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Chandrabhanu

Chandrabhanu (died 1263) or Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja was the King of


Chandrabhanu
Tambralinga Kingdom in present-day Thailand. A Javaka, he was known to have
Sridhamaraja
ruled from during the period of 1230 until 1263. He was also known for building a
well-known Buddhist stupa in southern Thailand. He spent more than 30 years in his King of Tambralinga
attempt to conquer Sri Lanka. He was eventually defeated by the forces of the Reign 12301263
Pandyan Dynasty from Tamil Nadu (in present-day South India) in 1263 and was Coronation 1230
killed by the brother of the south Indian EmperorJatavarman Sundara Pandyan.[1]
Successor Savakanmaindan
In 1247 he sent an expedition to the island ostensibly to acquire the Buddhist relic King of Jaffna
from the island.[2]:184185 His forces, using poison darts, were able to occupy the Reign 12551263
Jaffna kingdom, the northern part of the island in 1255. Repeated attempts to
Successor Savakanmaindan
conquer the rest of the island ensued. In 1258 his forces faced an invasion of the
island by the forces of the Pandyan Dynasty commanded by Jatavarman Sundara Born Tambralinga
Pandyan I, and Chandrabhanu submitted to Pandyan rule, bringing the Jaffna
House Savakan Lotus
kingdom under Pandyan suzerainty. From 1262-1264 Tambralinga forces, using
Dynasty
Chola and Pandyan soldiers commanded by Chandrabhanu's son Savakanmaindan
and two Sinhalese princes were defeated by the Pandyans led in the invasion by
Religion Buddhism
Jatavarman Vira Pandyan I. In 1270, Savakanmaindan, kept on the Jaffna throne
under Pandyan suzerainty attempted to invade the south of the island once again, and was
defeated decisively by the Pandyans under Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I by the late 1270s.
The defeat was so complete that in 1290, Tambralinga was absorbed by the neighboring Thai
Kingdoms.[3]

Contents
Tambralinga
First invasion of Sri Lanka
Chandrabhanu's son Phrae Boromadhatu
Notes stupa
References
External links

Tambralinga
According to the inscription no.24 found at wat Hua-wieng (Hua-wieng temple) in Chaiya near to Nakhon Si Thammaraj,
Chandrabhanu is a ruler of Tambralinga and was of Patama vamsa (lotus dynasty). He began to reign in 1230, he had built the Phrae
Boromadhatu a buddhist stupa in Nakhon Si Thammaraj to hold the Buddha'srelic.[4]

First invasion of Sri Lanka


It was recorded by theMahawamsa, the historic chronicle ofSri Lanka to have invaded Sri Lanka in 1247 in search of Buddha's relict
that Sri Lanka already had. According to Sri Lankan sources he was a Javaka chieftain and a sea pirate from the kingdom of
Tambralinga. Although King Parakramabahu II (123670) from the Sinhalese Kingdom of Dambadeniya was able to defeat him,
Chandrabhanu moved north and secured the Tamil throne for himself around 1255. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan of the Pandyan
Empire in Tamilakkam intervened in 1258 and made Chandrabhanu submit to Pandyan rule, annually offering precious jewels and
elephants in tribute. A second attempt by Chandrabhanu to invade from the north prompted the south Indian Prince Jatavarman Veera
Pandyan, brother of emperor Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan to intervene in 1262-1264. Chandrabhanu was killed in the battle. Veera
Pandyan proceeded to plant the Pandyan bull victory flag at Koneswaram temple, Konamalai.[3] Savakanmaindan, son of
Chandrabhanu, inherited the northern Tamil throne upon his father's death.

Chandrabhanu's son
Chandrabhanu's son Savakanmaindan submitted to Pandyan rule and was rewarded, he was allowed to retain control of the Jaffna
kingdom while Sundara Pandyan remained supreme emperor of Pandyan. Marco Polo, describing Sundara Pandyan's empire as the
richest in the world, visited the Jaffna kingdom upon docking at Trincomalee, and described the locals under kingSendemain's rule as
mostly naked and feeding on rice and meat. The land was abundant with rubies and other precious stones, although by this stage
Savakanmaindan had stopped paying tributes to the Pandyans. When Savakamaindan embarked on an invasion of the south, the
Pandyan Dynasty under King Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I again invaded and defeated his forces in the late 1270s. However,
to further the power of Tamil hard power in the region,[5] they eventually installed one of their ministers in charge of the invasion,
Kulasekara Cinkaiariyan, an Aryacakravarti as the King.[6][7] In the local Tamil language, all South East Asians are known as Javar
or Javanese. There are number of place names in the Jaffna peninsula which pertains to its South East Asian connections.
Chavakacheri means a Javanese settlement. Chavahakottai means a Javanese fort all alluding to Chandrabhanu's brief rule in the
north.[8]

Notes
1. India's interaction with Southeast Asia,by Govind Chandra Pande p.286
2. Cds, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia(https://books.google.com/books?id=iDyJBFTdiwo
C). University of Hawaii Press.ISBN 9780824803681.
3. Bennett, Mathew The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval warfare
, p.100
4. Liyanage, A. The Decline of Polonnaruwa and the rise of Dambadeniya, (Colombo, 1968) p.136;
Recuil des
Inscriptions du Siam II, 26, tr.27.
5. deSilva 67
6. de Silva, A History of Sri Lanka, p.91-92
7. Kunarasa, K The Jaffna Dynasty, p.#
8. Codrington, Humphry William."Short history of Sri Lanka:Dambadeniya and Gampola Kings (1215-1411)"
(http://lak
diva.org/codrington/chap05.html). Lakdiva.org. Retrieved 2007-11-25.

References
de Silva, K. M. (2005).A History of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. p. 782. ISBN 955-8095-92-3.
Kunarasa, K (2003). The Jaffna Dynasty. Johor Bahru: Dynasty of Jaffna King's Historical Society. p. 122. ISBN 955-
8455-00-8.

External links
History of Chandrabhanu and the Sailendras
History of Sri Vijaya and Tambralinga
Preceded by Tambralinga Succeeded by
Unknown 12301270 Ramkhamhaeng?

Succeeded by
Preceded by Jaffna Kingdom
Kulasekara
Kalinga Magha 12531270
Singaiariyan

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