Você está na página 1de 47

# A Tutorial on Data

Reduction

Linear Discriminant
Analysis (LDA)
Aly A. Farag
Shireen Y. Elhabian
CVIP Lab
University of Louisville
www.cvip.uofl.edu
October 2, 2008
Outline
LDA objective
Recall PCA
Now LDA
LDA Two Classes
Counter example

LDA C Classes
Illustrative Example

## LDA vs PCA Example

Limitations of LDA
LDA Objective
The objective of LDA is to perform
dimensionality reduction
So what, PCA does this

## However, we want to preserve as much of the

class discriminatory information as possible.
OK, thats new, let dwell deeper
Recall PCA

## m - dimensional feature vector

In PCA, the main idea to re-express the available dataset to extract
the relevant information by reducing the redundancy and minimize
the noise.

We didnt care about whether this dataset represent features from one
or more classes, i.e. the discrimination power was not taken into
consideration while we were talking about PCA.

## In PCA, we had a dataset matrix X with dimensions mxn, where

columns represent different data samples.
n sample vectors
We first started by subtracting the mean to have a zero mean dataset,
then we computed the covariance matrix Sx = XXT.

Eigen values and eigen vectors were then computed for Sx. Hence the
new basis vectors are those eigen vectors with highest eigen values,
where the number of those vectors was our choice.

Thus, using the new basis, we can project the dataset onto a less
dimensional space with more powerful data representation.
Now LDA
Consider a pattern classification problem, where we have C-
classes, e.g. seabass, tuna, salmon
Each class has Ni m-dimensional samples, where i = 1,2, , C.
Hence we have a set of m-dimensional samples {x1, x2,, xNi}
belong to class i.
Stacking these samples from different classes into one big fat
matrix X such that each column represents one sample.
We seek to obtain a transformation of X to Y through projecting
the samples in X onto a hyperplane with dimension C-1.
Lets see what does this mean?
LDA Two Classes
The two classes are not well
separated when projected onto Assume we have m-dimensional samples {x1,
this line
x2,, xN}, N1 of which belong to 1 and
N2 belong to 2.

## We seek to obtain a scalar y by projecting

the samples x onto a line (C-1 space, C = 2).

x1 w1
. .
y = wT x where x = and w =
. .

xm wm

## Of all the possible lines we would like to

This line succeeded in separating select the one that maximizes the
the two classes and in the separability of the scalars.
meantime reducing the
dimensionality of our problem
from two features (x1,x2) to only a
scalar value y.
LDA Two Classes
In order to find a good projection vector, we need to define a
measure of separation between the projections.
The mean vector of each class in x and y feature space is:
1 1 1
i =
Ni
x
xi
and ~
i =
Ni

yi
y=
Ni
x
wT

xi

1
= wT
Ni
x
xi
= wT
i

## We could then choose the distance between the projected means

as our objective function
(
J ( w) = ~1 ~2 = wT 1 wT 2 = wT 1 2 )
LDA Two Classes
However, the distance between the projected means is not a very
good measure since it does not take into account the standard
deviation within the classes.

## This axis has a larger distance between means

LDA Two Classes
The solution proposed by Fisher is to maximize a function that
represents the difference between the means, normalized by a
measure of the within-class variability, or the so-called scatter.
For each class we define the scatter, an equivalent of the
variance, as;
~
si 2 = ( y ~ )2
i
yi

~
si 2 measures the variability within class i after projecting it on
the y-space.
Thus ~
s12 + ~
s22 measures the variability within the two
classes at hand after projection, hence it is called within-class scatter
of the projected samples.
LDA Two Classes
The Fisher linear discriminant is defined as
the linear function wTx that maximizes the
criterion function:

2
~ ~
1 2
J ( w) = ~ 2 ~ 2
s +s
1 2

## Therefore, we will be looking for a projection

where examples from the same class are
projected very close to each other and, at the
same time, the projected means are as farther
apart as possible
LDA Two Classes
In order to find the optimum projection w*, we need to express
J(w) as an explicit function of w.
We will define a measure of the scatter in multivariate feature
space x which are denoted as scatter matrices;

Si = (x )(x )
T
i i
x i

S w = S1 + S 2
Where Si is the covariance matrix of class i, and Sw is called the
within-class scatter matrix.
LDA Two Classes
Now, the scatter of the projection y can then be expressed as a function of
the scatter matrix in feature space x.

