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Summary from last week

Linear systems
a1 f1 (t)+ a1 x1 (t)+
f1 (t) x1 (t) f2 (t) x2 (t) a2 f2 (t) a2 x2 (t)

Translational & rotational mechanical elements & systems

x(t)

K M x + fv x + Kx = f T (t)
T(t)
(t)
(t) D
J + D + K = T

M f(t) J

K
fv
Figures by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Solving 1st order linear ODEs with constant coefficients

J + b = T0 u(t), (0) = 0

t/ T0 t/

T0
(t) = 0 e + 1e () =
b b
J
where time constant. steady state.
b

Goals for today

Solving linear constant-coefficient ODEs using Laplace transforms

Definition of the Laplace transform
Laplace transforms of commonly used functions
Laplace transform properties
Transfer functions
from ODE to Transfer Function
Transfer functions of the translational & rotational mechanical
elements that we know
Next lecture (Wednesday):
Electrical elements: resistors, capacitors, inductors, amplifiers
Transfer functions of electrical elements
Lecture-after-next (Friday):
DC motor (electro-mechanical element) model
and its Transfer Function

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transform: motivation

M x(t) + fv x(t) + Kx(t) = f (t)

input, output expressed as functions of time t

to an algebraic equation

M s2 X(s) + fv sX(s) + KX(s) = F (s)

input, output expressed as functions of new variable s

Benefits:
Simplifies solution
s-domain offers additional insights
particularly useful in control

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transform: definition

Given a function f (t) in the time domain we define its

Laplace transform F (s) as
Z +
F (s) = f (t)est dt.
0

The frequency variable s is a complex number:

s = + j,

where , are real numbers with units of frequency (i.e. sec1 Hz).

We will investigate the physical meaning of , later when we see examples of

Laplace transforms of functions corresponding to physical systems.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Example 1: Laplace transform of the step function

0, t < 0,
u(t) =
1, t 0.

According to the Laplace transform definition,

Z + Z +
U (s) = u(t)est dt = 1 est dt =
0 0
+
1 st 1
= e = 01 =
s 0 s
1
= .
s

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Interlude: complex numbers: what does 1/s mean?
Recall that s = + j. The real variables , (both in frequency units)
are the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of s. (We denote j 2 = 1.)

Therefore, we can write

1 1 j j
= = = 2 .
s + j ( + j) ( j) + 2

Alternatively, we can represent j

the complex number s in polar form s = |s| ej ,
2 s
2 1/2
where |s| = + is the magnitude and |s |
6 s = atan (/) the phase of s.

It is straightforward to derive

1 1 j 1 1 1
= e = and 6 = 6 s. s
s |s| s |s| s

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Example 2: Laplace transform of the exponential

f (t) = eat u(t),

where a > 0 (note the presence of the step function in the above formula.)

Again we apply the Laplace transform definition,

Z + Z +
F (s) = eat u(t)est dt = e(s+a)t dt =
0 0
+
1
(s+a)t 1
= e = 01 =
(s + a) 0 (s + a)
1
= .
s+a

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transforms of commonly used functions

f(t) F(s) Step

(t) 1 function
1 (aka
u(t)
s Heaviside)
1
tu(t)
s2
n!
t n u(t)
sn + 1
1
e -at u(t) s+a

sin tu(t)
s2 + 2
time constant
s
cos tu(t)
s + 2
2 1
= , a = 1 sec1
a
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transforms of commonly used functions
Polynomials

f(t) F(s)
Ramp
(t) 1 function
1
u(t)
s

1
tu(t)
s2
n!
t n u(t) +1
sn
1
e -at u(t) s+a

s + 2
2

s function
cos tu(t)
s2 + 2
n=2
Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transforms of commonly used functions
Sinusoids

f(t) F(s)

(t) 1
1
u(t)
s

1
tu(t)
s2
n!
t n u(t) +1
sn
1
e -at u(t) s+a

sin tu(t)
s2 + 2
s
cos tu(t)
s + 2
2

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Laplace transforms of commonly used functions
Impulse function (aka Dirac function)
f(t) F(s)

(t) 1
1
u(t)
s

1
(t)
tu(t)
s2

t n u(t)
sn
n!
+1
t
1 t=0
e -at u(t) s+a It represents a pulse of

sin tu(t) infinitessimally small duration; and
s2 + 2
s finite energy.
cos tu(t)
s2 + 2

Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Mathematically, it is defined by the properties

Z +
(t) = 1; (unit energy) and

Z +
(t)f (t) = f (0) (sifting.)
Nise Table 2.1

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Properties of the Laplace transform
Let F (s), F1 (s), F2 (s) denote the Laplace transforms of f (t), f1 (t), f2 (t),
respectively. We denote L [f (t)] = F (s), etc.
Linearity
L [K1 f1 (t) + K2 f2 (t)] = K1 F1 (s) + K2 F2 (s),
where K1 , K2 are complex constants.

Differentiation The dierentiation property is the one

h i that well find most useful in
L d f (t)
= sF (s) f (0);
dt solving linear ODEs with constant coes.
2
L d f 2(t) = s2 F (s) sf (0) f(0); and
dt
h n i Pn
L d f (t)
= s n
F (s) nk (k1)
d tn k=1 s f (0).

