, improve them,
and then improve them again and again. It can be done by using Plan-Do-Check-Act
(PDCA) to apply continuous improvement cycle. It can also be done by using other lean
tools such as automation, kanban, 5S and TPM. As a lean business practice, Kaizen
succeds when all employees look for areas to improves and provide suggestions based
on their observation and experience. In order that Kaizen can be successfully done, the
continuous improvement that is done can be broken down into six steps, those are:
Standardize. Come up with a process for a specific activity thats repeatable
and organized.
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Measure. Examine whether the process is efficient using quanitifiable data.
Compare. Compare the measurements against requirements. Does this
prcess save time? Does it take too much time? Does it accomplish the
desired result?
Innovate. Search for new, better ways to do the same work or achieve the
same result. Look for smarter, more efficient routes to the same end goal
that boost productivity.
Standardize. Create repeatable, defined processes for those new, more
efficient activities.
Repeat. Go baack to step one and repeat again.

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CHAPTER 3
WORK METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the flowchart of work methodology that is used in making this final
project will be shown and explained further.

3.1 Flowchart of Methodology


In this subchapyer, the flowchart of methodology of this final project will be
shown. The flowchart is as follows.

Figure 3. 1 Flowchart of Methodology


(Source: Writers, 2017)

3.2 Flowchart Explanation


In this subchapter, the flowchart above will be explained. The first step in doing
this final project is identify the problems that happens on the observation object which
is Alpha Kimia. After the problem has been found, the problem and objective of this
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final project is formulated. Then, writers do both direct observation and study literature
simultaneously. Direct observation is done on Alpha Kimia which is located at Jl.
Brigjen Katamso No.85, Kepuhkiriman, Waru, Sidoarjo. Observation is done to know
the condition of quality assurance in Alpha Kimia while study literature is done so that
in making this final project, there is grounding base to it. After that, writers collect the
data of the condition of quality assurance in Alpha Kimia. The data is collected by
interviewing one of the worker there. Then, the data that has been obtained is processed
and analyzed by writers. Kaizen means small but continuous improvement. So, in order
to improve the quality assurance of Alpha Kimia, writer do several improvement based
on the data of condition of quality assurance in Alpha Kimia. The improvement that is
done is mainly focus on standardization of soap making process and quality inspection
process. Finally, the conclusions of the final project and suggestions that can be given
for Alpha Kimia is constructed.

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CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

In this chapter, the analysis of existing condition of Alpha Kimia related to the concept
of quality assurance and KAIZEN will be provided.

4.1 Analysis of Alpha Kimia Quality Assurance


Quality Assurance (QA) concept more focus on how the company ensure the
quality that their product bring to the customer is completely well. After we learn the
concept of quality assurance on the literature review, we try to analyze how Alpha Kimia
ensure their products quality to the customer. The latest information that we got from
Alpha Kimia that they have several ways to ensure their product quality, such as by
having recipe for their product, and also final rechecking of some subjective aspect such
as smell, color, and also the viscosity (only checked by clarify the soap ). The following
is the analysis of each ways that implemented by Alpha Kimia.
4.1.1 Analysis of recipe for product
Recipe of product known as one of the fundamental method to ensure
the quality of a product. Recipe can ensure that the material mixed in the product
has a perfect amount, so that the product can deliver the best quality to the
customer. Alpha Kimia have their own recipe for each of their product, here is
one of the recipe example of Alpha Kimia product, which is handsoap.

Figure 4. 1 Alpha Kimia recipe for handsoap product

As you can see from the recipe, they actually have a quite well quality
assurance, but one things that might be disturbing is the fact that Alpha Kimia

