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# UNIT2: PRINCIPLES AND APPROACHES OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS

## In order to achieve the aims and objectives of the teaching of

a particular subject certain maxims are laid down. The teaching of the subject is
then planned and carried out keeping these maxims as the guiding principles.
No doubt teaching is an art but the success of a teacher lies in making his
subject so simple as to make it intelligible for his students. The moment a
teacher fails in this task he ceases to be a teacher. A geography teacher has to
take greater pains as he has to act both as a science teacher as also a social
science teacher.

## Teaching is thus a most difficult task and everybody is not

fit to be a teacher. Some persons may have 'flair' for teaching and some other
can improve their teaching if they are fully aware of different methods of
teaching. In order to make children learn effectively, the teacher has to adopt the
right method of teaching. In this chapter an attempt will be made to discuss
some common methods of teaching of Mathematics.

## Before taking up the discussion of various methods of teaching

of Math it would be better to know about the maxims of the teaching of Math
because to be successful in his task the geography teacher shall have to fall back
upon these maxims. Given below are the maxims on the basis of which Math
teaching is conducted and carried out.

## Teaching is an art and to acquire efficiency in this art, the teacher

needs two things:

## The complete knowledge of the subject-matter.

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The scientific knowledge of the teaching style for disseminating the
knowledge to the pupils.

## Maxims of teaching have been discovered, not invented. They are

simply statements of the way in which teaching and learning go
forward. They

## There are various maxims of teaching which makes teaching of

mathematics effective

1)Known to Unknown:

## It is always better to proceed from known to

unknown. It demands that the teacher should make efforts to establish some
association

with the previous knowledge of the students while imparting them any
knew knowledge.

## The basis of the pupil's new knowledge should be his previous

knowledge.
Small and simple information with which the pupil is already familiar,
should be made basis for imparting unfamiliar information .

## It is a well known maxim of teaching and this is the natural process of

mind. It is also psychologically successful method.

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This maxim means the teaching simple contents to the pupil first and then
the complex contents should be taught afterwards.

Examples:

Simple Interest(simple)

Compound interest(complicated)

## It is always better to cite some specific example before proceeding to

general principles of a phenomenon. It helps the students to follow things

## According to this maxim, the teacher should present some specific

examples before the pupil. Then the same example should be evaluated
and after

principles.

Examples:

## 2x2x2=23 4X4X4X4=44 (Particular)

axaxa=a3 (general)

## 4)From Concrete to Abstract:

The mental development of the pupils begins with the concrete objects
and afterwards he gains micro-words for them. Therefore, to begin the
education of pupils, the concrete object and fact should be made known
first .

## Examples:objects like duster,box,

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5)From Whole to Part:

In this approach the whole of the concept is taken for study first
and then its various sub-divisions are explained. This makes the
education scientific.

## The knowledge acquired in this way is more stable.

The teacher should present before the pupils the new teaching matter as a
whole and in an organized way first and then its parts should be explained
on the basis of this 'whole' and organized teaching-matter .

Examples:

Integers(whole)

Benefits:

## Joyful teaching & learning environment

Purposeful teaching

## To develop scientific attitude

Learning by doing

## To develop critical and logical thinking in Math.

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## B) CORRELATIO OF MATHEMATICS-INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

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No subject is ever well understood and no art is intelligently
practiced, if the light which the other studies are able to throw upon
it is deliberately shut out. - RAMONT

## Education is a co-ordinated process and the major aim

of education is the unification of knowledge existing in the different branches
of learning. Teaching of various subjects is hence correlated. A conscious effort
is made to integrate various subjects to treat the subject as a synthetic whole..

Herbert first conceived the idea of correlating the teaching of various subjects.
All knowledge is one unit. The power of the mind does not depend upon the
amount of information accumulated in pieces, not related to one another, but is
rather on well organised system on which all these pieces of knowledge are
taught, showing their relationship with one another. This is known as the
principle of Correlation..

Concept of Correlation
Correlation is the inter-relationship of materials /concepts.

## It is a technique which establishes reciprocal relationship between

different subjects of the curriculum for better and clear
understanding of the subject under discussion.
The term correlation in its simplest form means connect or to be
connected .To be more precise, Correlation means mutual relations of two or

more things/persons.

## But , Correlation in teaching indicates a technique which shows the

reciprocal relationship between various subjects of the curriculum for
making the knowledge concrete and permanent.

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It is the conscious effort made by teachers teaching various subjects, to
show similarities or dependence of one subject on another.

DEFINITIONS

## 1) SIMPSON and KAFKA: Correlation analysis deals with the association

between two or more variables.
2) FERGUSON: Correlation is concerned with describing the degree of
relation between variables.
3) A.M. TAULE: Correlation is an analysis of co-variation between two or
more variables.
Thus correlation is just a mutual relationship between various variables, i.e.,
subjects of school/college curriculum.

