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HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON HYPERGROUPS

A. S. Okb El Bab and Hossam. A. Ghany

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HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON HYPERGROUPS

1

Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science,

Al Azhar University, Naser City, Cairo, EGYPT.

ahmedokbelbab@yahoo.com

2

Mathematics Department, Faculty of Industrial Education ,

Helwan University, Al-Ameraia, Cairo, EGYPT.

h.abdelghany@yahoo.com

Abstract. The main task in this article is to give the necessary and sufficient conditions

guarantees that the product of two positive definite functions defined on a hypergroup X is also

positive definite on X. Also, we prove that a continuous function with compact support is

negative definite if and only if exp(t) is positive definite for each t > 0. Moreover, we will

give some relations between the class of completely monotonic functions on a hypergroup and

the set of positive functions.

1. Introduction.

A central idea in harmonic analysis in various settings has been the existence of a product,

usually called convolution, for functions and measures. In particular, in the study of the

harmonic analysis of orthogonal expansions, a convolution arises in a natural way and plays

the same role as ordinary convolution in Fourier analysis. In some cases, an investigation

begins with a convolution algebra of measures as the primitive object upon which to build

a theory; this is the case of the analysis of the objects called hypergroups which are the

generalizations of the convolution algebra of Borel measures on a group. A hypergroup (see

[3],[5] or [7]) is a locally compact Hausdorff space X with a certain convolution structure

on the space of complex Radon measures on X, M (X). One important reason that explain

why the harmonic analysts did not attracted to study Fourier algebra over hypergroups

is that, the product of two continuous positive definite functions on a hypergroup is not

necessarily positive definite in general. Moreover, one should be observe that, a function

is negative definite if and only if exp(t) is positive definite for each t > 0. While this

result holds for all semigroups it is not clear how to prove the only if part for hypergroups

since the usual technique do not apply(the if part always holds provided that Re is locally

1

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2 A. S. Okb El Bab and Hossam. A. Ghany

lower bounded). The problem is that except when x or y belong to the maximal subgroup

of the hypergroup exp(t(x y)) and exp(t)(x y) are usually not equal so that other

methods have to be used to overcome this. Let x be the Dirac measure at a point x X.

Then the convolution x y of the two point measures x and y is a probability Radon

measure on X with compact support and such that (x, y) 7 supp(x y ) is a continuous

mapping from X X into the space of compact subsets of X. Unlike the case of groups,

this convolution is not necessarily the point measure x.y for a composition x.y in X. The

rule played by the generalized (left) translation, defined on a hypergroup by

Z

Tx f (y) = f (t)d(x y )(t)

X

for all y X. As pointed of [3], every commutative hypergroup possesses a Haar measure ,

which is unique modulo a positive multiplicative constant and has support equal to the whole

space X. Only compact hypergroups admit bounded Haar measure . For a commutative

hypergroup (i.e. x y = y x for all x, y X) the convolution of two functions k and f

is given by

Z

k f (x) = k(y)Tx f (y)d(y)

X

notion of an abstract algebraic hypergroup has its origins in the studies of E. Marty and H.

S. Wall in the 1930s, and harmonic analysis on hypergroups dates back to J. Delsartes and

B. M. Levitans work during the 1930s and 1940s, but the substantial development had to

wait till the 1970s when Dunkl [6], Jewett [7] and Spector [9] put hypergroups in the right

setting for harmonic analysis.

This paper contains 4 sections. In 2, we give the necessary and sufficient conditions

guarantees that the product of two positive definite functions defined on a hypergroup X is

also positive definite on X, then we resuming some properties of the set of -positive definite

functions on hypergroups. 3, is devoted to give some properties of the set of negative

definite functions on hypergroups which help us to prove that a continuous function with

compact support is negative definite if and only if exp(t) is positive definite for each

t > 0 . In 4, we give some relations between the set of -positive definite functions, the set

of the completely monotone and completely alternating functions.

and hermitian if the involution is the identity map. Its easy to prove that every her-

mitian hypergroup is commutative. A locally bounded measurable function : X C

is called a semicharacter if (e) = 1 and (x y ) = (x)(y) for all x, y X. Every

bounded semicharacter is called a character. If the character is not locally null then (see

[3, Proposition 1.4.33]) it must be continuous. The dual X of X is just the set of continu-

ous characters with the compact-open topology in which case X must be locally compact.

