lklk

© All Rights Reserved

2 visualizações

lklk

© All Rights Reserved

- Guideline Check Dams Complete Set
- Dams
- O. R. Lalitha
- Dams - Impacts on a Riparian Environment
- Tariq Ethics3
- Fearnside 2005 Do Hidroelectric Dams mitigate Curuá-Una
- Hydro Electric Power Plant
- Koldam
- bfm-3A978-1-4613-0857-7-2F1
- Bihar Irrigation Act1997
- Lake Chad Basin Project Tiga and Challawa Gorge Dam Safety Assessment English
- 21 - Spillways Energy Dissipators and Spillway Gates
- Process IELTS
- About
- Design of Concrete Gravity Dam
- Grouting in Difficult Dam
- ASDSO05Miller
- Bosona and Gebresenbet
- Teesta_VN_COLD__Bachy_Soletanche.pdf
- A Study on the Factors (Job and Management Conditions) Affecting Output/Productivity of Motor Grader Equipment

Você está na página 1de 101

DAMS

Middle East Technical University

Northern Cyprus Campus

3. DAMS

Overview

Classification of Dams

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Overview

Classification of Dams

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

store water for several purposes:

water supply,

creating head (energy generation),

forming a lake,

sediment control,

flood control,

recharging of groundwater, etc.

There are disadvantages of dams as well:

imbalance of ecosystem,

decrease amount of downstream water,

reduction in the fertility of farmlands, etc.

Therefore, detailed survey should be carried out to ensure that

the relative weights of advantages over disadvantages are

higher.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 4/101

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

depending upon the purpose of classifications.

A classification based on the type and materials of construction:

Gravity Dams

Concrete gravity dams

Prestressed concrete gravity dams

Roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dams

Arch Dams

Constant-angle arch dams

Constant-center arch dams

Variable-angel, variable-cemter arch dams

Buttress Dams

Flat-slab buttress dams

Multiple-arch buttress dams

Embankment (Fill) Dams

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Gravity Dams

Concrete gravity dams

Pre-stressed concrete gravity

dams

Roller compacted concrete

(RCC) gravity dams

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 6/101

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Arch Dams

Constant-angle arch dams

Constant-center arch dams

Variable-angel arch dams

Variable-center arch dams

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 7/101

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Buttress Dams

Used mainly in wide valleys, it

consists of an impermeable wall,

which is shored up by a series of

buttresses to transmit the thrust of

the water to the foundation.

Flat-slab buttress dams

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Buttress Dams

Flat-slab buttress dams

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Buttress Dams

Multiple-arch buttress dams

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

Earth-fill dams

Simple embankment

Zoned embankment

Diaphragm type embankment

Rock-fill dams

Downstream of Ataturk Dam, Turkey Impermeable-face

Impermeable-earth core

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 11/101

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

A classifications based on

purpose, such as

storage

diversion

flood control

hydropower generation

A classification based on

hydraulic design such as

overflow dams,

non-overflow dams

Gilboa Dam, New York State, USA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

According to the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD):

Large Dam if height > 15 m

Large Dam if 10 m < height < 15 m

reservoir storage > 106 m3

crest length > 500 m

High Dam height > 50 m

Small Dam height < 10 m

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 14/101

3. DAMS

Classification of Dams

3. DAMS

Overview

Classification of Dams

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Parts of Dams

Body forms the main part of a dam as an impervious barrier.

Reservoir is the artificial lake behind a dam body.

Spillway is that part of a dam to evacuate the flood wave from the

reservoir.

Water intake is a facility to withdraw water from a reservoir.

Outlet facilities are those appurtenances to withdraw water from

the reservoir to meet the demands or to discharge the excess

water in the reservoir to the downstream during high flows.

sluiceways,

penstocks,

diversion tunnels,

bottom outlets, and

water intake structures

Others: Hydropower station, site installations, roads, ship locks,

fish passages, etc.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 17/101

3. DAMS

Overview

Classification of Dams

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Planning of Dams

reconnaissance survey,

feasibility study, and

planning study.

