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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Contents

TRACTOR ................................................................................................. 2

COMPATIBILITY AS PER ISO 1726 ......................................................... 3


Manoeuvrability ................................................................................... 5

WHEELBASE ........................................................................................... 7

POSITIONING FIFTH WHEEL ................................................................. 8

ATTACHING THE FIFTH WHEEL ........................................................... 10

LOCKING FIFTH WHEEL AND MOUNTING PLATE ............................. 11

RETROFITTING ANGLE BRACKETS .................................................... 11

REINFORCING FOR 6x4 TRACTORS WITH ANGLE BRACKETS ....... 12

SELECTING ANGLE BRACKET OR AUXILIARY FRAME .................... 13

ANGLE BRACKETS ............................................................................... 13

AUXILIARY FRAME ................................................................................ 13

TYPES OF FIFTH WHEEL ..................................................................... 17


2" kingpin .......................................................................................... 17
3.5" kingpin ....................................................................................... 17
Universally jointed ............................................................................ 17
Replaceable locking mechanism..................................................... 18
Moveable............................................................................................ 18
Raisable and lowerable fifth wheel ................................................. 18

FACTORY FITTED FIFTH WHEELS FROM SCANIA ............................ 19


Calculating the D-value for tractors with semi-trailers ................. 20
Factory fitted angle brackets for different types of chassis ......... 21
Factory fitted moveable fifth wheels ............................................... 23

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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

TRACTOR
Using a tractor for a semi-trailer offers many oppor-
tunities to solve a variety of transport needs using the
same truck.
However, using the flexibility of a tractor means that
international and national legislation and standards
must be complied with, when selecting the wheelbase
and positioning the fifth wheel.
Before coupling the tractor and semi-trailer, always
check that they are built to the same standard.

4133

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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

COMPATIBILITY AS PER ISO 1726


ISO 1726 is an international standard covering
characteristics and location of the fifth wheel, and
the space that must be available for the
semi-trailer.

Technically, tractors and semi-trailers that comply


with this standard can be combined. In addition to
technical compatibility, regard must be taken to
regulations concerning external dimensions and
axle loads of the vehicle combinations.

According to the international ISO standard, the


height of the fifth wheel (A) on a loaded tractor
should be:
A=min 1150 mm
A = max 1300 mm

Fifth wheel height (A) for tractor without semi-


trailer.
A = max 1400 mm

Bulk goods tractor adapted for 2.9 m high container


as per ISO.
1
2
Laden tractor.
A = min 1025 mm A
A = max 1100 mm

Unladen.
A = max 1150 mm 1
2

The limit for fifth wheel movement longitudinally


and laterally should be:
26:4120

upwards: min 8 ( b1 )
downwards: min 8 ( b2 )
laterally: max 3 ( a1 = a2 )

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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

In order to ensure adequate clearance between tractor


and semi-trailer in all driving conditions, the tractor
must permit a slope angle for the semi-trailer of at
least:

forwards: 6 ( w1 )
rearward: 7 ( w2 )

w1
w2

26:4126

NOTE: ISO 1726 7 ( w2 ) gives clearance above


tyres with no consideration taken for any mud
guards.

4 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Manoeuvrability
In order for the tractor to be freely manoeuvred, the
diagonal front overhang of the semi-trailer (front
swept radius D) must not exceed 2040 mm. (This
figure corresponds to a front overhang of 1600 mm
from the kingpin to the front edge of the
semi-trailer with a trailer width of 2500 mm.)

The rear part of the tractor must also have requisite


clearance. Minimum distance between kingpin and
semi-trailer landing legs is designated G.

An additional clearance of 100 mm is recom-


mended between radii J and G, to allow
for the necessary angular differences between the
tractor and semi-trailer. Check this dimension at G
an operating angle of 90. D
J

J = max 1940 mm
D = max 2040 mm

26:4111
G = max 2300 mm

4111
In order to ensure that the semi-trailer has suffi-
cient clearance in relation to the tractor, a hitch
profile can be drawn up, giving essential dimen-
sions. This profile is often called a swan-neck
profile and permits interchangeability between all
S
tractors and semi-trailers built according to the ISO Y
standard. Values matched to these dimensions are
as follows:
R

26:4110

G
S= min 750 mm
Y= max4
R= max 450 mm
G= min 2300 mm

Scania CV 2002 5
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

In order to be able to haul a 13.6 m trailer (EU


trailer) within a total length of 16.5 m, the distance
between the front of the tractor and the centre of
the fifth wheel should be no more than 4500 mm.

26:4130

Max 4500 mm

This is a short introduction to ISO 1726. For fur-


ther details concerning this international standard
or local standards please contact the appropriate
national standards organisation.

