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Kensuke USUI

To cite this article: Kensuke USUI (1989) Vertically Downward Two-Phase Flow, (II), Journal of

Nuclear Science and Technology, 26:11, 1013-1022, DOI: 10.1080/18811248.1989.9734422

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tnst20

journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, 26[11), pp. 1013-1022 (November 1989). 1013

Flow Regime Transition Criteria

Kensuke USUI

Department of Mechanical Engineering II,

Shibaura Institute of Technology*

Revised March 3, 1989

Following Part (I) of the present paper, which presented the experimental results obtained

on the void distribution and average void fraction shown by nearly fully-developed, vertically

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downward two-phase flow of air-water mixture, this Part (II) covers the flow regime transition

criteria among the three basic flow regimes: bubbly, slug and annular flows. The annular flow

further was divided into two subregions of falling film flow and annular drop flow. The general

situation of the transition criteria is as follows: (1) bubbly-to-slug flow transition occurs when

the local void fraction in the central region of the tube is 0.3; (2) slug-to-annular drop flow

transition criterion is given as a case which equations giving average void fraction for the slug

flow and the annular flow are simultaneously satisfied; (3) slug-to-falling film flow transition

occurs when the pressure difference between the crest of large wave and the bottom overcomes

the surface tension; (4) the occurrence of liquid droplets from wave crests gives the transition

criterion between the falling film flow and the annular drop flow.

These criteria were correlated to predict each flow regime boundary respectively considering

flow mechanisms or from experimental results. The correlations obtained were compared with

published flow regime maps for atmospheric air-water flow and showed satisfactory agreement.

KEYWORDS: downward two-phase flow, bubbly flow, slug flow, annular flow, falling

film flow, flow regime transition criterion, average void fraction, flow regime map

I. INTRODUCTION flow was carried out. Correlations for the

Downward two-phase flow in pipes, chan- average void fraction were obtained for each

nels, components etc., is frequently en- flow regime, but the lack of criteria for flow

countered in many industrial apparatuses. regime transition would limit the use of the

Since the direction of downward two-phase correlations. Studies on flow regime transi-

flow is in opposition to that of the buoyancy tion criteria for the vertically downward two-

force acting on bubbles, flow mechanics would phase flow have been performed by Golan &

be complicated compared with that of upward Stenning< 2 l, Sekoguchi (3\ Oshinowo & Char-

two-phase flow. Yet, in many of studies on les<l, Yamazaki & Yamaguchi<'>, Barnea et

the two-phase flow sufficient attention has not at. <6 ) and Takemura et at. <7 ) They presented

been directed to downward flow. In order to flow regime maps obtained from experimental

accomplish a good design of gas-liquid two- observations and only Barnea et at. <6 l among

phase flow systems such as boilers, reactors them proposed several physical mechanisms

and pipelines, accurate knowledge of down- for the transition boundaries. However, pre-

ward two-phase flow is required. diction of flow regime transition boundaries

In Part (I)<Il of the present paper, an ex- for vertically downward two-phase flow is up

perimental study on void fraction distribution to now an unresolved problem.

and correlation of average void fraction m * Tameihara, Fukasaku, Omiya-shi 307.

-35-

1014 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

transition criteria for vertically downward I

two-phase flow of air-water mixture. The '

E

E

I

$

flow regimes covered are bubbly, slug and tn

annular flows. Further, since the annular

flow takes a form of falling film flow at low

gas flow rate and annular drop flow at high

t=' .

CDjill

gas flow rate, the two flows were considered

individually. Correlations for criteria are pro- (i)

posed considering flow mechanics or using

CD Stainless steel wire (0.06 mm)

formulas of the average void fraction. Insulated wire

Wheatstone bridge circuit

ll. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT @ Amplifier, Oscilator

AND PROCEDURES Recorder or synchroscope

(f) Liquid film

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The equipment used is of the same arrange- Fig. 1 Instrumentation for measuring

ment as described in Part (I), where the details liquid film thickness

are given.