In reconnaissance surveys, the alternatives, which seem

infeasible without performing intensive study, are eliminated.

Feasibility Study:

Estimation of water demand

Determination of water potential

Optimal plans

Determination of dam site

Topography

Geologic information

Foundation conditions

Flood hazard

3. DAMS

Planning of Dams

Feasibility Study:

Determination of dam site (contd)

Spillway location and possibility

Climate

Diversion facilities

Sediment problem

Water quality

Transportation facilities

Right of way cost

Determination of type of dams

Project design

Hydrologic design

Hydraulic design

Structural design

3. DAMS

Planning of Dams

Planning Study:

Topographic surveys

Foundation studies

Details on materials and constructional facilities

Hydrologic study

Reservoir operation study

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

course.

The principal steps to be followed during the construction of any

type of dam briefly:

Evaluation of time schedule and required equipment.

Diversion of river flow

Foundation treatment

Items to be considered:

the approximate quantities of work

the preservation of construction equipment and materials

diversion facilities and urgency of work

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Diversion of the river flow is may be accomplished in one of the following

ways

1. Water is diverted through a side tunnel or channel.

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Typical cross-section of earth cofferdams

f: free board f=0.2(1+h)

h: flow depth (meters)

G=z/5 + 3 (meters)

Cofferdams should be constructed during the low flow season.

For fill type dams, embankment cofferdam may be kept in place as part of the

embankment (e.g. Keban Dam and Ataturk Dam).

For concrete dams, embankment cofferdam should be demolished after the dam has

been constructed.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 25/101

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 26/101

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Diversion of River Flow (contd)

Hoover Dam Overflow Tunnels (spillways), USA

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

3. DAMS

Diversion of River Flow (contd)

Construction of Dams

Hoover Dam Overflow Tunnels (spillways), USA

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

2. Water is discharged through the construction, which takes place in two

stages.

This type of diversion is normally practiced in wider valleys.

Two-stage diversion

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Two-stage diversion

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

A cofferdam on the Ohio River, Illinois, USA, built for the purpose of constructing the lock and dam.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 32/101

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Selection of a proper diversion scheme is based on the joint

consideration of

hydrologic characteristics of river flow,

type of dam and its height,

availability of materials,

characteristics of spilling arrangements.

The optimum design is based on cost minimization.

The cost analysis is carried out for various sizes of diversion

tunnels or channels to determine the corresponding total costs.

The optimum tunnel diameter or bottom width of a lined

trapezoidal channel is then determined according to the

minimum total cost of the facility.

3. DAMS

Construction of Dams

Foundation Treatment

Foundation treatment for dams is essential

to achieve less deformation under high loads,

to decrease permeability and seepage,

to increase shearing strength, and

to satisfy slope stability for the side hills.

Highly porous foundation material causes excessive seepage, uplift

and considerable settlement.

Such problems can be improved by a grouting operation.

In this operation, the grout mix is injected under pressure to

decrease the porosity, and hence to solidify the formations

underlying the dam and reservoir.

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

stiff geological formations.

Their own weight resists the forces exerted upon them.

They must have sufficient weight against overturning tendency

about the toe.

The base width of gravity dams must be large enough to prevent

sliding.

These types of dams are susceptible to settlement, overturning,

sliding and severe earthquake shocks.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Concrete gravity dams area built of mainly plain concrete to

take compressive stresses.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Concrete gravity dams have lower maintenance and operation costs

compared to the other types of dams.

In the design of these structures, the following criteria should be

satisfied:

Dimensions of the dam are chosen such that only compressive stresses

develop under all loading conditions.