6 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

WHEELBASE
The choice of wheelbase is affected by factors such as
the front overhang on the semi-trailer and regulations
that govern the total vehicle length and the gross
vehicle weight. This limits the choice of where to place
the fifth wheel lengthways.

However, technically the following general rules apply:


A truck with a long wheelbase is more susceptible to
chassis frame vibration.
Since the distance between the chassis frame support
points (the front axle and the rear axle) is large, the
natural frequency of the chassis frame will be low.

First and foremost a chassis designed for tractors,


an A chassis, should be specified.

Otherwise:
Select the shortest possible wheelbase. The wheel-
base measurements to the right are primarily
recommended for fifth wheel installation.

Chassis type Wheelbase (mm)

PR 4 x2 3300, 3550, 3700


PR 6 x2 A B 2900
PR 6 x2 Z 3100
PR 6 x2 / 4 3975, 4100
PR 6 x4 3100, 3300, 3500
T 4 x2 4300, 4700
T 6 x2 , 6 x4 3900, 4300

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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

POSITIONING FIFTH WHEEL


In addition to that mentioned in the previous para-
graph, there are several factors which affect the
position of the fifth wheel. The semi-trailer must
not strike the cab or the rear of the chassis frame,
but handling must be good.

In order to utilise the maximum load-carrying


capacity of the front axle, the fifth wheel is usually
located far forward on long trucks, which increases
susceptibility to chassis frame vibration.

If the fifth wheel is positioned centrally over the


rear axle or over the theoretical bogie centre, this
effect is decreased. On the other hand, steering is
made less sensitive and the driver has poor control
of the semi-trailer.

An intermediate position should be selected, pro-


viding both good handling and acceptable axle load
distribution.

If the distance between the fifth wheel and the rear


axle section is large, the semi-trailer will endeav-
our to displace the truck laterally when the semi- When deciding the location of the fifth
trailer heels over (when cornering or skidding). wheel, always check the axle loads in
This may be dangerous on a slippery road surface. each individual case.
This effect varies with load and road conditions
and depends on the magnitude of acceleration or
retardation.
Always check that the space between
It is not possible to give precise recommendations the semi-trailer and the rear edge of the
for positioning the fifth wheel that take into con- chassis frame is sufficient.
sideration all factors, e.g. chassis type, wheelbase,
chassis equipment, required axle loads and legal
requirements.

8 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

The following instructions give general guide-


lines for fifth wheel location.
Experience shows that the vehicle unit will handle
well when:
- The fifth wheel of a two-axle tractor is located at
B
a distance of 10% of the wheelbase forward of

26:4102
the rear axle.
- The fifth wheel of a three-axle tractor is located
at a distance of 10% of the wheelbase forward of
the theoretical bogie centre. The theoretical bogie
centre is shown on the main dimension drawings. B = max. 600 mm

This positioning gives relatively low front axle (from the factory 760 mm)
load, which can be increased by positioning the
fifth wheel somewhat further forward.
In order to comply with EU directives concerning
tractor combinations, the distance between the
If the fifth wheel is moved too far forward, more
front of the tractor and the centre of the fifth wheel
than 700 mm ahead of the driving axle on two-axle
should not exceed 4500 mm, see also page 6.
vehicles, handling will be impaired and the risk of
exceeding the permitted front axle weight is in- The fifth wheel on tractors with a plastic bumper
creased. should then be mounted as indicated in the table
below. Tractors with a steel bumper are 35 mm
On 6x2/4 vehicles the fifth wheel is more than 700
longer, so the fifth wheel must also be positioned
mm ahead of the driving axle and handling is im-
35 mm further forward.
paired when driving with the tag axle raised, which
could be considered an unfavourable characteristic.
On chassis with a T cab which have a longer B = 260 mm for wheelbase 3300 4x2
wheelbase it may instead be difficult to position 510 mm 3550 4x2
the fifth wheel far enough to the rear without ex-
ceeding the maximum permitted rig length. 660 mm 3700 4x2
Fifth wheel mounting places a highly concentrated 935 mm 3975 6x2 /4
load on the chassis frame. 1060 mm 4100 6x2 /4
From the loading aspect the fifth wheel should A = 140 mm 2900 6x2
therefore be positioned no further than 600 mm
ahead of the rear axle on a two-axle tractor.
An exception to this are chassis that are adapted to On three-axle tractors, the fifth wheel is located as
the tractor ex works and on which the fifth wheel set out in A in the diagram
can be mounted in a pre-drilled
position a maximum of 760 mm A = min 90 mm 6x2, 6x4A/B
ahead of the rear axle.
100 mm 6x4Z
A
26:4101

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Tractors, fifth wheels 4

ATTACHING THE FIFTH WHEEL


The fifth wheel should be attached to a mounting

26:4127
plate.
The mounting plate provides a suitable attachment 40
for the fifth wheel against the angle brackets or
8
auxiliary frame.

r20

r20
2 2
A suitable design of mounting plate is shown in the
adjacent figure.