Integration
Z t
F (s)
L f ()d = .
0 s
A more complete set of Laplace transform properties
is in Nise Table 2.2.
Well learn most of these properties in later lectures.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Inverting the Laplace transform
Consider
2
F (s) = . (1)
(s + 3)(s + 5)
We seek the inverse Laplace transform f (t) = L1 [F (s)] :i.e., a function f (t)
such that L [f (t)] = F (s).

Let us attempt to rewrite F (s) as

2 K1 K2
F (s) = = + . (2)
(s + 3)(s + 5) s+3 s+5

That would be convenient because we know the inverse Laplace transform of

the 1/(s + a) function (its a decaying exponential) and we can also use the
linearity theorem to finally find f (t). All thatd be left to do would be to find
the coecients K1 , K2 .

This is done as follows: first multiply both sides of (2) by (s + 3). We find

2 K2 (s + 3) s=3 2
= K1 + = K1 = = 1.
s+5 s+5 3 + 5
Similarly, we find K2 = 1.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Inverting the Laplace transform
So we have found
2 1 1
F (s) = = .
(s + 3)(s + 5) s+3 s+5

From the table of Laplace transforms (Nise Table 2.1) we know that

1
L1 = e3t u(t) and
s+3

1
L1 = e5t u(t).
s+5

Using these and the linearity theorem we obtain

2 1 1
L1 [F (s)] = L1 = L1 = e3t e5t .
(s + 3)(s + 5) s+3 s+5

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Use of the Laplace transform to solve ODEs

Example: motor-shaft system from Lecture 2 (and labs)

J J (t) + b(t) = Ts (t),
where Ts (t) = T0 u(t) (step function)
b and (t = 0) = 0 (no spindown).
Ts (t) (t)

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides,

T0 T0 1 T 1
J s(s) + b(s) = (s) = = 0 ,
s b s (J/b)s + 1 b s( s + 1)

We can now apply the partial fraction expansion method to obtain

T0 K1 K2 T0 1 T0 1 1
(s) = + = = .
b s s + 1 b s s + 1 b s s + (1/ )

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Use of the Laplace transform to solve ODEs

Example: motor-shaft system from Lecture 2 (and labs)

J J (t) + b(t) = Ts (t),
where Ts (t) = T0 u(t) (step function)
b and (t = 0) = 0 (no spindown).
Ts (t) (t)

We have found
T0 1 1
(s) = .
b s s + (1/ )

Using the linearity property and the table of Laplace transforms we obtain

1 T0 t/

(t) = L [(s)] = 1e ,
b
in agreement with the timedomain solution of Lecture 2.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Transfer Functions

Consider again the motor-shaft system :

J J (t) + b(t) = Ts (t),
where now Ts (t) is an arbitrary function,
b but still (t = 0) = 0 (no spindown).
Ts (t) (t)
Proceeding as before, we can write

Ts (s) (s) 1
(s) = = .
Js + b Ts (s) Js + b

Generally, we define the ratio

h i
L output 1
h i = Transfer Function; in this case, TF(s) = .
L input Js + b

1
We refer to the (TF) of a single element as the Impedance Z(s).
2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10
Transfer Functions in block diagrams

R(s) C(s) C(s)

Transfer Function(s) := .
R(s)

J
Ts (s) (s) (s) 1 .
TF(s) := =
Ts (s) Js + b
b

Important: To be able to define the Transfer Function,

the system ODE must be linear with constant coefficients.

Such systems are known as Linear Time-Invariant,

or Linear Autonomous.

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Impedances: rotational mechanical

Table removed due to copyright restrictions.

(In the notes,
we sometimes
Please see: Table 2.5 in Nise, Norman S. Control Systems Engineering. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2004.
use b or B

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Impedances: translational mechanical

Table removed due to copyright restrictions.

(In the notes,
we sometimes
Please see Table 2.4 in Nise, Norman S. Control Systems Engineering. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2004.
use b or B
instead of fv .)

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Transfer Functions: multiple impedances
System ODE: M x(t) + fv x(t) + Kx(t) = f (t).
x(t)

K
F(s) 1 X(s)
M f(t) Ms2 + fvs + K

fv

Figures by MIT OpenCourseWare.

P P
Impedances X(s) = Forces .
x(t) x(t)

Kx(t) KX(s)
dx f(t) f(t)
fv
dt
M fvsX(s) M

d2x Ms2X(s)
M
dt2

2.004 Fall 07 Lecture 03 Monday, Sept. 10

Summary

Laplace transform
Z +
L [f (t)] F (s) = f (t)est dt. h i
0 L f(t) = sF (s) f (0).
1 Z t
L [u(t)] U (s) = . F (s)
s L f ()d = .
1 0 s
L eat = .
s+a

Transfer functions and impedances

J (t) = T (t) ZJ = Js2 ; fv (t) = T (t) Zfv = fv s; K(t) = T (t) ZK = K.

L (s) 1
J (t) + b(t) = Ts (t) = (Js + b) (s) = Ts (s) TF(s) = .
Ts (s) Js + b
X(s) 1
M x(t) + fv x(t) + Kx(t) = f (t) TF(s) = .
F (s) M s2 + fv s + K