~
( y i ) =
~
(w x w i )
2
si 2 =
2 T T

yi x i

= w ( x i )( x i ) w
T T

xi

= wT Si w

s1 + s2 = w S1w + w S 2 w = w (S1 + S 2 )w = w SW w = SW
~ 2 ~ 2 T T T T ~

## Where S~W is the within-class scatter matrix of the projected samples y.

LDA Two Classes
Similarly, the difference between the projected means (in y-space) can be
expressed in terms of the means in the original feature space (x-space).

( ~1 ~2 ) = (w
2 T
1 w 2
T
)
2

= w (1 2 )(1 2 ) w
T T
144 42444 3
SB
~
= w SB w = SB
T

## The matrix SB is called the between-class scatter of the original samples/feature

vectors, while S~B is the between-class scatter of the projected samples y.

Since SB is the outer product of two vectors, its rank is at most one.
LDA Two Classes
We can finally express the Fisher criterion in terms of
SW and SB as:

2
~ ~
1 2 wT S B w
J ( w) = ~ 2 ~ 2 = T
s1 + s2 w SW w

## Hence J(w) is a measure of the difference between class

means (encoded in the between-class scatter matrix)
normalized by a measure of the within-class scatter
matrix.
LDA Two Classes
To find the maximum of J(w), we differentiate and equate to
zero.
d d wT S B w
J ( w) = T = 0
dw dw w SW w

(
w SW w
T d
dw
) ( ) (
w SB w w SB w
T T d
dw
) (
wT SW w = 0 )
( ) ( )
wT SW w 2S B w wT S B w 2SW w = 0
Dividing by 2 wT SW w :
wT SW w wT S B w
T S B w T SW w = 0
w SW w w SW w
S B w J ( w) SW w = 0
SW1S B w J ( w) w = 0
LDA Two Classes
Solving the generalized eigen value problem

## SW1S B w = w where = J ( w) = scalar

yields
T
SBw
= SW1 (1 2 )
w
w = arg max J ( w) = arg max T
*

w w w SW w
This is known as Fishers Linear Discriminant, although it is not a
discriminant but rather a specific choice of direction for the projection
of the data down to one dimension.
Using the same notation as PCA, the solution will be the eigen
1
vector(s) of S X = SW S B
LDA Two Classes - Example
Compute the Linear Discriminant projection for the following two-
dimensional dataset.
Samples for class 1 : X1=(x1,x2)={(4,2),(2,4),(2,3),(3,6),(4,4)}

## Sample for class 2 : X2=(x1,x2)={(9,10),(6,8),(9,5),(8,7),(10,8)}

10

5
x2

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x1
LDA Two Classes - Example
The classes mean are :

1 1 4 2 2 3 4 3
1 =
N1

x1
x = + + + + =
5 2 4 3 6 4 3.8
1 1 9 6 9 8 10 8.4
2 =
N2

x 2
x = + + + + =
5 10 8 5 7 8 7.6
LDA Two Classes - Example
Covariance matrix of the first class:

2 2
4 3 2 3
S1 = (x )(x ) = +
T
1 1
x 1 2 3.8 4 3.8
2 2 2
2 3 3 3 4 3
+ + +
3 3.8 6 3.8 4 3.8
1 0.25
=
0.25 2.2
LDA Two Classes - Example
Covariance matrix of the second class:

2 2
9 8.4 6 8.4
S2 = (x )(x ) = +
T
2 2
x 2 10 7.6 8 7.6
2 2 2
9 8.4 8 8.4 10 8.4
+ + +
5 7.6 7 7.6 8 7.6
2.3 0.05
=
0.05 3.3
LDA Two Classes - Example
Within-class scatter matrix:

## 1 0.25 2.3 0.05

S w = S1 + S 2 = +
0.25 2.2 0.05 3.3
3.3 0.3
=
0.3 5.5
LDA Two Classes - Example
Between-class scatter matrix:

S B = (1 2 )(1 2 )
T

T
3 8.4 3 8.4
=
3.8 7.6 3.8 7.6
5.4
= ( 5.4 3.8)
3.8
29.16 20.52
=
20.52 14.44
LDA Two Classes - Example
The LDA projection is then obtained as the solution of the generalized eigen
value problem 1
SW S B w = w
SW1S B I = 0
1
3.3 0.3 29.16 20.52 1 0
= 0
0. 3 5. 5 20.52 14.44 0 1
0.3045 0.0166 29.16 20.52 1 0
= 0
0.0166 0.1827 20.52 14.44 0 1
9.2213 6.489

4.2339 2.9794
= (9.2213 )(2.9794 ) 6.489 4.2339 = 0
2 12.2007 = 0 ( 12.2007 ) = 0
1 = 0, 2 = 12.2007
LDA Two Classes - Example

Hence

9.2213 6.489 w1
w1 = 0{
4.2339 2.9794 1 w2

and
9.2213 6.489 w1
w2 = 12
14 .2
2007
4
3
4.2339 2.9794 2 w2
Thus;
0.5755 0.9088
w1 = and w2 = = w*
0.8178 0.4173
The optimal projection is the one that given maximum = J(w)
LDA Two Classes - Example
Or directly;

1
3.3 0.3 3 8.4
w = S (1 2 ) =
* 1

0.3 5.5 3.8 7.6
W

## 0.3045 0.0166 5.4

=
0.0166 0.1827 3.8
0.9088
=
0.4173
LDA - Projection
Classes PDF : using the LDA projection vector with the other eigen value = 8.8818e-016
0.35
The projection vector
corresponding to the
0.3
smallest eigen value
0.25

## LDA projection vector with the other eigen value = 8.8818e-016

10 0.2

p(y|w )
i
9
0.15
8

7 0.1

0.05
x2

4
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
y
3
Using this vector leads to
2
bad separability
1 between the two classes
0
-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x1
LDA - Projection
Classes PDF : using the LDA projection vector with highest eigen value = 12.2007
0.4

## The projection vector

corresponding to the 0.35

## highest eigen value

0.3

0.25
LDA projection vector with the highest eigen value = 12.2007
10

p(y|w )
i
0.2
9

0.15
8

7 0.1

6
0.05
x2

5
0
0 5 10 15
4 y

3
Using this vector leads to
2 good separability
1
between the two classes
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x1
LDA C-Classes
Now, we have C-classes instead of just two.
We are now seeking (C-1) projections [y1, y2, , yC-1] by means
of (C-1) projection vectors wi.
wi can be arranged by columns into a projection matrix W =
[w1|w2||wC-1] such that:

yi = wiT x y =WTx
x1 y1
. .
where xm1 = , yC 11 =
. .

xm yC 1
and WmC 1 = [w1 | w2 | ... | wC 1 ]
LDA C-Classes
If we have n-feature vectors, we can stack them into one matrix
as follows;

Y =W X T

## x11 x12 . x1n y11 y12 . y1n

. . . . . . . .
where X mn = , YC 1n =
. . . . . . . .
1 n 1 n
xm xm2 . xm yC 1 yC2 1 . yC 1
and WmC 1 = [w1 | w2 | ... | wC 1 ]
LDA C-Classes
Example of two-dimensional
features (m = 2), with three
classes C = 3.
Recall the two classes case, the Sw
within-class scatter was computed as: 1
1
x2
S w = S1 + S 2
This can be generalized in the C-
3
classes case as:
C 2 S w3
SW = Si
i =1 Sw2
where Si = ( x i )( x i )T x1
xi

1
and i =
Ni
x
x
Ni : number of data samples
in class i.
i
LDA C-Classes
Example of two-dimensional
features (m = 2), with three
Recall the two classes case, the between- classes C = 3.
Sw
class scatter was computed as: 1
1
x2
S B = (1 2 )(1 2 )
T

## For C-classes case, we will measure the S B1

between-class scatter with respect to the S B3 3
mean of all class as follows:
S B2
C 2 S w3
S B = N i (i )(i )
T

i =1
Sw2
1 1
= x = N i i
x1
where
N x N N: number of all data .
x

1
and i =
N i xi
x Ni : number of data samples
in class i.
LDA C-Classes
Similarly,
We can define the mean vectors for the projected samples y as:
1 1
~
i =
Ni
y
y
and ~
=
N
y
y
i

While the scatter matrices for the projected samples y will be:

C C
SW = Si = ( y ~i )( y ~i )
~ ~ T

i =1 i =1 yi

C
S B = N i (~i ~ )(~i ~ )
~ T

i =1
LDA C-Classes
Recall in two-classes case, we have expressed the scatter matrices of the
projected samples in terms of those of the original samples as:
~
SW = W T SW W
~
S B = W T S BW This still hold in C-classes case.