In this paper we will be concerned with continuous characters on hypergroups. A locally

313

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Harmonic Analysis On Hypergroups 3

n X

X n

ci cj (xi x

j )0

i=1 j=1

for all choice of x1 , x2 , ..., xn X, c1 , c2 , ..., cn C and n N. The following two lemmas

are in fact, an adaption of whatever done for semigroups in [1, Berg et al]. We will not

repeat the proof, wherever the proof for semigroups can be applied to the hypergroups with

necessary modification.

Lemma2.1.

(i) The sum and the point-wise limit of positive definite functions on hypergroups are also

positive definite.

(ii) Let beR a continuous positive definite function on X and define : Mc1 (X) C by

(s) := (s)d(s). Then is positive definite on Mc1 (X).

Lemma 2.2. A bounded measurable function Cc (X) is positive definite if and only if

there exists a in L2 (X) such that = , where

Z

f g(x) = f (x y)g(y)d(y).

X

Theorem 2.3. Let 1 and 2 belongs to Cc (X) then the product 1 .2 is positive definite

on X if and only if 1 and 2 are positive definite on X.

Proof. From the above lemma there exists 1 , 2 L2 (X) such that 1 = 1 1 and

2 = 2 2 , so

Z Z

= 1 (x y)1 (y)d(y) 2 (x z)2 (z)d(z)

X X

Z Z

= 1 (x y)2 (x z)1 (y)2 (z)d(y)d(z)

X X

Z Z

= 1 .2 (x y, x z)1 .2 (y, z)d(y)d(z)

X X

Z Z

= 1 .2 (x (y, z))1 .2 (y, z)d(y)d(z)

X X

314

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4 A. S. Okb El Bab and Hossam. A. Ghany

Z

1 .2 (x) = 1 .2 (x (y, z))1 .2 (y, z)d(y, z)

XX

This implies

^

1 .2 (x) = 1 .2 1 .2 (x).

Corollary 2.4.P Let Cc (X) be positive definite such that |(x x )| < for all x X.

Then if f (z) = n=0 an z n is holomorphic in {z C; z < } and an 0 for all n 0,

the composed kernel f is a gain positive definite. In particular, if Cc (X) is positive

definite, then so is exp().

where B is admissible, if

L(a) 0 f or all a algspan+ ( )

This holds if and only if

L(a1 ... an ) 0 f or all f inite set {a1 , ..., an }

Let : X R+ be an absolute value such that (a) 0 for all a X. For C, a X,

I define

1

,a = (I + Ea + E )

2 2(a) 2(a ) a

X} is positive definite and has integral representation

Z

(x) = (x)d()

X

where b

M+ (X ) is concentrated on the compact set of -positive characters.

Proof . Let denote the set of -positive multiplicative linear functionals on A, which are

not identically zero. Clearly is a compact subset of the set of -positive linear functionals

on X. By [1,Theorem 4.5.4] the linear functional L corresponding to -positive function

has a representation Z

L(T ) = (T )d(), T A,

where M+ (). For the function x (Ex ) is a -positive character, and the

mapping j : X given by j()(x) = (Ex ) is a homeomorphism of onto the compact

set j() of -positive characters. The image measure := j of under j is a Radon

measure on X with compact support contained in j(), and replacing T by Ex we get

Z

(x) = (x)d(), x X.