Flow regimes were mainly classified on

the basis of visual observation and of many m. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

photographs taken about 100 tube diameters AND DISCUSSION

downstream from the bend exit (LJD=lOO). 1. Criteria for Flow Regime Transition

In order to facilitate visual observation of the ( 1) Bubbly to Slug Flow Transition

flow phenomena occurring inside the tube, a In the bubbly flow regime, as the concen-

square acrylic resin box filled with water was tration of bubbles becomes high, the frequency

installed at observing position. This device of collision of bubbles rises and so bubbles

eliminated distortion of the image observed coalescent. The turbulence in the wake which

from outside due to the "goldfish-bowl effect" occurs in front of a large bubble furthermore

produced by the cylindrical surface of the prompts the occurrence of more large bubbles

tube. Some typical examples of the photo- known as a slug. It can be inferred that a

graphs taken are shown in Part (I). transition from bubbly flow to slug flow regime

For the annular flow, measurements of the occurs by means of this manner of the process.

instantaneous thickness of liquid film were Griffith & Snyder<a> substantiated experi-

accomplished by means of a different con- mentally that observations of bubbly flow with

ductance method from that used in Part (I). voids higher than 0.35 was apparently faulty

The device is shown schematically in Fig. 1. and such a flow was a result of entrance

In this method the film thickness was deter- conditions. Their experiments suggest that

mined from the variation of electrical resis- the average void fraction at which the coales-

tance with changes in the liquid thickness cence of bubbles happens is around 0.25 to

between a set of parallel electrodes. The 0.30. Taite! et al. <9 > used an average void

resistance acts as one resistance built into the fraction of 0.25 as the transition criterion from

Wheatstone bridge circuit. The electrodes bubbly to slug flow and proposed a correlation

consisted of two stainless-steel wires 0.06 mm formula for upward flow. From these studies,

in diameter, stretched 5 mm apart on the it can be inferred that the transition from

diameter of the tube. The device was oper- bubbly to slug flow occurs when the void

ated from 3 VAC, 6 to 8kHz. It was found fraction in the tube reaches a certain value.

that the response of the device was linear Mishima & Ishii<' 0 > showed that the coales-

over wide range of the change of liquid cence of bubbles took place at a local void

thickness. This device was installed at L/ D fraction of 0.3 from a simple geometrical con-

=100. sideration. Using this value, they gave a

-36-

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1015

from the formula of the similar type with

3.76(ja/h)+l.28/(FrL Eo 114 )=1. (2)

Eq. ( 1) which will be shown below. But in

those analysis, they did not take into account This equation would give the boundary for

the effect of the void profile. The void pro- bubble-to-slug flow transition.

files of downward bubbly flow are in a form ( 2) Slug to Annular Flow Transition

close upon a truncated cone as shown in Part The correlations for average void fraction

(1). In order to obtain a simple relation in slug flow and typical annular drop flow

between the local and the average void frac- were obtained in the Part (1)< 1 J as follows:

tions, the void profile was approximated with For slug flow

the shape of the truncated cone, which was

(1-Coa)(jaiJ'L)-Coa+Cta! FrL=O, ( 3)

constant at r!R<0.5 as shown in Fig. 2.

Assuming that, on the basis of the consider- where

ation by Mishima & Ishii' 10 l, the coalescence

C0 =1.2-1/(2.95+350Eo-L 3 ), ( 4)

of bubbles takes place when the local void

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fraction in the central region of the tube is and cl is the coefficient related to the drift

0.3 and consequently the transition occurs, velocity. In downward flow with relatively

the average void fraction at the transition is low Eotvos number, Eo<100, it was verified

0.175. that C1 was given by the Wallis's correlation

Actual for rising bubbles in the stagnant liquid, i.e.

Approximated

C1 =0.345[1-exp{(3.37- Eo)/10}], ( 5)

d I For annular drop flow

0.3

t

,~- -9 (1-a) 2317 -2CwFrl.