The dam must be safe against overturning, shear and sliding.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

In the construction of concrete gravity dams special care is

required for the problems due to shrinkage and expansion.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Forces Acting on Gravity Dams

The weight:

Wc= dead load

Hydrostatic forces:

Uplift Force:

Moment arm of Fu=B(2h1+3h2) / 3(h1+h2)

gauges installed at the bottom of the dam. Free body diagram. Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 40/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Forces Acting on Gravity Dams

Sediment Force:

Ka: active earth pressure coefficient according to the

Rankine theory.

Ka = (1-sin)/(1+sin)

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 41/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Forces Acting on Gravity Dams

Earthquake Force:

Fd = kWc

k: earthquake coefficient

Fw = 0.726Ckh12

C = 0.71

90

Dynamic Force acting on a spillways

F = Qu

obtained using momentum equation

Free body diagram. Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 42/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Forces Acting on Gravity Dams

reservoirs.

construction because of hydration reactions

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 43/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

Stability analyses are performed for various loading conditions

The structure must prove its safety and stability under all loading conditions.

Since the probability of occurrence of extreme events is relatively small, the

joint probability of the independent extreme events is negligible.

In other word, the probability that two extreme events occur at the same time

is relatively very low.

Therefore, combination of extreme events are not considered in the stability

criteria.

Floods (spring and summer) Ice load (winter).

No need to consider these two forces at the same time.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

Usual Loading

Hydrostatic force (normal operating level)

Uplift force

Temperature stress (normal temperature)

Dead loads

Ice loads

Silt load

Unusual Loading

Hydrostatic force (reservoir full)

Uplift force

Stress produced by minimum temperature at full level

Dead loads

Silt load

Extreme (severe) Loading

Forces in Usual Loading and earthquake forces

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The ability of a dam to resist the applied loads is measured by some

safety factors.

To offset the uncertainties in the loads, safety criteria are chosen

sufficiently beyond the static equilibrium condition.

Recommended safety factors: (USBR, 1976 and 1987)

F.Ss: Safety factor against sliding.

F.Sss: Safety factor against shear and sliding.

However, since each dam site has unique features, different safety

factors may be derived considering the local condition.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 46/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The factor of safety against overturning:

F .S0 =

Mr where Mr: total resisting moment about the toe.

M0 M0: total overturning moment about the toe.

f V

F .S s =

H

where f: coefficient of friction between any two planes

V: vectorial summation of vertical forces.

H: vectorial summation of horizontal forces.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 47/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The factor of safety against sliding and shear:

f V + rA s

F .S ss = (in the dam)

H

f V + cA

F .S ss = (at foundation level)

H

where A: Area of the shear plane,

s: shear strength of concrete

r: factor to express max allowable average shear stress

r=0.33, 0.50, and 1.0 for usual, unusual, and extreme loading, respectively.

f: coefficient of friction between any two planes

V: vectorial summation of vertical forces.

H: vectorial summation of horizontal forces.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 48/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The contact stress between the foundation and the dam or the

internal stress in the dam body must be compressive:

=

V Mc

A I

Base pressure distribution

A: Area of the shear plane,

M: net moment about the centerline of the base (M = V.e)

e: eccentricity ( B / 2 x )

c: B/2

I : Moment of inertia (B3/12)

V: vectorial summation of vertical forces.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 49/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The contact stress between the foundation and the dam or the

internal stress in the dam body must be compressive:

In order to maintain compressive stresses in the dam or at the foundation

level, the minimum pressure min 0.

This can be achieved with a certain range of eccentricity.

V Mc V V e B / 2 V 6e

= for a unit width

min = = 1 0

A I A 3

B / 12 B B

min 0 can be achieved if e B/6

Full reservoir max at the downstream face

Empty reservoir max at the upstream face

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 50/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The contact stress between the foundation and the dam or the

internal stress in the dam body must be compressive:

Tension along the upstream face of a gravity dam is possible under

reservoir operating conditions.

z = 0.4 (if drains are used)

P: hydrostatic pressure at the level under consideration

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

Concrete gravity dams have varying thickness.