Recall that we are looking for a projection that maximizes the ratio of
between-class to within-class scatter.

Since the projection is no longer a scalar (it has C-1 dimensions), we then use
the determinant of the scatter matrices to obtain a scalar objective function:
~
SB W T S BW
J (W ) = ~ = T
SW W SW W
And we will seek the projection W* that maximizes this ratio.
LDA C-Classes
To find the maximum of J(W), we differentiate with respect to W and equate
to zero.

## SW1S B w = w where = J ( w) = scalar

For C-classes case, we have C-1 projection vectors, hence the eigen value
problem can be generalized to the C-classes case as:

## SW1S B wi = i wi where i = J ( wi ) = scalar and i = 1,2,...C 1

Thus, It can be shown that the optimal projection matrix W* is the one whose
columns are the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigen values of the
following generalized eigen value problem:
SW1S BW * = W *
where = J (W * ) = scalar and [
W * = w1* | w2* | ... | wC* 1 ]
Illustration 3 Classes
Lets generate a dataset for each
1
class to simulate the three x2
classes shown
For each class do the following,
3
Use the random number generator
to generate a uniform stream of 2
500 samples that follows U(0,1).
Using the Box-Muller approach,
convert the generated uniform x1
stream to N(0,1). Then use the method of eigen values
and eigen vectors to manipulate the
standard normal to have the required
mean vector and covariance matrix .
Estimate the mean and covariance
matrix of the resulted dataset.
Dataset Generation
By visual inspection of the figure, 1
x2
classes parameters (means and
covariance matrices can be given as
follows:
3
5
Overallmean =
5 2

3 2.5 7
1 = + , 2 = + , 3 = +
7 3.5 5 x1
5 1
S1 = Negative covariance to lead to data samples distributed along the y = -x line.
3 3
4 0
S2 = Zero covariance to lead to data samples distributed horizontally.
0 4
3.5 1
S3 = Positive covariance to lead to data samples distributed along the y = x line.
3 2.5
In Matlab
Its Working
1
x2

20
3

15 2
X - the second feature

10
x1

5
2

-5
-5 0 5 10 15 20
X - the first feature
1
Computing LDA Projection Vectors
Recall
C
SW = Si
i =1

Si = (x )(x )
T
where i i
x i

1
and i =
Ni
x
x i

C
S B = N i (i )(i )
T

i =1
1
S SB 1 1
N N
W
where = x = i i
N x x

1
and i =
N i xi
x
Lets visualize the projection vectors W
25

20

15

## X - the second feature

10

2
0

-5

-10
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
X - the first feature
1
Projection y = WTx
Along first projection vector

Classes PDF : using the first projection vector with eigen value = 4508.2089
0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

p(y|w )
i
0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25
y
Projection y = WTx
Along second projection vector

Classes PDF : using the second projection vector with eigen value = 1878.8511
0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25
p(y|w )
i

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
y
Which is Better?!!!
Apparently, the projection vector that has the highest eigen
value provides higher discrimination power between classes
Classes PDF : using the first projection vector with eigen value = 4508.2089 Classes PDF : using the second projection vector with eigen value = 1878.8511
0.4 0.4

0.35 0.35

0.3 0.3

0.25 0.25
p(y|w i )

p(y|w )
i
0.2 0.2

0.15 0.15

0.1 0.1

0.05 0.05

0 0
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
y y
PCA vs LDA
Limitations of LDA
LDA produces at most C-1 feature projections
If the classification error estimates establish that more features are needed, some other method must be
employed to provide those additional features

## LDA is a parametric method since it assumes unimodal Gaussian likelihoods

If the distributions are significantly non-Gaussian, the LDA projections will not be able to preserve any
complex structure of the data, which may be needed for classification.
Limitations of LDA
LDA will fail when the discriminatory information is not in the mean but
rather in the variance of the data
Thank You