I [1-_s_ (1-a)16J7. Pa(!a)z]=o,

0,5 0 Cw a' 12 PL )L

r/R (6)

Fig. 2 Void profile in bubbly flow where Ci and Cw are the interfacial and wall

friction factors, respectively.

It was approximately verified in the Part A boundary between the slug and annular

(1)< 1 J that the average void fraction in nearly flows will be given as a case which Eqs. ( 3)

fully-developed downward bubbly flow was and ( 6) are simultaneously satisfied. In the

given by region of the transition boundary, as seen in

Part (I )(Il,

(1-Coa)(j ahL)-Coa+ l.53a/(FrL Eo 1 ' 4 )

=0, ( 1) jaljL-z1 and a2;0.5,

where a is the average void fraction, j 0 jjL and the value of Ci seems not to be so large

is the ratio of the gas to liquid volumetric compared with that of Cw. Therefore, if

velocity, FrL is the Froude number p 0 4:.pL, the second term in brackets on the

left-hand side of Eq. ( 6) can be neglected;

FrL=j!-v'gD(pL-pa)!pL,

Eq. ( 6) reduces to

based on the liquid volumetric velocity, Eo is

( 7)

the Eotvos number

This equation also gives the average void

Eo=(pL-p 0 )gD2/a,

fraction for the falling film flow as shown in

and Co is the distribution parameter. (N.B. In Part (I). In order to simplify a resultant

this paper, non-dimensional numbers will be taken equation, Eq. ( 7) would be used instead of

as positive for convenience' sake.) Substituting Eq. ( 6 ). Then, by eliminating a in Eqs. ( 3 )

-37-

1016 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

flow transition is given by

cl

CoFrL +

[ 1

{1-(2CwFr}Y 123 }Co

-1] J:a

}L

=1. ( 8)

in Part (I)(ll, the churn flow is not classified

as an independent regime, included in the slug

flow regime. Thus a correlation for the tran-

sition from the slug to churn flow would not

be considered also in this Part< 1l, although the

churn flow is distinguished from the slug flow

based on the visual observation for reference

as shown in Fig. 10 which will be given later.

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At low flow rates of liquid and gas, the Fig. 3 Model of large wave

liquid takes a free-fall situation and the inter-

face between the gas and liquid is relatively to those at downstream respectively, the

smooth. This situation disappears as the liquid following relation is obtained:

flow rate increases, and the interface becomes

(Pt-p.)(AL+Aa)-.,.DOLJzpLg

unstable and so a solitary wave grows abrupt-

ly. The sudden increase in the amplitude of - VwpLg+-rw.,.DLlz=O, ( 9)

the large wave reduces the cross section of where Pt and P2 are the pressures at positions

the gas core so that the Bernoulli effect in- CD and respectively. AL and Aa are the

creases the pressure difference between the cross-sectional areas of liquid and gas flows,

crest of the wave and the bottom. When this respectively. Llz is the length between CD and

pressure difference overcomes the surface , o the average liquid film thickness and V w

tension, the gas core is blocked by the liquid the volume of large wave.

at some location and the slug flow may occur. If AL ~Aa and the gravity force on the

On the basis of this consideration a criterion liquid film except the large wave is balanced

for the falling film to slug flow would be by the wall shear stress, i.e.

developed. Since it is difficult to obtain a

"'DoLlzpLY~"w"'DLlz,

precise criterion, here an analysis would be

done approximately. In order to develop a cor- then, Eq. ( 9) reduces to

relation for transition boundary, the following

assumptions are made: (1) the large wave Pt-P= V wPLYI Aa. (10)

takes an annular two-dimensional shape and This suggests that the gravitational force

falls down at a constant velocity; (2) the gas acting on the large wave is balanced by the

velocity is neglected and consequently the pressure difference (Pt-P2 ) across the wave.

interface shearing stress is not considered. The pressure difference is approximated by

Considering the motion as seen by an observer the sum of enlargement and contraction losses

moving with the large wave, then, the gas as:

flows through a path with a constriction as

(11)

shown in Fig. 3.

