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# Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 1

Sample Problems

Z1 Z1 Z1 Z25
1 x2 1 1
1. dx 5. xe dx 9. p dx 12. p dx
x4 x x
1 0 0 0

Z1 Z1
1 5x
2. dx 6. xe dx Z1
x
1 0 10. ln x dx Z2
1
0
13. p dx
Z1 Z1 2 x
1 1 1
3. dx 7. dx
x ln x 1 + x2
10 1 Z4
x
11. dx
Z1 Z1 x2 9 Z5
5x 1 1 1
4. e dx 8. dx 14. p
3
dx
x 2 x
0 0 0

Practice Problems

Z1 Z1 Z1 Z1
1 1 1 1
1. dx 6. p dx 11. 2
dx 16. p dx
x 3
x x +3 x x2 1
1 0 1 2

Z1 Z1 Z=2
1 1
2. dx 7. dx 12. tan x dx
x2 x ln x Z2
1 5 0 1
17. dx
(x 1) (x2 + 1)
Z1 Z1 Z1 1
3. e 5x dx 1 1
8. dx 13. p dx
x ln x 1 x2
2 0 0
Z1
Z1 Z1 Z1 1
1 x 18. dx
4. dx 9. xe 2x dx 14. p dx (x 1) (x2 + 1)
x 1 x2 2
0 0 0

Z1 Z2 Z2
1 x2 1
5. dx 10. dx 15. p dx Z1
x2 x3 8 x x2 1 1
0 1 1 19. p
3
dx
x
0

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 2

1 1 1 1
1.) 2.) 1 3.) 1 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.) 8.) 1 9.) 2 10.) 1
3 5 2 25
3 p
3
p
3
11.) unde ned 12.) 10 13.) 2 14.) 9 4
2

1 3 1
1.) 1 2.) 1 3.) 4.) 1 5.) 1 6.) 7.) 1 8.) 1 9.) 10.) 1
5e10 2 4
p
3
11.) 12.) 1 13.) 14.) 1 15.) 16.) 17.) 1
9 2 3 6
1 1 12 3
18.) ln 5 + tan 0:170 535 7 19.)
4 4 2 2

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 3

## Innite Limits of Integration

There are two types of improper integrals. The ones with innite limits of integration are easy to recognize, we are
Z1 Z1
1 1
asked about the area of a region that is innitely long. For example, dx and dx are such integrals. Let
x x4
1 1
ZN
1
N be a very large positive number. The denite integral dx is dened for all positive N . So what we do is
x4
1
we let N approach innity and determine what the values of the denite integrals are doing. If they approach a
nite number, we dene that to be the area under the graph. If the limit of the denite integrals is innte, we say
that the area under the graph is innite, and the integral diverges.

Z1
1 1
1. 4
dx =
x 3
1

Solution: We compute the limit of the denite integrals as the upper limit approaches innity.
0 1
Z
1 Z
N
1 x 3 N N 3 1 3 B 1 1 C C= 1
dx = lim x 4
dx = lim = lim = lim B@
x 4 N !1 N !1 3 1 N !1 3 3 N !1 3N 3 3 A 3
1 1 #
0

Z1
1
2. dx = 1
x
1

Solution: We compute the limit of the denite integrals as the upper limit approaches innity.
0 1
Z1 ZN N
1 1
dx = lim dx = lim ln jxj = lim @ln N ln 1A = 1
x N !1 x N !1 1 N !1 #
1 1 1

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 4

Z1
1
3. dx = 1
x ln x
10

1
Solution: We rst compute the indenite integral by substitution. Let u = ln x: Then du = dx.
x
Z Z Z
1 1 1 1
dx = dx = du = ln juj + C = ln jln xj + C
x ln x ln x x u

## Now we are ready to evaluate the improper integral.

0 1
Z1 ZN N
1 1
dx = lim dx = lim ln ln jxj = lim @ln (ln N ) ln (ln 10)A = 1
x ln x N !1 x ln x N !1 10 N !1 #
10 10 1

## This improper integral diverges.

Z1
5x dx 1
4. e =
5
0

Solution:
0 1
Z1 ZN !
e 5x N e 5N e 5(0) B 1 1 C
e 5x
dx = lim e 5x
dx = lim = lim = lim B C= 1
N !1 N !1 5 N !1 5 5 N !1 @ 5e5N 5A 5
0
0 0 #
0