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use interval for the recipe. One of the example is the amount of salt, it is written
that they use 10-30 gram of salt to make the handsoap. Writers think that this
might affect the quality of the product. There is a potency of misunderstanding
of the recipe. Eventhough the idea of the making a recipe is good, it would be
more perfect if it is completed with a detailed measurement for each of the
component, for example for making a handsoap use only 10 gram of salt, etc.
The other things that might affect the product quality is the procedure of product
making. As you can see from the figure that the procedure given on the recipe is
not clear enough, especially for someone that not familiar with the process of
soap making. It will decrease the speed of transfer knowledge between
employee. Moreover, when the employee of Alpha Kimia resign from the job,
and they take in a new employee, the process of adapting to the standard of the
company will be longer than having a good and clear recipe. As writers mention
before, there are some procedure that not clear enough to be understood. For
example, how is completely dissolved to be explained?. There are no brief
explanation about the standard of completely dissolved on Alpha Kimia. The
recipe also does not mention the tools used in the making of the product. Writers
think that this is also a main issue for the recipe that been used by Alpha Kimia.
It would be better if they gave the detail of equipment needed to make the
product, because in writers experience that the different tools will lead into
different process and output. For example, the writers already conduct the
practicum on handsoap making, at the first trial, writers try to use a big diameter
bucket, which the time needed to make the soap completely dissolved is way
longer than writers second trial, which used smaller diameter bucket. These type
of things might be the concern for Alpha Kimia to revised their recipe, so they
can improve their quality assurance system for their product, which gonna lead
into customer satisfaction and level up their business.

4.1.2 Analysis on final checking of Alpha Kimia production process


Alpha kimia have a regulation of final checking on their product before
it is packaged. The final checking consist of subjective testing, which include
smell test, colour test, and also viscosity test (but with the subjective ways, by
clarify the viscosity without measurement). The idea of final checking is good
because it will ensure that the product that delivered to the customer is met the
standard, but the method that Alpha Kimia use is lack of assurance. As we know
that quality is always corelated with quantitative measurement with subjective
as the additional information for the quality control. As writers mention before,
Alpha Kimia do the final checking of viscosity by the subjective way, not the
objective one. They still rely on their employee capability to check whether the
product is belong inside the standard or not, and this method might have different
output between one to another employee, since it was subjective method. It
would be better if the company have a proper test for the viscosity test, such as
by using viscometer, as one of the tools that can measure viscosity. Writers know
that viscometer would cost the company a big amount of money, but it would be
a very good investment for the company if they really want to improve their
business process. For the rest measurement, which is smell and colour of the
product, writers thinks that it would be hard to be measured by quantiative
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method, since there were no tools to measure them. But, those factors still need
to be confirmed to be standardize. One of the method that can be used is by
educate the employeer about the standard that applied for the products. It is so
important to have the same perception among all the stakeholder of the company,
especially on the production section about the quality assurance. Writers believe
that if the stakeholders already have the same perception and knownledge, the
probability of accept the fail product will be decrease, and it would drive the
company to the next level.