Hence the inclined compressive stresses parallel to the face of the

dam need to be computed.

For a concrete gravity dam with slopes of 1V:mH at the upstream face and

1V:nH at the down stream face, the major principle compressive stresses,

iu (parallel to the upstream face) and id (parallel to the downstream face)

are obtained from the static equilibrium of forces in the vertical direction as:

(Fy=0)

where u and d vertical normal compressive stresses and pu and pd hydrostatic pressures

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering at the upstream and downstream faces, respectively. 52/101

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

Internal horizontal and vertical shear stresses at the upstream and

downstream faces are obtained by equating the total moment to zero

as (MA=0, MB=0):

where hu, hd, vu, and vd are the horizontal and vertical internal shear stresses

at the upstream and downstream faces, respectively.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

The maximum compressive stress, max ,must be smaller than a

certain fraction of the compressive strength of concrete, c, and

foundation material, f.

Safety criteria for concrete gravity dams for foundation materials

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

Stability Criteria

Excessive care must be taken during the filling of the reservoir.

Initially 1/3 of the dam height may be filled first.

After waiting for several weeks and assuring that the dam is safe,

further filling is performed.

Since safety levels change with respect to upstream water depth,

gravity dams must be analyzed for various operating levels and empty

reservoir cases, separately.

For the empty reservoir case, the overturning tendency must be

checked with respect to the toe and heel, separately.

The stability against sliding may be improved by providing a cut off

wall in the foundation at the upstream side.

3. DAMS

Gravity Dams

In a prestress concrete dam, forces are applied to the dam before

the reservoir is filled in order to counter undesirable stress that

would develop in the absence of the prestressing forces.

For prestressing, either small-diameter high-tensile wires or high-

tensile steel bars can be used.

Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) Gravity Dams

RCC dam is constructed using cement, water, fine and course

aggregates, and fly ash which are mixed in certain proportions to

have a no-slump, rather dry composition.

Construction is based on the compaction of this mixture by heavy

static or vibrating rollers.

Construction period of RCC dams is shorter than that of

conventional concrete gravity dams.

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Gokcekaya, Oymapinar, Karakaya, Gezende, and Berke dams in Turkey.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 60/101

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Stability of an arch dam is based on its self weight and its ability to

transmit most of the imposed water loads into the valley walls.

At the sites of arch dams, the side formations and foundations should

be very stiff to resist the applied load.

For effective arching action, the radius of the arch should be as small

as possible.

They are formed by concrete blocks having base dimensions of

approximately 15 m by 15 m and height of 1.5 m

Reinforcement is not generally required in thick arch dams because it

increases the cost drastically.

Arch dams have normally higher structural safety than conventional

gravity dams.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Arch dams are classified

according to geometric

characteristics of the valley where

they are adopted.

Arch dams are classified

according to the location of the

center and magnitude of the

central angle

Constant-center (variable

angle) arch dams are suitable for

medium-high dams in U-shape

valleys. They have single

curvature in plan with vertical

upstream face.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 62/101

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Variable-center (constant angle)

arch dams are suitable for V-shape

valleys.

Radius of the arc reduces with respect

to depth.

So arching action is more pronounced

at low depths.

Since these types of dams are normally

thinner than constant-center dams,

Variable-center (constant angle) arch dams

they are more elastic and safer.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Variable-center (variable angle)

arch dams are composed of the

combination of two types described

above.

Load distribution in vertical direction

governs the cross-sectional shape of

the dam.

This type has a pronounced double Variable-center (variable angle) arch dams

curvature

They utilized the concrete strength

more compared the other types

resulting in thinner and more efficient

structure.

However, tensile stresses may develop

in the dam body.

Gokcekaya Dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 64/101

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Variable-center (variable angle)

arch dams

Gokcekaya Dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 65/101

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Structural design of an arch dam requires the determination of load

distribution in the dam body using the trial load method and

applications of the theory of elasticity and the theory of shells.