One of the mounting plates in the adjacent figures


can be used on trucks that require particularly low
fifth wheel heights, In order to avoid the mounting
plate being bent down, the cross members under- max 100
neath should be used.

min 40 12
If low angle brackets are used, the end surfaces on 30
the mounting plate must not chafe the chassis 120
frame. This may cause damage to the chassis r 20 min 40
frame.

4106
The end surfaces of the mounting plate should
therefore be bent up as shown in figures.

The mounting plate should be designed so that the


contact pressure on the auxiliary frame is distrib-
uted evenly onto at least four support surfaces.
26:4121

To avoid damage to the chassis frame, Moveable fifth wheel bridge-piece


the end surfaces of the mounting plate should be secured in accordance with
must be rounded or bent up. the manufacturers instructions.

10 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

LOCKING FIFTH WHEEL AND MOUNTING PLATE


At the factory fifth wheels are mounted on the mounting plate using special bolts dacroment, tightened
to a specific torque.
If the fifth wheel is loosened from the mounting plate new M16 8.8 bolts and welded stops should be fitted.
The mounting plate is mounted on the angle brackets using four M18 and four M20 tight-fit bolts.

NOTE the mounting plate for 3.5" fifth wheels


is mounted using eight M20 tight-fit bolts + four
welded stops.

26:4122
NOTE the mounting plate for 3.5" fifth wheels
is attached as set out above.

RETROFITTING ANGLE BRACKETS


Angle brackets should be attached to the webs of
If angle brackets higher than 40 mm are
the chassis frame using rivets or bolted joints. The
fitted, cross members should be used be-
number of bolts depends on the length of the angle
tween the angle brackets in order to dis-
bracket. As a rule, it is necessary to use at least 10
tribute lateral forces from the semi-trailer.
bolts.
Use M14 bolts.
When retrofitting we recommend that the fifth
wheel is secured on the mounting plate by welded
stops and the mounting plate is secured to the On 4x2, the angle brackets may not be
chassis by using either four M18 and four tight-fit above the chassis frame, as the shape of the
bolts or eight M18 bolts and welded stops. angle bracket makes it too weak to carry
the load from the fifth wheel on its own.

Scania CV 2002 11
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

REINFORCING FOR 6x4 TRACTORS


WITH ANGLE BRACKETS
When driving on winding roads with high bogie
loads, it may sometimes be necessary to provide
reinforcement with a cross as illustrated, in order
to prevent damage to "cross" members or retroac-
tively if damage has occurred to cross members.

Steel rod 70 x 10 mm.

M16 tight-fit bolts

Do not weld the cross, only use straps to


eliminate noise.

12 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

SELECTING ANGLE BRACKET OR


AUXILIARY FRAME
This choice is made based on the semi-trailer load
on the chassis, the chassi-class and the driving
conditions.

ANGLE BRACKETS
The angle bracket is standard on chassis designed
for tractors and is suitable for long-distance driv-
ing and normal gross weights with a D value of up
to 152 kN.
For heavier loads with 6x4Z and bogie BT300B, a
ANGLE BRACKET AUXILIARY
fifth wheel with 3.5" kingpin, sturdier angle brack-
FRAME
ets and mounting plate is available. Having a D
value of 260 kN it is recommended for gross train
weights of up to 70 tonnes on bad roads and 120
tonnes on good roads. If higher gross train weights
are required, an auxiliary frame is recommended.
Auxiliary frame example for F958 frame.
AUXILIARY FRAME
Section Height x width x Min. surface
We recommend an auxiliary frame when Scanias type thickness (mm) moment of
angle bracket cannot be used. inertia per
The auxiliary frame distributes the point load ap- member
plied by the fifth wheel and reinforces the chassis lX (cm4)
frame. The auxiliary frame raises the fifth wheel,
which is often necessary to safeguard adequate U 11 0 x 8 0 x 8 380
clearance between the semi-trailer and the wheels
and/or the rear ends of the chassis. Z 11 0 x8 0 x8 0 x 8 380

The dimensions of the auxiliary frame are depend-


ent on the load, operating conditions and the space For more general information about auxiliary
required. As a general rule, it is advisable to use frame, see Chapter 2.
auxiliary frame dimensions with a minimum sur-
face moment of inertia as in the table opposite,
when kingpin loads are high or operating condi-
tions difficult.