From momentum balance in the flow direc- where Uo is the gas velocity at the constric-

tion for the region between positions CD and

in Fig. 3, if PLPa and the liquid film

tion. ' and 'care the loss coefficients for

the enlargement and the contraction, respec-

thickness and velocity at CD upstream are equal tively.

-38-

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1017

core at the constriction is sufficiently small ((,+(c) . (pL-pa)

compared with that at the bottom of the large

wave, using Eq. (11) and A 0 l w"' V w, Eq. (10) _ _!_. f!_r;_ (2C w)-14/23. !!_Fr}_,aJ23"' _1_(.!!._

2 PL lw Eo lw

y.

becomes

(15)

(12)

Although there is no way to introduce a

where l w is the width of the large wave. equation giving the accurate relationship for

For the radial direction, when the differ- the transition, if l w"' D, and (e and (c are

ence pressure between the crest of the wave about constant, Eq. (15) takes the form

and the bottom overcomes the force due to

(16)

surface tension, the gas core is blocked by

the liquid. Therefore, a criterion giving the where, K 1 and K 2 are constants and must be

falling film-to-slug flow transition is determined experimentally. In Fig. 4, data

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(1/2)p 0 (u~-uD (=2a cos() !lw)"-'a jl w. (13)

slug flow were given as a relation between

The interfacial velocity u; is approximated by Froude number FrL and Eotvos number Eo

the average velocity of the falling film, if the together with the results of Sekoguchi< 3 l,

flow is turbulent; that is, Barnea<'l and Takemura et at.<n From the

results, values of 0.92 for K1 and 7.0 for K 2

u;~jd(1-a). (14)

were chosen for constants in Eq. (16) to fit data,

Using Eqs. ( 7) and (12) to (14) yields which was indicated by a solid line in Fig. 4.

0.1

Eo

Fig. 4 Falling film-slug flow transition

( 4) Falling Film to Annular of wave height, the height decreases with the

Drop Flow Transition mean film thickness.

As the gas flow rate increases in falling Figure 5 shows a typical example of the

film flow, the interface becomes unstable un- relationship between the maximum height of

der a certain condition in the shearing force the wave and the superficial gas velocity for

due to the gas flow and so the height of the D=16 mm. When the gas velocity is suffi-

wave increases. Following the increase of ciently high, the shearing force due to the

the wave height the liquid droplets begin to gas flow tears away droplets of liquid from

occur from the wave crest, and after the peak wave crests. These droplets are entrained in

-39-

1018 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

8 D=16(mm)

jL(m/s) 6

Q

7 0 0.066

0.166

E 6

E

0 0.30 0

0.40

0.50 0

>< 6

<{ 51-

0.60 0

~

.c.

"

4

0

3

r..

~

2 0 0

0 0

0 0

0 ~.

t~

Downloaded by [118.96.165.96] at 18:54 16 October 2017

0 I I I

0.01 0.1 10 100

jiG I ( m/s)

Fig. 5 Example of wave height in annular flow

I

droplets characterizes the annular drop flow,

the condition at the maximum height of wave '-)

may give the criterion of the boundary be- 1 t- _ : : ; l u g; Annular -

tween the falling film flow and the annular \

'o

drop flow. According to the experiments ~ 0.5 o

carried out in Part<'', the average void frac- E I q~

__, _______ ~' I '

'? .-p Eqs.(6)

#

o,~ ~

1

that of the falling film flow. Hence, using Falling film

the average void fraction for the falling film 0.1~--o0=16(mrn) -

flow given by Eq. ( 7 ), the average void frac-

- 24 ~

tion aw for the maximum height of wave was 0.05t- '.