Structural design is beyond the scope of this course.

Simplified design:

The determination of the thickness at any elevation of an arch dam

whose crest elevation has already been determined in the hydrologic

design step.

In the arch dams, the total load is shared by arch and cantilever

actions and transmitted to the sides and foundation, respectively.

Therefore, the base width of arch dams is usually much narrower

than that of concrete gravity dams having almost the same height.

Hence, the effect of uplift pressure can be ignored.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 66/101

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

However, effect of temperature stresses

should be checked to ensure that they are

smaller than tensile strength.

Near the crest of the dam, most of the

loads taken by arches and transmitted to

the side abutments.

Near the bottom of the dam, cantilevers

take most of the load and transmit to the

foundation.

Gokcekaya Dam

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

In the following analysis, the

water thrust induced by

hydrostatic pressure is assumed

to be taken by arch action only

and transmitted to the sides.

The differential force acting on a

differential element having a

central angle of d is

dFv= P r d

The vertical component of this Free-body diagram for arch dam analysis

force is

dF'v= P r d sin

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

Integration of this force along the

arc length gives the total

horizontal force, Hh.

2

a a

Hh = 2 hr sin d = 2hr

cos

2

cos

2

= 2

2

hr sin

2

a

Free-body diagram for arch dam analysis

2 2

where

h: the height of the arch rib relative to the reservoir surface

r: the radius of arch

a: the central angle

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

The equilibrium of forces in y-

direction involves

H h = 2Ry

where

R y = R sin a

2

Therefore

2hr sin a = 2 R sin a Free-body diagram for arch dam analysis

2 2

R = hr

where

R: the reaction offered by the sides against the transmission of water thrust.

As observed from the R = hr, the reaction at the sides is directly proportional to the arc radius at

a given height. Therefore, narrow valleys having stiff geological formations and small r-values are

suitable for arch dams.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

If the thickness of the arch rib, t, is relatively small as compared with

r, there is small difference between the average and maximum

compressive stresses in the rib and R/t.

The required thickness of the rib is then

hr

t= (the thickness varies linearly with depth.)

all

where

all: the allowable working stress for concrete in compression.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

The volume of concrete per unit height of a single arch rib across a

canyon of width of Ba is

V=Lt

where L is the arch length which is equal to ra (a in radians).

h 2

V= r a

all

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

The optimum central angle a for a minimum volume of arch rib

can be determined as 13334 by differentiating V with respect to

a and equating the result to zero.

This is the reason why a constant-angle arch dam can be design

to require less concrete than a constant-center dam.

In practice, the central angles of arch dams vary from 100 to

140.

However, the formwork of a constant-angle dam is more difficult.

3. DAMS

Arch Dams

The optimum central angle a for a minimum volume of arch rib

can be determined as 13334 by differentiating V with respect to

a and equating the result to zero.

This is the reason why a constant-angle arch dam can be design

to require less concrete than a constant-center dam.

In practice, the central angles of arch dams vary from 100 to

140.

However, the formwork of a constant-angle dam is more difficult.

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Buttress Dams

slab.

Depending on the orientation of slab,

a buttress dam may be classified as

flat-slab buttress dam

multiple-arch buttress dam

Elmali Dam construction, Istanbul, 1941

3. DAMS

Buttress Dams

3. DAMS

Buttress Dams

3. DAMS

Buttress Dams

They can be constructed on foundations having smaller bearing

capacity then required for gravity dams.

Since they have thinner slabs, possibility of development of vertical

cracks is less.

Problems encountered during the setting of concrete are reduced.

Unless a mat foundation is used, uplift forces are negligibly small

because of hollow spaces provided between the buttresses.

Ice pressures are also small as the ice

sheet slides up the inclined slab.

Main disadvantage of buttress dams:

May have comparable costs, because of

increased formwork and reinforcement .