Z1
x2 dx 1
5. xe =
2
0

Solution: We rst compute the indenite integral, by substitution. Let u = x2 : Then du = 2xdx:
Z Z Z Z
x2 x2 u 1 1 1 u 1 x2
xe dx = e (xdx) = e du = eu du = e +C = e +C
2 2 2 2

## Now we are ready to evaluate the improper integral.

0 1
Z1 ZN N N
1 1 1 1 B 1 1 C
xe x2
dx = lim xe x2
dx = lim e x2
= lim x2 = lim B C 1
2A =
N !1 N !1 2 0 2 N !1 e 0 2 N !1 @ eN 2 e0 2
0 0 #
0

Z1
5x dx 1
6. xe =
25
0

## Solution: We rst nd the antiderivative by integrating by parts. Let u = x and dv = e 5x dx.

Then du = dx and Z Z
1 5x
v = dv = e 5x dx = e +C
5

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 5

1 5x
u=x v= e
So we have 5
du = dx dv = e 5x dx
Z Z
u dv = uv v du becomes
Z Z Z
5x 1 5x 1 5x 1 5x 1 5x 1 5x 1 1 5x
xe dx = xe e dx = xe + e dx = xe + e +C
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
1 1 5x
= xe 5x e +C
5 25

## Now for the improper integral:

Z1 ZN N
5x 5x 1 5x 1 5x
xe dx = lim xe dx = lim xe e
N !1 N !1 5 25 0
0 0
1 5N 1 5N 1 5(0) 1 5(0)
= lim Ne e (0) e e
N !1 5 25 5 25
0 1
1 N 1 1 B1 1 N 1 C
= lim = lim B C
N !1 5 e5N 25e5N 25 N !1 @ 25 5 e5N 25e5N A
# #
? 0

N 1
The limit lim 5N
is an type of an indeterminate. We apply LHpitals rule:
N !1 e 1
N 1
lim
5N
= lim =0
N !1 e N !1 5e5N

Thus 0 1
Z1
B1 1 N 1 C
xe 5x
dx = lim B C= 1
N !1 @ 25 5 e5N 25e A 25
5N
0 # #
0 0

Z1
1
7. dx =
1 + x2
1

Solution: Both limits of this integral are innite. In case of such an integral, we separate it to a sum of two
improper integrals
Z1 Z0 Z1
1 1 1
2
dx = 2
dx + dx
1+x 1+x 1 + x2
1 1 0

1
Because f (x) = is an even function, the two integrals are the same:
1 + x2
Z1 Z0 Z1 Z1 ZN
1 1 1 1 1
dx = dx + dx = 2 dx = 2 lim dx
1 + x2 1 + x2 1 + x2 1 + x2 N !1 1 + x2
1 1 0 0 0
N
1 1 1
= 2 lim tan x = 2 lim tan N tan 0 =2 0 =
N !1 0 N !1 2

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 6

## Integrands with Vertical Asymptotes

Some integrals are improper because they represent an innitely tall region. These are not trickier to compute
Z1
1
but more di cult to detect. For example, dx appears to be a denite integral. However, there is a vertical
x
0
asymptote at zero, making the integral improper.

Z1
1
8. dx = 1
x
0

Solution: We compute the limit of denite integrals as the lower limit approaches zero.

Z1 Z1 1
1 1
dx = lim dx = lim (ln jxj) = lim (ln j1j ln jhj) = lim (0 ( 1)) = 1
x h!0+ x h!0+ h h!0+ h!0+
0 h

## The area under the graph is innite; this integral diverges.

Z1
1
9. p dx = 2
x
0

Solution: We compute the limit of denite integrals as the lower limit approaches zero.

Z1 Z1 1 p p
1 1=2 p
p dx = lim x dx = lim 2 x = lim 2 1 2 h =2
x h!0+ h!0+ h h!0+
0 h

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 7

Z1
10. ln x dx = 1
0

## Solution: This is an improper integral because there is a vertical asymptote at zero.

We compute this integral by taking the limits of denite integrals, between a small positive number and 1.
Z1 Z1
ln xdx = lim ln xdx
h!0+
0 h

1
We compute the antiderivative of ln x by integration by parts. Let u = ln x and dv = dx. Then du = dx
x
and v = x.
Z Z
u dv = uv v du becomes
Z Z Z
1
ln x dx = x ln x x dx = x ln x dx = x ln x x + C
x
The improper integral is
Z1 Z1 1
ln xdx = lim ln xdx = lim (x ln x x) = lim ((1 ln 1 1) (h ln h h))
h!0+ h!0+ h h!0+
0 h
0 1