X

315

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Harmonic Analysis On Hypergroups 5

One should be observe that, a function is negative definite if and only if exp(t) is

positive definite for each t > 0. While this result holds for all semigroups it is not clear

how to prove the only if part for hypergroups since the usual technique do not apply(the

if part always holds provided that Re is locally lower bounded). The problem is that

except when x or y belong to the maximal subgroup of the hypergroup exp(t(x y)) and

exp(t)(x y) are usually not equal so that other methods have to be used to overcome

this. A locally bounded measurable function q is called a quadratic form if

for all x, y X and additive if q(x y) = 2q(x) + 2q(y) for all x, y X. In the case X

is hermitian, that when X carries the identity involution, then every quadratic form is an

additive function and every negative definite function is real. A locally bounded measurable

function : X C is said to be negative definite if (x ) = (x) and

n X

X n

ci cj (xi x

j )0

i=1 j=1

Pn

for all choice of x1 , x2 , ..., xn X, n N and all c1 , c2 , ..., cn C that satisfy i=1 ci = 0.

A key result in the study of negative definite functions on hypergroups is the following

Levy-Khinchin representation(see,[3, Theorem 4.5.2])

Z

(x) = (e) + q(x) + (1 Re((x)))d()

X\{1}

and the integral part (x) (e) q(x) belong to the set of negative definite function on

X and the pair (q, ) is uniquely determined by with q being given by

(xn ) ((x x)n )

q(x) = lim{ + }

n2 2n

For hypergroups we have that if exp(t) is positive definite for all t > 0 then

exp(t(e)) exp(t)

exp(t(e)) exp(t)

lim = (e)

t

is also negative definite in which case so is . In spit of the converse statement also holds

for commutative semigroups, this result is not available for hypergroups which hinges on

deciding whether exp() is positive definite.

316

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6 A. S. Okb El Bab and Hossam. A. Ghany

consequence of above discussion and Theorem 2.3 we will prove the following corollary:

Corollary 3.3. A function Cc (X) is negative definite if and only if exp(t) is posi-

tive definite for each t > 0.

Proof. Suppose that is negative definite. For obvious reasons we need only show that

exp(t) is positive definite for t = 1. We choose x0 X and with as in the above

Lemma we have

Since, exp((y, x0 )).exp((x, x0 )), is positive definite. From Theorem 2.3 we conclude

that exp(t) is positive definite.

Suppose that L loc (X) denotes the set of locally bounded measurable functions on X, and

L1c (X) the space of integrable functions on X with compact support. As pointed out of

Bloom and Heyer[2]

L1c (X) L

loc (X) C(X)

For each x X, we define the shift operator Ey by Ey (x) = (x y) for all x, y X and

CX . The complex span

P A of all such

P operators is a commutative algebra with identity

E1 = I and involution ( i Exi ) = i Ex . For real valued L

loc (X) and x X we

i

define x : X R by

(x )(y) := (I Ex )()(y)

We call completely monotone if 0 and

x1 x2 ...xn 0

x1 x2 ...xn 0

x1 x2 ...xn (x ) = x1 x2 ...xn x

that L

loc (X) is completely alternating if and only if x is completely monotone for

each x X

317

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Harmonic Analysis On Hypergroups 7

Theorem 4.1. For a continuous function : X R the following conditions are equiv-

alent: (i) is completely monotone. (ii) is -positive. (iii) There exists a measure

b

M+ (X+ ) such that for all x X

Z

(x) = (x)d()

X+

so (i)(ii). The implication (ii)(iii) follows from the above Theorem since 0 (x) 1

for all x X. Finally, if (iii) holds, then (x) 0 and since

n

Y

a1 ...an (x) = (x) [1 (ai )]

i=1

so,

Z n

Y

a1 ...an (x) = (x) [1 (ai )]d() 0,

X+ i=1

hence (i).

if there exists an additive continuous function h : X R+ and a unique measure

M+ (X+ \{1}) such that for all x X

Z

(x) = (e) + h(x) + (1 (x))d()

X+ \{1}

Proof. It follows from the definition that is lower bounded by (e), firstly, I assume that