There is only one buttress dam in

Turkey (Elmali 2 Dam).

Elmali 2 Dam

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

Coarse-grained soils (gravel and coarse sand)

relatively pervious,

easily compacted,

resistant to moisture,

Clay is considered as a core material (impermeable)

unstable when saturated (expands due to wetting, hard to compact)

Therefore, clay mixed with sand and fine gravel is used as a core.

Core must be compacted in thinner layers with fairly accurate moisture

control.

Compacted asphalt may also be used as an economical core material

in case of loose foundations.

Asphalt can absorb earthquake shocks effectively.

3. DAMS

settlements.

Embankment dams

Earth-fill dams

Rock-fill dams

total material is of rock.)

Earth-fill dams in Turkey

Seyhan Dam

Demirkopru Dam

Cubuk 2 Dam

Bayindir Dam

Keban Dam

Ataturk Dam

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 82/101

3. DAMS

dams is relatively greater

than the other types of dams.

Normally cheaper than the

other types where there is

enough fill material in the

close vicinity.

Fill dams comprise more

than 70% of the dams in the

world and 90% in Turkey.

Keban Dam

3. DAMS

Earth-fill Dams

Construction:

Placement of selected material on layers of 50 cm thick and

compaction.

Non-organic and non-plastic soils are needed.

A typical earth-fill dam is constructed in a multi-layer formation.

3. DAMS

Earth-fill Dams

A typical earth-fill dam is

constructed in a multi-layer

formation.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 85/101

3. DAMS

Earth-fill Dams

Seepage through an earth-fill dam.

The flow rate, q, between two flow lines can be expressed using the Darcy law as

q = KAi = KD i : the hydraulic gradient

L h: head loss (h/N)

The total flow rate, q N : number of equipotential drops

Kh

q = N N: the number of stream tubes

N

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 86/101

3. DAMS

Earth-fill Dams

Drainage systems in an earth-fill dam.

Chimney drains, in the embankment as well as enlarged toe drains

3. DAMS

Rock-fill Dams

Having relatively high pore space

Can be adopted to weaker foundations where a gravity dam cannot be

constructed.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 88/101

3. DAMS

Largest dam in Turkey

Reservoir Volume: 48.7 x 109 m3

Installed capacity: 2400 MW

Annual energy production: 8.9 x 109kWh

Irrigated land: 874200 ha (with the completion of the project)

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 89/101

3. DAMS

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

and desired functionality concerning service requirement are attained.

Sufficient crest width, tc must be provided.

a width of two lane traffic may be selected.

For small embankment dams

up to Hf=15 m.

tc=0.2Hf+3

For large embankment dams

up to Hf=150 m.

tc=3.6 (Hf )1/3

where tc and Hf are in meter.

3. DAMS

throughout the world, Yanmaz et al. (1999) proposed the following

regression equations to define the shape of a gravity dam.

H*=0.1075 Ht

tc=0.0475 Ht +2.392

3. DAMS

formulas for cross-sectional layout of arch dams:

tc = 0.01(H t + 1.2 Ba )

H t / 400

H

tb = 3 0.0012 H t Ba B0.15 t All the dimensions are in ft

400

t0.45 H t = 0.95tb

B0.15: the span width at 15% of the dam height above the base

t0.45Ht: the dam thickness at 45% of the dam height above the base.

3. DAMS

overtopping danger of the flood wave during the occurance of the design

flood.

Freeboards on flood levels for concrete and embankment dams

Greater freeboards are required for embankment dams since they are

susceptible to erosion at the downstream face due to overtopping from their

crest.

The required side slopes of concrete gravity dams are determined from

stability analyses.

The maximum downstream slope of gravity dams is 45.

Side slopes of embankment dams are determined on the basis of seepage

and slope stability analyses.

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 95/101

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

outlet works (spillways, sluiceways etc.) should be dissipated in order

to prevent the erosion of the streambed and the banks below the dam.

foundation stability problems (depth of approx 30 m).