assumed as follows : I

0.1 0.5 1 5 10

(17)

jiG I (m/s)

where K is a constant which is just slightly Fig. 6 Relation between h and ja

larger than unity. Substituting aw in Eq. (17) at maximum height of wave

for a in Eq. ( 6) produces a correlation which

gives the flow condition at the maximum film-to-annular drop flow transition criterion

height of wave. When the value of K was can be expressed by

determined to fit experimental data for the

(18)

maximum height of wave, it was well ap-

proximated by 1.0035. In Fig. 6, the result Hence, for the purpose of obtaining a simple

is shown by dotted line for D=16 mm and by correlation for the air-water flow, data for

solid line for D=24 mm together with experi- the maximum height of wave were plotted in

mental data. the form of the Froude number FrL against

From Eqs. ( 6) and (17), it will be found the velocity ratio j 0jjL as illustrated in

that, if Cw and pal pL are constant, falling Fig. 7.

-40-

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1019

I I I

film and the annular drop flows were plotted

//

.~ .r Eq,(t9)

0

o D=t6(mm)

14 on the flow regime map in the form of FrL

against j 0/jL. From the result, a criterion

.,

-fqs(6) (),

- &(17) eo, - with the same form to Eq. (19), was given

'-0,

empirically by

""

" 0"

(20)

0.1 ~

-~- tained from the visual observation is illustrated

in Fig. 10 which will be presented later.

rl ,/ 2. Comparison with Existing

10 tOO

iGI jl Transition Boundaries

The present flow regime criteria would be

Fig. 7 Relation between j 0 Jh and FrL

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Figure 8 illustrates the comparison of bubble-

The resulting relationship could be approxi- to-slug flow transition for air-water flow at

mately given by atmospheric pressure in the tubes with inside

diameters of different kinds. Although there

(19)

are some discrepancies in the boundary lines,

The result is shown by a solid line in Fig. 7 the present curve lies in the intermediate re-

together with that obtained from Eqs. ( 6) and gion between them. Especially, the agreement

(17), and data. They are almost identical. with the results of Oshinowo & Charles< 4 >,

However, the gas core already contains and Martin< 12 ' is good. Some discrepancies

some liquid droplets before the wave height may be due to the mixing methods of gas

reaches the maximum. Therefore, the criterion and liquid, the upstream configuration of the

which is judged from the visual observation channels, definitions of the flow regime, and

for the transition would be in the region so on. In addition, from observations, the

where the velocity ratio j 0/jL is lower than transition from one flow regime to the an-

that given by Eq. (19). The flow regime data other is gradual with respect to flow rates.

Source

= Oshinowo

--- Martin

w

0 ---- Sekoguchi

t..L

1.0

0.1 '-----'----'---'---'-'-..I....LI....L-__l__.J...._L..L.LJ....LJ..L_L__j--l.,_LJ......LJLl.J

0.01 0.1 . 1.0 10

jGJ JL

Fig. 8 Comparison of prediction with other maps for bubbly-slug transition

-41-

1020 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

Thus, transition boundaries should be under- visually. A reason for the disagreement be-

stood as a band with a certain width rather tween Eq. ( 8 ) and the boundary by Seko-

than a single curve. This also would cause guchi<'J would be as follows: the increase of

the discrepancies. the gas flow rate makes the length of liquid

Figure 9 illustrates the comparison of the slugs shorten in the slug flow so that their

present criteria for the slug-to-annular flow slugs become unstable, and collapse and crea-

transition with several published transition tion of liquid slugs were reiterated irregularly.

boundaries for the air-water flow at atmos- This irregular region seemed to be the churn

pheric pressure in about 1 inch I. D. tubes. (or froth) flow. As was indicated in Part (I)(IJ,