(e) = 0. Let S X be a minimal semigroup containing the hypergroup X. Introducing

1

y (x) := [(x y) + (x y )] (x); x, y X,

2

and as pointed of [1, Proposition 4.3.11] y is bounded and positive definite on S. Therefore

appealing to Bochners theorem for hypergroups([7], Theorem 12.3B)

Z

y (x) = (x)dy ()

X

b

for some y M+ (X), where we denote the canonical extension of X to a function on

S by . A simple calculation implies

Z

z y (x) = (x)[1 Re (z)]dy ()

X

318

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8 A. S. Okb El Bab and Hossam. A. Ghany

Z

= (x)[1 Re (y)]dz ()

X

for x, y, z X, implying

[1 Re (z)]dy () = [1 Re (y)]dz ()

by the uniqueness of the Fourier transform ([7], Theorem 12.2A). Noting that the {

X; Re(y) 1} are open sets in X with union(over y)given by X\{1}, we can find a unique

Radon measure on X\{1} such that for every y S

[1 Re (y)]d() = dy (), on X

The set S of all bounded semigroup characters on the semigroup S is a compact Hausdorff

space with respect to the topology of point wise convergence. The canonical mapping

: X S, () := is continuous , and obviously y is the Laplace transform of y (the

image measure of y under ) for each y S hence from [1, Lemma 4.3.12, Definition 4.3.13

and Theorem 4.6.7] there exists an additive continuous function h : X R+ on S such that

for all x S Z

(x) = h(x) + (1 (x))d ()

S+ \{1}

Z

= h(x) + (1 (x))d()

X+ \{1}

Let X denote the equivalence classes of all representations of X, and C (X) denote the

enveloping C (X)-algebra of L1 (X). If (, X) is a representation of X, let the associated

representations of L1 (X) and C (X) be also denoted by itself. If , are in X then the

matrix coefficient , associated to given by

, (x ) = h(x )(), i x X

NS := {f L1 (X) : (f ) = 0 S}

Complete this to get a C -algebra and denote it by CS (X). As pointed out of Dixmier[4,

Theorem3.4.4] and by appropriate modification of Eymard [6,Proposition 1.21], we can state

the following theorem:

319

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Harmonic Analysis On Hypergroups 9

Theorem 2.3. Suppose that S is a subset of X e and belongs to the set of all bounded

positive definite functions on X. Then the following are equivalent:

(i) is the limit of sums of positive definite functions associated to the representations

belonging to S.

(ii)

\

ker ker()

S

.

(iii) There exists a completely monotonic form on CS (X) satisfying

Z

(f o ) = f (x)(x)dx

X

References.

positive definite and related functions, Graduated texts in Math. 100, Springer-Verlag,

Berlin-Heidelberg-New-York, (1984).

semigroups on a commutative hypergroup. Probability measures on groups IX (Proc.

Conf., Oberwolfach Math. Res. Inst, Oberwolfach 1988), Lecture Notes in Math .1379,

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New-York, London, Paris, Tokyo, (1989).

de Gruyter, Berlin, (1995).

[4] J. Dixmier, C -algebras, vol. 15, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, (1977).

[5] C. F. Dunkl, The Measure Algebra of a Localy Compact Hypergroup, Trans. Amer.

Math. Soc, 179 (1973), 331-348.

[6] P. Eymard, Lalgbre de Fourier dun groupe localement compact, Bull. Soc. Math.

France, 92 (1964), 181-236.

[7] R. I. Jewett, Spaces with an abstract convolution of measures, Adv. Math., 18(1975),

1-101.

[8] G.K. Pederson, C -algebra and their automorphism groups, London Mathematical

Society Monograph, no.14, Academic Press, London- New york, (1979).

[9] R. Spector, Apercu de la theorie des hypergroups in analyse harmonique sur les groups

de Lie, Lecture Notes in Math. 497, Springer Verlag, New York, (1975) .

320

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