3. DAMS

Scour prediction equations for the downstream of dams. ds: the maximum depth of scour hole in m.

=(s- )/,

s: : specific weight of sediment in kN/m3

: specific weight of water in kN/m3.

h: tailwater depth in m

CVE 471 Water Resources Engineering 98/101

3. DAMS

Overview

Parts of Dams

Planning of Dams

Construction of Dams

Concrete Gravity Dams

Arch Dams

Buttress Dams

Embankment (Fill Dams)

Cross-sectional Layout Design of Dams

Local Scour at the Downstream of Dams

Dam Safety and Rehabilitation

3. DAMS

stages of a dam.

Major causes for a dam break:

Inadequate spillway capacity,

Improper construction of any type of dam,

Insufficient compaction of embankment dams or compaction with

undesirable water content,

Improper protective measures,

Excessive settlements, etc

Continuous inspection and monitoring are required to assess the

safety level of the dam throughout the lifetime.

3. DAMS

that are indicators of problems:

Large horizontal and vertical movements of crest,

Tilting of the roadway along the crest,

Deformation of embankment slope,

Higher than usual pore water pressure in embankment dams,

Unusual seepage at the toe or edges of an embankment dam,

Seepage flows with not decreasing with low flow conditions,

Turbit outflow through the embankment,

Tilting of the spillway crest

Increased leakage into inspection galleries in concrete dams, etc.

- Guideline Check Dams Complete SetEnviado porHidro Ingeniero
- DamsEnviado porveenabalu20
- O. R. LalithaEnviado porPRABHUTIRUPUR
- Dams - Impacts on a Riparian EnvironmentEnviado porAaron Shaffer
- Tariq Ethics3Enviado porTariq Khan
- Fearnside 2005 Do Hidroelectric Dams mitigate Curuá-UnaEnviado porricardos_1980
- Hydro Electric Power PlantEnviado porPradeep Kumar Mehta
- KoldamEnviado porHarpreet Singh
- bfm-3A978-1-4613-0857-7-2F1Enviado porShaik Adi
- Bihar Irrigation Act1997Enviado porLatest Laws Team
- Lake Chad Basin Project Tiga and Challawa Gorge Dam Safety Assessment EnglishEnviado porMuhammad Dini
- 21 - Spillways Energy Dissipators and Spillway GatesEnviado porBilal Mzhr
- Process IELTSEnviado porTạGiaHưng
- AboutEnviado porJoel Provoste Barrientos
- Design of Concrete Gravity DamEnviado porSudharsananPRS
- Grouting in Difficult DamEnviado porTam Eng Sun
- ASDSO05MillerEnviado porshanu104
- Bosona and GebresenbetEnviado porJOHNK
- Teesta_VN_COLD__Bachy_Soletanche.pdfEnviado porHARSH B MEHTA
- A Study on the Factors (Job and Management Conditions) Affecting Output/Productivity of Motor Grader EquipmentEnviado porInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 180502.pdfEnviado porGezim Bytyqi
- DAM+DETAILS-1Enviado porkkodge
- Future Water Demand of Gaziantep Province Using Population Forecasting MethodEnviado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- PDF Mbrojtje SkarpateEnviado porBenardo Zefi
- PA- The Case of Small Scale DamsEnviado poryasirelsadig
- Source of IrrigationEnviado porBALASUBRAMANIAM MEGHANADH
- Notice: Environmental statements; availability, etc.: California Department of Water ResourcesEnviado porJustia.com
- IJCE v13n1p102 EnEnviado porAnonymous lKQDfeAHo
- Hydrobiology Assessment of the Fresh Water Reservoir Nyari-II in RelationEnviado porESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservaion
- The Impacts of the Three Gorges DamEnviado porChristos Stambolidis