The auxiliary frame should consist of open Z or U


sections.

Scania CV 2002 13
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Lateral forces from the trailer when cornering


should be distributed between the chassis frame
members. If lateral forces are applied to one frame
member only, this may become twisted and bent.
For this reason, the auxiliary frame should be fitted
with cross members in front of and behind the fifth
wheel mounting points.

For heavy transport with high a total vehicle


weight, the auxiliary frame should be provided
with several thick cross members forward of and
behind the fifth wheel mounting points.

4118
Cross members should be used forward of and
behind the fifth wheel mounting points.

Example of auxiliary frame for fifth wheel mounting.

14 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

26:4105

Heavy tractor

Scania CV 2002 15
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

The length of the front part of the auxiliary frame can


be significant in preventing chassis frame vibration.
An auxiliary frame which extends far forwards makes
the chassis frame rigid at this point.
The natural frequency of the chassis is raised, which
generally means that vibration occurs at road speeds
higher than those at which the truck is normally
driven. Whether or not the auxiliary frame should be
extended forwards must be determined from case to
case. As the wheelbase increases, it is more necessary
to extend the auxiliary frame forwards.

26:4100

If the auxiliary frame is extended forwards as


shown by the dashed line in the illustration,
the front section of the auxiliary frame should
be bent outwards so that it follows the chassis
frame.

16 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

TYPES OF FIFTH WHEEL


Different types of fifth wheel with special charac-
teristics are available to suit a variety of haulage
tasks.

2" kingpin
The standard type of fifth wheel has a 2" diameter
kingpin and is usually rubber-mounted to allow a
certain amount of angling.
The 2" diameter kingpin is used for kingpin loads
up to 20 tonnes.

3.5" kingpin
A fifth wheel with a 3.5" kingpin is usually em-
ployed for kingpin loads in excess of 20 tonnes and
is mainly intended for heavy special transport.

Universally jointed
A universally jointed fifth wheel is often fitted if
the vehicle is used under difficult conditions, with
large angular differential movement between trac-
tor and semi-trailer.

This type of fifth wheel allows for large angular


movement both laterally and longitudinally. A
universally jointed fifth wheel normally has a king-
pin diameter of 3.5".

Scania CV 2002 17
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Replaceable locking mechanism


A fifth wheel with a replaceable locking mecha-
nism can accommodate both 2" and 3.5" kingpins
to meet different transport requirements.

Moveable
A moveable fifth wheel can be fitted, for maximum
utilisation of the tractor, particularly in interna-
tional haulage work.

A moveable fifth wheel enables the rig to be ad-


justed to suit various national regulations concern-
ing axle loads and vehicle lengths.

It also allows improved weight distribution be-


tween the front and rear axles, and enables adapta-
tion to different types of semi-trailer.

26:4109

Raisable and lowerable fifth wheel


A raisable and lowerable fifth wheel makes it pos-
sible to use a low construction tractor, even with
conventional trailers.
26:4131

18 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

FACTORY FITTED FIFTH WHEELS FROM SCANIA


Fixed fifth wheels:
Manufacturer Model Material D- value U- value
kN kg
VBG 2" VBG 150SP 148 pressed steel 150 20 000
GF 2" SK-S36.20 150 cast iron 152 20 000
GF 2" SK-S36.20 W 150 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37 C W 150 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 150 cast iron 152 20 000
GF 2" SK-36.20 185 cast iron 152 20 000
GF 2" SK-36.20 W 185 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 185 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37 C W 185 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37E 185 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 36DV17G 205 pressed steel 152 20 000
VBG 2" VBG 150SP 210 pressed steel 150 20 000
BigD 2" YF 224201 244 pressed steel 150 20 000
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 250 cast iron 152 20 000
Jost 3.5" JSK 38 C-1 3.5/190 cast iron 260 36 000
Jost 3.5" JSK 38 G-1 3.5/290 cast iron 260 36 000

