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Karen Garcia

Period 5

Virus Research Paper

The purpose of this project is to learn about the different types of pathogens we

have in the world and how they are affecting the world.It is important to learn about the

different pathogens because these pathogens are spreading around the world and they

are causing people to die.We are trying to inform our peers about this disease so we

could find ideas to help or to find a cure for these pathogens.

Objective 1:About The Bahamas

Our chosen country is The Bahamas.The Bahamas is located in the Atlantic

Ocean,it is made up of 700 islands and 2,400 vacant cays.Its Capital is Nassau and

The Bahamas have a population of 377,374.The Bahamas is in North America.The

specific biome for the Bahamas are tropical and subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forest.The

Arawak Indians were the first inhabitants of the Bahamas.The British first built

settlements on the islands in the 17th century. The Bahamas were a Crown colony from

1717 until they were granted internal self-government in 1964. The islands moved

toward greater autonomy in 1968 after the overwhelming victory in general elections of

the Progressive Liberal Party.On July 10, 1973, the Bahamas became an independent

Objective 2:How Emergent Diseases spread to Human Populations

Chikungunya is transmitted to people through mosquito bites. Mosquitoes

become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected

mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.Chikungunya is

most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. These

are the same mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus. They bite mostly during the

daytime.Aedes mosquitoes transmit chikungunya to people. These types of mosquitoes

are found throughout much of the world.Chikungunya israrely transmitted from mother

to newborn around the time of birth.To date, no infants have been found to be infected

with chikungunya through breastfeeding. Because of the benefits of breastfeeding,

mothers are encouraged to breastfeed even in areas where chikungunya is

circulating.In theory, the virus could be spread through a blood transfusion. To date,

there are no known reports of this happening.

Objective 3:How Chikungunya infect Target Cells

A virus particle attaches to a host cell.The particle releases its genetic instructions into

the host cell.The injected genetic material recruits the host cell's enzymes.The enzymes

make parts for more new virus particles. The new particles assemble the parts into new

viruses. The new particles break free from the host cell.

Objective 5:Prevention of the New Pandemics

A pandemics is a global disease outbreak. There are several ways of preventing the

new disease. Since its new, humans have little to no immunity against it. There are

vaccines that can help prevent the disease in its early stages as well as other drugs. (
maybe herbal remedies)

Objective 6:The Stages of Chikungunya

In the first stage,CHK enters the human body via the saliva glands of the

mosquito. When an infected female Anophele mosquito bites, it introduces the virus into

the bloodstream of the host. Soon after entering the bloodstream,the virus get combined

with permissive cells, especially the one of the nose,throat, and mouth.In the second

stage,the cellular stage, chikungunya makes its way to the cytoplasm and then finally to

the nucleus. After entering the nucleus, HIV deposits genetic material and replicates

genome in the nucleus. After passing the cellular stage, the virus enters into the

surrounding tissues and begins infecting the other cell as well. It proliferates in the blood

stream and in the entire body causing a main function. It is only after two to twelve days

of an infected mosquito bite that the symptoms of illness occur. Chikungunya is mainly

characterised by sudden onset of fever, severe pain the joints and skin rash.When a

mosquito bites the above stated viraemic host or the human who has been infected, the

virus is transmitted to it and it gets replicated in the midgut, ovary,neural tissues and fat

of the insect. The virus reproduces there and migrates to the salivary glands of the


As the infected mosquito bites someone the life cycle of CHK transfers onto another

person making another viraemic host.

Objective 7:Effects of Social and Cultural Factors in the Transmission

and Understanding of Chikungunya

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have adapted so that their eggs can survive dry
conditions for several months.This adaptation has made it very difficult to eliminate

mosquito populations completely in many areas of the world, like the Bahamas. In

countries in the equatorial zone that experience tropical monsoon seasons are where

dengue epidemics is a serious public health problem. These mosquitoes live near

humans in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Infected mosquitoes continue to

transmit dengue with each blood meal for the rest of their lives.