- DSD Template Powerpoint 2010Enviado pormimahmoud
- Kurdistan Inception Report 12062008Enviado pormimahmoud
- _Ch5-Mass,.pdfEnviado pormimahmoud
- Kurdistan Final Report 310708Enviado pormimahmoud
- Design of Small Canal StructuresEnviado porCarlos Castro
- 04lecture Dams(2)Enviado pormimahmoud
- CE-461 Keynote MrkEnviado porMahmoud I. Mahmoud
- milmantransboundarywaters-110721132805-phpapp02Enviado pormimahmoud
- 05lecture-ArchDamsEnviado porRohan Arora
- Aacdsmiledesign 140327081631 Phpapp02 (1)Enviado porDiana Suărășan
- 1366667578.15677-CEE-dams ProjectEnviado pormimahmoud
- 2_-_Handouts_SE301_Topic1_Term071.pdfEnviado pormimahmoud
- Feasibility Studies of Small Hydropower in KurdistanEnviado pormimahmoud
- Hydroeco Def Newman 2006Enviado pormimahmoud
- Drug Prescribing for DentistsEnviado pormoheen_khan
- 9058096327Enviado porchenfs6724
- Hydrometry.pdfEnviado pormimahmoud
- spillwaysEnviado porvasu
- Civil IntroEnviado pormimahmoud
- Click_to_View_PowerPoint_Presentation.pptxEnviado porMahmoud I. Mahmoud
- Hydraulicstructures 151119095109 Lva1 App6891Enviado porAli Irfan
- Hydraulic Structures Ch3_Bizuneh.pptEnviado porAshraf Bestawy
- Design PHEEnviado porAbhik Bhattacharjee
- lecture2hydrologicalanddemandsurvey-170530033615Enviado pormimahmoud
- basictermsofhydropowerplant-120913080212-phpapp02Enviado pormimahmoud
- Chapter-10.pdfEnviado pormimahmoud

- Dam Automation Case StudyEnviado porTarunPatra
- Non-uniform flow in channels (1).pdfEnviado porsanjana jain
- Reservoir Storage Zone and Uses of ReservoirEnviado porsuresh
- Gates and Orifices-Theory and Examples v2Enviado porMarcela S. Duhne Ramírez
- Water Resources Engineering-IIEnviado porCharan Reddy
- hydraulic design criteriaEnviado porMuhammad Farid Z
- CE 7th (SY)170811063911Enviado porAmish Vyas
- Estructuras RomanasEnviado porWilliam MontesdeOca
- IOE Syllabus(civil-4th year)Enviado porSibeshKumarSingh
- sediment basin exampleEnviado porastarnas
- BE Civil EngineeringEnviado porAshok Rajanavar
- Final Training ReportEnviado porkushalchandel
- Revised Dam DesignEnviado porJorgeZafra
- Arch Dam DesignEnviado portyukgomba
- Critical Tech Issue in TehriEnviado porAmal Kumar De
- ACI 210R RE Approved 2008Enviado porcivil lab
- Hydro Electric Power PlantEnviado porRajdeep Sikdar
- Karamoja Productive Asset Program Small Earth Dam Technical Assessment Report 09.2010Enviado porGezim Bytyqi
- 3 Adding Structures to the HD ModelEnviado porEmil Salim
- 2101R_94Enviado porDIDIER ANGEL LOPEZ RINCON
- Appendix E1 - Tailings Storage Facility (TSF) Management Plan.pdfEnviado porBaikai Ma
- CEL351_hydrualic Structure DesignEnviado pornour
- Design and Hydraulic Model of Gibe III Dam Spillway, Rev 7 Aug 2015Enviado porjoaoaugusto79
- HydropowerEnviado porBhaskar Reddy
- Max Benefits Urra DamEnviado porLara Pinheiro
- Codes TitlesEnviado porssmaddi
- HYD-560Enviado porBhaskar Reddy
- 527-538Enviado porSyed Muhammad Ali Abbas
- DamEnviado porJam Rapacon