= lim @ 1 h ln h hA
h!0+ # #
? 0

ln h
As h approaches zero from the right, ln h approaches negative innity. This means that lim h ln h = lim
h!0+ h!0+ 1
h
1
is an type of an indeterminate. We apply LHpitals rule:
1
1
ln h h 1 h2
lim = lim = lim = lim ( h) = 0
h!0+ 1 h!0+ 1 h!0+ h 1 h!0+
h h2
Thus the improper integral is 0 1
Z1
ln xdx = lim @ 1 h ln h hA = 1
h!0+ # #
0 0 0

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 8

Z4
x
11. dx = unde ned
x2 9
1

## Solution: This is an imporper integral because there is a vertical asymptote at x = 3.

We again separate this into two improper integrals, the area of the region to the left of 3 and to the right of 3.
Z4 Z3 Z4 Za Z4
x x x x x
dx = dx + dx = lim dx + lim dx
x2 9 x2 9 x2 9 a!3 x2 9 b!3+ x2 9
1 1 3 1 b

## We rst compute the indenite integral by substitution. Let u = x2 9. Then du = 2xdx.

Z Z Z Z
x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
dx = 2
(xdx) = du = du = ln juj + C = ln x2 9 + C
x 9 x 9 u 2 2 u 2 2
Now we are ready to evaluate the improper integral.
Z3 Za a a
x x 1 1
dx = lim dx = lim ln x2 9 = lim ln x2 9
x2 9 a!3 x2 9 a!3 2 1 2 a!3 1
1 1
1 1
= lim ln a2 9 ln ( 1)2 9 = lim ln a2 9 ln 8 = 1
2 a!3 2 a!3
The other part:
Z4 Z4 4
x x 1 1 1
dx = lim dx = lim ln x2 9 = lim ln 42 9 ln b2 9
x2 9 b!3+ x2 9 b!3 2
+
b b!3+ 2 2
3 b
1 1
= lim ln 7 ln b2 9 =1
b!3+ 2 2
When we combine two improper integrals, nite sums are allowed to be added, such as in problem #7.
However, the sum 1 + ( 1) is an indeterminate and in this case, it is not dened. This integral is undened.
We also say that the area under the graph is undened.
Z25
1
12. p dx = 10
x
0
Solution:
Z25 Z25 25 25 p
1 1=2 p p p
p dx = lim x dx = lim 2 x = 2 lim x = 2 lim 25 a = 10
x a!0+ a!0+ a a!0+ a a!0+
0 a

## c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009 Last revised: August 24, 2013

Lecture Notes Improper Integrals page 9

Z2
1
13. p dx = 2
2 x
1
Solution: We rst compute the indenite integral, by substitution. Let u = 2 x. Then du = dx and so
dx = du: Z Z Z
1 1 p
p dx = p ( du) = u 1=2 du = 2u1=2 + C = 2 2 x + C
2 x u
Now we are ready to evaluate the improper integral.
Z2 Za a a
1 1 p p
p dx = lim p dx = lim 2 2 x = 2 lim 2 x
2 x a!2 2 x a!2 1 a!2 1
1 1
p p p p
= 2 lim 2 a 2 1 = 2 lim 2 2 1 = 2 ( 1) = 2
a!2 a!2

Z5
1 3 p
3
p
3
14. p
3
dx = 9 4
2 x 2
0
Solution: We rst compute the indenite integral, by substitution. Let u = 2 x. Then du = dx and so
dx = du Z Z Z
1 1 3 2=3 3
p3
= p3
( du) = u 1=3 du = u +C = (2 x)2=3 + C
2 x u 2 2
Now we are ready to evaluate the improper integral.
Z5 Z2 Z5 Za Z5
1 1 1 1 1
p
3
dx = p
3
dx + p
3
dx = lim p
3
dx + lim p
3
dx
2 x 2 x 2 x a!2 2 x b!2+ 2 x
0 0 2 0 b
!
a 5 a 5
3 3 3
= lim (2 x)2=3 + lim (2 x)2=3 = lim (2 x)2=3 + lim (2 x)2=3
a!2 2 0 b!2+ 2 b 2 a!2 0 b!2+ b
3
= lim (2 a)2=3 (2 0)2=3 + lim (2 5)2=3 (2 b)2=3
2 a!2 b!2+
3 3 p p 3 p p
22=3 + ( 3)2=3 =
3 3 3 3
= 4+ 9 = 9 4
2 2 2

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