D-value = theoretical horizontal force


U-value = max vertical imposed load
Fixed fifth wheels with mounting plates 22 and 40 mm
Manufacturer Model D- value U- value With 22 mm With 40 mm
mounting plate mounting plate
kN kg Height Weight Height Weight
VBG 2" VBG 150SP 150 20 000 170 165 - -
GF 2" SK-S36.20 152 20 000 172 169 190 171
GF 2" SK-S36.20 W 152 20 000 172 169 190 171
Jost 2" JSK 37 C W 152 20 000 172 195 190 198
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 152 20 000 172 187 190 190
GF 2" SK-36.20 152 20 000 207 173 225 175
GF 2" SK-36.20 W 152 20 000 - - 225 175
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 152 20 000 207 194 225 197
Jost 2" JSK 37 C W 152 20 000 - - 225 202
Jost 2" JSK 37E 152 20 000 - - 225 183
Jost 2" JSK 36DV17G 152 20 000 227 174 245 177
VBG 2" VBG 150SP 150 20 000 232 173 250 177
BigD 2" YF 224201 150 20 000 246 170 - -
Jost 2" JSK 37 C Z 152 20 000 272 207 290 210
Jost 3.5" JSK 38 C-1 260 36 000 - - 230 277
Jost 3.5" JSK 38 G-1 260 36 000 - - 330 352

Sliding fifth wheels:


Manufacturer Model Height Material D- value U- value Weight Sliding distance
mm kN Kg Kg step total
Jost EVDM0000206 171 Pressat stl 152 20 000 222 13x50.8 660
Jost EVDVM 2-10 209 Pressat stl 133 18 000 288 15x39 585
VBG (not 4x2) VBG 135SF 245 Pressat stl 135 18 000 283 14x37.5 525
BigD YF A201 260 Pressat stl 150 20 000 266 6x75 450
Jost EVDVM 1-01 263 Pressat stl 133 18 000 283 12x39 468
VBG (only 4x2) VBG 135SF 265 Pressat stl 135 18 000 246 14x37.5 525

Scania CV 2002 19
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Calculating the D-value for tractors with semi-trailers

D = g x 0,6 x T x R ( kN )
T+R-U

26:4148
T R

T = Technically permitted overall weight in tonnes


for the tractor.
R = Technically permitted overall weight in tonnes
for the semi-trailer.
U =Vertical load in tonnes on the fifth wheel.
g = 9,81 m/ s2

20 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Factory fitted angle brackets for different types of chassis

95

26:4134
4x2 A/B

95

26:4138
4x2/4x4 Z

Factory-fitted angle brackets on two-axle tractors are


level with the chassis frame.
On three-axle tractors they are mounted so that they
protrude 40 mm above the chassis frame.
40

26:4136

6x2/6x4 A/B
Scania CV 2002 21
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

40

26:4137
6x2/4 A/B

40 F958
32 F950

26:4139

6x2 Z

40
26:4140

6x4 Z

22 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

Factory fitted moveable fifth wheels

A = Moveable range.

660
A

209

26:4141
CL

A 4x2 and 4x4


with Jost EVDVM 2-10
A = 585 mm

6x4Z BT201 150


6x4 A/B 140
6x2A/B/Z 90
A

249

CL
4142

CL

A 6x2 and 6x4


with Jost EVDVM 2-10
A = 585 mm

Scania CV 2002 23
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

A = Moveable range. 728 Ad 3300


666 Ad 3550
660 Ad 3700, 3900
A

A 4x2 and 4x4 263


with Jost EVDVM 1-01

4143
A = 468 mm
CL

1093
A

303
A 6x2/4

4144
with Jost EVDVM 1-01
A = 468 mm CL

6x4A/B 82
6x2A/B 30
A

303
A 6x2 A/B and 6x4 A/B
with Jost EVDVM 1-01 CL CL
4145

A = 468 mm

24 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

635 Ad 3300 A = Moveable range.


735 Ad 3550, 3700
A

265 CL A 4x2 and 4x4


with VBG 135 SF

4146
A = 525 mm

1160 Ad 3975
1210 Ad 4100
A
285

A 6x2/4
with VBG 135 SF
4147

CL A = 525 mm

65
A

285
A 6x2 A/B and 6x4 A/B
26:4148

CL CL with VBG 135 SF


A = 525 mm

Scania CV 2002 25
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

A = Moveable range. 635 Ad 3300


735 Ad 3550, 3700, 3900
A

A 4x2 and 4x4 260


with BigD YF A201

4149
A = 450 mm
CL

1160 Ad 3975
1210 Ad 4100
A

A 6x2/4 300
with BigD YF A201

4150
A = 450 mm CL

65
A

300
A 6x2 A/B and 6x4 A/B
CL
4151

with BigD YF A201 CL


A = 450 mm

26 Scania CV 2002
Tractors, fifth wheels 4

762 A = Moveable range.


A

171
A 4x2 and 4x4

4152
CL with Jost EVDM 0000206
A = 660 mm

1139
A

211
A 6x2/4
4153

with Jost EVDM 0000206


CL A = 660 mm

38
A

211
A 6x2 A/B and 6x4 A/B
CL CL with Jost EVDM 0000206
4154

A = 660 mm

Scania CV 2002 27