## Uses of Correlation are as follows:

1. Mind perceives knowledge as a whole.
Earlier: Assumed Human Minds consists of so many mental faculties and each
faculty like faculty of reasoning, thinking, memorization etc, were supposed to
be developed through the study of a specific subject. So each subject had an
independent function. But Education Psychologists have disregarded this study.
Now : Mind consists as a whole and so receives knowledge as a whole. All the
subjects aim to develop the intellectual power of the students as a whole.
Therefore it becomes necessary to correlate one subject with another. No
subject can be taught in isolation.

## 2. RETENTION OF EARLIER KNOWLEDGE:

Fragments of knowledge may accumulate at one place in the form of distinct
layers. Since every piece of knowledge is gained through one and the same
mind.
Failure in establishing links between the current layers of knowledge and

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previous ones may be an obstacle to retention of earlier knowledge. Always

3. USEFUL KNOWLEDGE:
Knowledge is useful when it can be applied to day to day life. Correlation of a
subject with daily life helps to make the knowledge broad-based and makes
knowledge useful.
4.ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT:
The aim of education to achieve the development of an all round personality,
cannot be done by teaching only a few subjects in isolation.
5. It helps to achieve unity of knowledge and develops worthy interests and
attitudes in students for acquiring knowledge, because it provides the practical
and life related learning to the students. Eg. Science students hating literature.
6. It develops the mental abilities like imagination power, logical thinking and
analytical power of students, because they can easily correlate one acquired
knowledge with the other.

7. It strengthens skills that students encounter in one content area but also
practice in another, leading to mastery of those skills.(skill of making graph in
maths and economics)
8. It makes learning concrete and permanent.
9. It makes the lesson easy and clear.
10. It helps to enable the students to acquire knowledge in a short period of
time.
11. Develops various human and social qualities such as co-operation,
citizenship et

## 12. It helps to lighten the burden of curriculum.

(e.g. economics teacher having taught the law of demand and supply, a

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commerce teacher may not have to again teach it from beginning)
13. It helps the teacher to complete the curriculum in very short period of time.

PRINCIPLES OF CORRELATION
It should be simple, natural, suited to the nature of the subject and the stage of
the pupils mental development.
It should be adequate and judicious.
Main topic or main subject should be the main focus. Other topics/subjects
should be linked to it and then revert again to the main topic

When doing systematic correlation, teachers could sit together and discuss how
to correlate.
It should involve the previous knowledge of the students.
It should be done only where it is possible, else it leads to superficial
correlation.

Importance of Correlation:

## The most significant development of the 21th century education is the

emphasis on imparting unified, integrated and meaningful knowledge of the
pupils.
Imparting of knowledge in the isolated facts of History, Geography, Science,
and Economics etc. has become obsolete. A childs mind is an integrated whole
which wants to receive experiences in an integrated manner.
1)It motivate students

## 5)It minimizes efforts

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6) It helps in the development of social and human qualities.

## 8)It correlates life also.

Types of Correlation:1)life

2)Internal

3)External

## 1) Correlation with Practical Life:

According to Herbert Spencer, the main aim of education is to prepare
students for future life. This aim can be achieved only if education is
correlated with life. Therefore, teaching of various subjects should be
correlated with various aspects of life.
A subject is best understood when it is applicable to daily life.
Correlation of a subject with daily life is of the utmost importance in order
to create interest in the subject.
Correlation with daily life makes the subject relevant instead of being only
theory with no practical applications.
Examples:
a) Apply the formulas to calculate areas of rectangle or square to calculate
area of classroom area or home.

b)Average income

## 2)Internal Correlation: An attempt is made to establish correlation in various

branches of a particular subject.

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This type of correlation indicates the relationship between different
branches ( or various divisions)of a given subject. It also includes correlation of
different topics in the same branch of a given subject.(correlation of old
knowledge with new knowledge). Branches of a subject many a times are taught
by different teachers, such that each branch is treated as a different entity.
Internal correlation is necessary for continuity of knowledge and understanding
of the subject.It means correlating Math with

Algebra

Geometry

Statistics

a)Integers

b)Indices

## a)calculating Area of a rectangle/quadrilateral+concept of squaring a

number

b)TRIGNOMETRY+CONCEPT OF FRACTIONS

## a)Average+ square and square root

External Correlation:

## This type of correlation is between different school subjects and a

given school subject. All subjects of the school curriculum contribute

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towards the realization of the aims of education. Since they have the same
purpose , study of one subject helps in the study of other subjects. In
horizontal correlation an attempt is made to co-ordinate the teaching of
various subjects.This means

## CORRELATING MATH WITH

1)PHYSICAL SCIENCES:

A)PHYSICS

Examples:

## a) TOPIC Distance,speed and time of a local train reaching S.T at 15.30-

----
b) Volume of a water tank---
c) direct and inverse variation

B)CHEMISTRY

Examples:

C)BIOLOGY

## Examples :area cultivated and uncultivated

2)SOCIAL SCIENCES

a)history

EXAMPLES: all

## MATHS HELPS HISTORY IN CALCULATION OF DATES.While learning

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contribution of mathematicians
(Euclid,Pythagoras,ramanujan,aryabhata),concept of B.C and A.D could
be taught to students.

b)geography

EXAMPLES:

## a)statistic topic average--% literacy,% rainfall etc

3)Languages

EXAMPLES:
MATHEMATICS AND LANGUAGE
Math and Writing
A MATHS TEACHER TEACHES ABOUT DRAWING A PIE CHART AND ASK THEM
TO WRITE A INTERPRETATION IN THEIR OWN WORDS.
STUDENTS MAKE POEMS ON NUMBERS
Make a Pie Chart of time spent by you in a day and give it to your partner for
interpretation.
(INTERPRETATON OF NON-VERBAL DATA)
INVENTION OF ZERO BY ARYABHATTA.