The slug-to-annular drop flow transition for- however, the boundary between the slug flow

mula presented, i.e. Eq. ( 8) agrees well with and the churn flow did not appear clearly in

the boundaries between the slug flow and the the change of average void fraction. When

annular flow by Yamazaki & Yamaguchi< 5 >, liquid slugs vanish completely, the shift to

or the slug flow and the froth flow by Oshi- the annular drop flow appears to be relatively

nowo & Charles< 4 J except that by Sekoguchi<'J. sudden. Thus, the slug-to-churn flow regime

Downloaded by [118.96.165.96] at 18:54 16 October 2017

In higher gas flow rates adjoining the slug transition is rather indefinite though the exis-

flow, the description of the flow regime varies tence of the churn flow is qualitatively under-

considerably with different investigators. It stood. In the present paper, the churn flow

would be due to the fact that the boundaries was included in the slug flow, considered as

between the slug and the churn (or froth) an agitated one as described previously. Be-

flows and between the churn and the annular cause of such an indefiniteness, considerable

drop flows are difficult to be distinguished discrepancies would exist in the region.

D=25-26(mml

.... (Eq.(8)

Eo=84.5- 91.4

....

.J

...,_..-~-

"

(s' ug )o.v.s "- ,

- "".( '-,..- ( Whispy annuladv

'I

,, ...__

~._(Annularj;,

,, (

--

)

'-- Slug "'-, ~~~- - _ _ Froth o,s

LL

1.0 ""

,=_ .\_.. .,;;-;;;;.:;;-:-.:. ::-.: .::4,.~-

~

''~~--- _-:.::------

1

Eq(16) ' film)o

(Annularls ~

1

(Wetled-wa\llv

\ ~. Annular drop

Falling film ', ~.:-,.

,., /Eq.(20l

(Falling film lo , ,.

Source Flow regime ' "",..,

= Oshinowo ( lo

--- Yamazaki ( ly .,

--- Sekoguchi ( ls

jG/ h

Fig. 9 Comparison of prediction with other maps for slug-annular transition

At low gas and liquid flow rates the fall- Sekoguchi<'J is shown in Fig. 9, where the

ing film flow appears. The correlation for agreement with the present correlation is good.

the slug-to-falling film flow transition was At low liquid flow rates, Oshinowo &

determined based on data ranging from 10 to Charles< 4 J classified flow regime into falling

50 mm in tube diameter. The boundary of film and falling bubbly-film flows. In the

-42-

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1021

former, both gas and liquid flow: rates are Slt!On line between the falling film and the

usually low and the gas core contains no annular drop flow given in the present study.

liquid droplets. On the other hand, in the From this it can be inferred that the two

latter, gas flow r.ate is higher and the liquid boundaries show about the same one.

film contains small dispersed air bubbles. In order to test general applicability of the

Furthermore, the shearing action of the gas obtained correlation, data of flow patterns

flow is now becoming more important and the taken in 24 mm diameter tube are presented

gas core contains liquid droplets. As seen in in Fig. 10, together with the present boundary

Fig. 9, a boundary line between these flow lines. The figure shows that the prediction

regimes agrees approximately with the tran- is in excellent agreement with the data.

0= 24 (mm)

Eo= 77.8

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.J 0 0

....

lL

Eq.(JG)\ 0

0 Bubbly

0 Slug

<> Churn

6 Falling film

0.1 0 Annular

jG I j L

Fig. 10 Example of comparison of prediction with observed flow pattern

IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS is expressed by the truncated cone and the

For the vertically downward two-phase coalescence of bubbles occurs at the void

flow, flow regime criteria are developed con- fraction of 0.3 in the central region of the

sidering some mechanisms of flow transition tube. The comparison of the present cri-

and from the experimental data. Several flow terion with the data taken over tube diam-

regime maps have been proposed up to now. eters from 10 to 140 mm showed relatively

However, most of those are based primarily good agreement.