4.2 Analysis of Possible Kaizen Quality Assurance Implementation in Alpha Kimia


In the previous subchapter the existing condition of Alpha Kimia quality
assurance is already discussed. Then, several problems are found regarding the quality
assurance system of Alpha Kimia. Based on that consideration, writers think that a better
quality assurance method is needed in order to reach the better product quality of Alpha
Kimia. One of the quality assurance method that feasible to be implemented in the Alpha
Kimia is Kaizen.
As already mentioned in study literature, Kaizen is a lean manufacturing tool
that improve quality, productivity, safety, and workplace culture. It focuses on applying
small, daily changes that results in major improvement over time. The foundation of
Kaizen consists of five foundation elements. The first element is teamwork. In the
corporate or business set up, there is a need for all employees to work as a team towards
the common goal of achieving the desired improvement on production. All participants
must work their best for the good of their colleagues and the company. Teamwork
involves sharing chores, training, timely delivery among many others. The second
element is personal discipline. Discipline is paramount to all types of success. The
employee should have self-discipline in time management, quality assurance, material
management, finances and loyalty to the company and its public. The third element is
improved morale. The employer, or the senior management, should put in place
motivational strategies in their Kaizen concept such as good working conditions, merit
promotions, better remuneration, and worker benefits such as paid leaves, allowances,
medical care, bonuses, and loans among many others. The fourth element is quality
circles. Employees will have opportunities to share ideas, skills, technology and other
relevant resources. The exchange encourages them to gauge their performance based on
other companies Kaizen programs and thus try to improve. The last element of the
Kaizen system is the provision for the opportunity to air suggestions freely no matter
the workers rank. No matter how absurd the suggestions may be, they should be
welcomed, appreciated and considered at all times.
After knowing the elements of Kaizen, tools are needed in order to assist the
company, in this case Alpha Kimia, reach a better quality assurance. The first tool that
can be used by Alpha Kimia is 5S. It refers to the Japanese words Seiri, Seiton, Seiso,
Seiketsu and Shitsuke or translated into English, Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize,
and Sustain. This system is recognized by the simplicity with which you can understand
and apply in the daily life of the organization, as well as involving all who work in it.
Seiri or Sort refers to the elimination of unnecessary items in the workplace. To make
this step is necessary to be clear about what will be the criteria to select or remove
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objects. After this, the deleted objects passed to a second review to decide will be done
with them. Seiton or Set in order is where everything is classified and has a specific
place for storage. Seiso or Shine involves the cleaning part that will take place every
day. It is not only clean but also try to avoid get dirty as possible. This should be done
not only to have more order in the company but a responsibility to the environment, by
cleaning everything that can pollute and reduce waste. Seiketsu or Standardize invites
to make all the above steps a habit. Finally, Shitsuke or Sustain, speaks of self-discipline.
At this point, all members of the company constantly apply 5s looking to improve more
every day.
Beside 5S, the other tools that can be implemented in Alpha Kimia are Kaizen
Report and/or Kaizen Suggestion Board. Basically the principle of these two tools are
similar and quite simple. The employees just have to write their suggestions that they
think can make affect to some improvement to the process in the company. After that,
they can give the paper to the supervisor or higher management or the paper can also be
put somewhere in the place that already determined and their suggestions will be
evaluated whether it is feasible or not to be implemented. With this tools, it can help the
employees or everyone else in the company to share their idea about the room of
improvement in order to achieve the goal of better product quality.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

In this chapter, the conclusions and suggestions that can be made after making the final
project will be explained.

5.1 Conclusions
In this subchapter, the conclusions of this final project will be explained. The
conclusions are as follows.
1. Alpha Kimia has already implement quality assurance in the form of recipe
for the produc and final checking.
2. There are some problems that found in Alpha Kimia quality assurance system,
which are the recipe is not completely clear and the final checking is still
using subjective measurement method for variable characteristic (viscosity).
3. Kaizen quality assurance can be implemented in Alpha Kimia in order to have
a better quality assurance system that will lead to better product quality.

5.2 Suggestions
In this subchapter, the suggestions that can be made by making this final project
will be explained. The suggestions are as follows.
1. For the recipe of the product, it should be completed with a detailed
measurement for each of the component, the clear procedure of product
making, and the detail of equipment needed.
2. For the final checking of the product, the company should have a proper test
for the viscosity test, such as by using viscometer. All of the members in
Alpha Kimia should have the same perception, especially on the production
section about the quality assurance.
3. Alpha Kimia should implement several simple Kaizen quality assurance
tools, such as 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke) and Kaizen
Report and/or Kaizen Suggestion Board

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REFERENCES

Bennett, Jane. n.d. What is a Quality System?. Accessed 3 December 2017.<


http://www.iso9001consultant.com.au/FAQs-quality-systems-management.html>
Bradbury, Joel. n.d. What is Kaizen?. Accessed 3 December
2017.<https://www.graphicproducts.com/articles/what-is-kaizen/>
Buck, James, 2017. Learn About Quality Assurance. Accessed 3 December
2017.<https://www.thebalance.com/definition-of-quality-assurance-2533665>
Henry, Alan. 2014. Get Better at Getting Better: The Kaizen Peoductivity Philosophy. Accessed
3 December 2017. <https://lifehacker.com/get-better-at-getting-better-the-kaizen-
productivity-p-1672205148>
Quality Digest, 2011. Definition of Quality. Accessed 3 December
2017.<https://www.qualitydigest.com/magazine/2001/nov/article/definition-quality.html#>
Manghani, Kishu, 2011. Quality Assurance: Importance of System and Standard Operating
Procedures. Accessed 3 December
2017.<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088954/>

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