4)commerce

EXAMPLES:bank transactions

## a)variationamount distributed equally among students

5)Economics etc

EXAMPLES:

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a)Graphs-a problem on skilled workersdemand and supply

## b)taxes on different commodities

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## C)CONCENTRIC APPROACH OF ORGANISING

CURRICULUM
This is a system of organising a course rather than a
method of teaching. It is, therefore, better to call it concentric system or
approach. It implies widening of knowledge just as concentric circles go
on extending and widening. It is a system of arrangement of subject
matter. In this method the study of the topic is spread over a number of
years. It is based on the principle that subject cannot be given an
exhaustive treatment at the first stage. To begin with, a simple pre-
sentation of the subject is given and further knowledge is imparted in
following years. Thus beginning from a nucleus the circles of knowledge
go on widening year after year and hence the name concentric method.

Procedure
A topic is divided into a number of portions which
are then allotted to different classes. The criterion for allotment of a
particular portion of the course to a particular class is the difficulty of
portion and power of comprehension of students in the age group. Thus
it is mainly concerned with year to year teaching but its influence can
also be exercised in day-to-day teaching Knowledge being given today

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teaching on following day.

## Merits of Concentric Method

(i) This method of organisation of subject matter is decidedly superior to
that in which one topic is taken up in particular class and an effort is
made to deal with all aspects of the topic in that particular class.

## (ii) It provides a framework from course which is of real value to

students.

(iii) The system is most successful when the teaching is in hand of one
teacher because then he can preserve continuity in the teaching and
keeps his expanding circle concentric.

## (iv) It provides opportunity for revision of work already covered in a

previous class and carrying out new work.

## (v) It enables the teacher to cover a portion according to receptivity of

learner.

(vi) Since the same topic is learnt over many years so its impressions are
more lasting.

(vii) It does not allow teaching to become dull because every year a new
interest can be given to the topic. Every year there are new problems to
solve and new difficulties to overcome.

Drawbacks
For the success of this approach we require really capable teacher. If a
teacher becomes over ambitious and exhausts all the possible interesting
illustrations in there introductory year then the subject loses its power of

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freshness and appeal and nothing is left to create interest in the topic in
subsequent years.

In case the topic is too short or too long then also the method is not
found to be useful. A too long portion makes the topic dull and a too
short portion fails to leave any permanent and lasting impression on the
mind of the pupil.

EXAMPLE:TOPIC:INDICES

content
std .
VI
finding value, Indices of -ve numbers.

VII
of numbers

VIII
indices

IX

X

## Concentric approach is really a very good approach to

be adopted. Teachers have to be careful so that portion is neither too

long nor too short. In every consecutive year positive points can be added,
if same teacher, teaches the particular content every year, Thus teacher can start

with full interest and vigor every year and will bring all possible and
interesting illustrations in class.

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C) TOPICAL APPROACH OF ORGANISING
CURRICULUM
Topical arrangement means that a topic should be
finishes entirely at one stage. It takes the topic as a unit. Topical
arrangement requires

that easy and difficult portions of a topic should be dealt with one
stage only which is psychological. In this system the topic which is dealt
with earlier

## receives no attention later and so there is every likelihood of its

being forgotten. The main defect in the topical method is that it
introduces in

## the curriculum a largeness of irrelevant material for which the pupil

finds no time and no immediate need or the use of which cannot be
appreciated

## They are introduced with a view to make the teaching of the

topic complete and through. Hence topical method demands that a topic

once taken should be finished in its entirely. This is not more useful
for lower classes.

MEANING:

## A topic is taken with a unified whole in itself & it is unbreakable

unit.

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TOPICS which can not be analysed into smaller unit are best
thought though topical approach.

## Take any topic, do not leave it half-done.

Finish the entire topic before starting the next topic.
Steps:

Example:

## 3)In 9th standard:

(a)Sets,

(b)Surds,

(c)Logarithms.

(d)Computing.
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MERITs:
Students keeps Complete Concentration on particular topic.
Teachers give best effort to impart information, knowledge & illustration
of topic.
Students attention is not diverted.
Students ability, creativity, capacity is directed only to particular topic.
Students get concrete & thorough knowledge.

DEMERITS:

## It is an unpsychological approach: Difficulty level of student is not

considered.
All student will not be able to receive & understand complicated
parts of topic.
Teachers get bored of teaching same topic.
Interest of student will wane.
Since topic is not carried to next consecutive year, knowledge
gained is forgotten by student.

## Topical approach is really a very good approach. Teachers

will have to select a topic, which can be delivered to its fullest in
the same consecutive years .It is one of effective way of imparting

## information. If topic is kept a center, co-relation is also taken care.

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