on visual observation and the criteria are not (2) The slug-to-annular drop flow transition

given in the form of equation. In the present criterion was given as a case which the

study, the criteria are correlated by means of formulas of the average void fraction for

the non-dimensional numbers and are compared the slug and annular flows were simultane-

with independent literature data for air-water ously satisfied. The applicable range of

flow at low pressure. There appears to be this criterion is due to the validity of the

no published data available for testing the correlation equation for the average void

present correlation over a wide range of tube fraction of the slug flow and the annular

diameter, channel configuration and fluid prop- flow given in Part ( 1) 0 l. So further in-

erties. The summary and conclusions on the vestigations will be necessary to ascertain

flow regime boundaries are as follows : the application of these equations to other

(1) The bubbly-to-slug flow transition crite- flow conditions.

rion was derived from the drift flux equa- (3) The slug-to-falling film flow transition

-43-

1022 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

a: (N/m)

simple theory based on the Bernoulli and r : Shear stress (Pa)

surface tension effects acting on the large (Subscripts)

G : Gas phase, i: interface

wave, and on the basis of data of several L: Liquid phase, w: wall, wave

investigators ranging from 10 to 50 mm in

tube diameter. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

(4) Further, a transition boundary between

The author wishes to acknowledge the

the falling film and annular drop flow was

advice and encouragement received from Prof.

obtained empirically from the experimental

T. Hanawa, Prof. K. Sato and Prof. Y. Oguchi

results of the maximum height of the wave,

of Shibaura Institute of Technology, and Prof.

which was taken for tube diameters 16 and

A. Inoue and Prof. M. Aritomi of Tokyo In-

24mm.

stitute of Technology, and Mr. T. Takahara

[NOMENCLATURE] and Mr. K. Nojiri for the assistance during

A : Cross-sectional area the progress of this study.

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C : Friction factor

C0 : Distribution parameter ---REFERENCEs---

C1: Coefficient (1) Usui, K., SATO, K.: ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,

D: Diameter of tube (m) 26[7], 670 (1989).

Eo: Eotvos number (=(pL-pa)YD 2 /a) (2) GoLAN, L. P., STENNING, A. H.: Proc. Inst.

f: Function Mech. Engrs., 184 (Pt. 3C), 108 (1969-70).

FrL: Froude number (=hf.../gD(pL-pa)lpL) (3) SEKOGUCHI, K.: "Dennetukogaku-shinten", (in

g: Gravitational constant (m/s2 ) Japanese), Vol. 1, 180 (1973), Yokendou.

hMAX: Maximum height of wave (mm) (4) OsHINowo, T., CHARLES, M. E.: Can.]. Chem.

j: Volumetric flux (m/s) Eng., 52, 25 (1974).

K, K 11 K2: Coefficients (5) YAMAZAKI, Y., YAMAGUCHI, K.: ]. Nucl. Sci.

l w: Width of large wave (m) Techno/., 16[4], 245 (1979).

L: Distance from bend exit (m) (6) BARNEA, D., et al.: Chem. Eng. Sci., 37[5],

P: Pressure (Pa) 741 (1982).

Velocity in gas core at wave crest (m/s) (7) T AKEMURA, T., et al.: Nucl. Eng. Des., 95,

Interfacial velocity (m/s) 365 (1986).

Volume of large wave (ms) (8) GRIFFITH, P., SNYDER, G. A.: MIT Rep. 5003-

z: Coordinate in direction of flow (m) 29 (T/D-20947), (1964).

a: Average void fraction (9) TAITEL, Y., et al.: AIChE ]., 26[3], 345 (1980).

aw: Average void fraction at maximum M MISHIMA, K., IsHII, M.: Int. ]. Heat Mass

height of wave Transfer, 27[5], 723 (1984).

o: Average liquid film thickness (m) (11) WALLis, G. B.: "One-dimensional Two-Phase

Loss coefficient for enlargement Flow", (1969), MaGraw-Hill.

Loss coefficient for contraction ~~ MARTIN, C. S.: Trans. ASME, ]. Fluids Eng.,

Angle, p : Density 715 (1976).

-44-

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