Você está na página 1de 11

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology

ISSN: 0022-3131 (Print) 1881-1248 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnst20

Vertically Downward Two-Phase Flow, (II)

Kensuke USUI

To cite this article: Kensuke USUI (1989) Vertically Downward Two-Phase Flow, (II), Journal of
Nuclear Science and Technology, 26:11, 1013-1022, DOI: 10.1080/18811248.1989.9734422

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18811248.1989.9734422

Published online: 15 Mar 2012.

Submit your article to this journal

Article views: 409

View related articles

Citing articles: 11 View citing articles

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at


Download by: [] Date: 16 October 2017, At: 18:54

journal of NUCLEAR SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, 26[11), pp. 1013-1022 (November 1989). 1013

Vertically Downward Two-Phase Flow, (II)

Flow Regime Transition Criteria

Kensuke USUI
Department of Mechanical Engineering II,
Shibaura Institute of Technology*

Received September 28, 1988

Revised March 3, 1989

Following Part (I) of the present paper, which presented the experimental results obtained
on the void distribution and average void fraction shown by nearly fully-developed, vertically
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

downward two-phase flow of air-water mixture, this Part (II) covers the flow regime transition
criteria among the three basic flow regimes: bubbly, slug and annular flows. The annular flow
further was divided into two subregions of falling film flow and annular drop flow. The general
situation of the transition criteria is as follows: (1) bubbly-to-slug flow transition occurs when
the local void fraction in the central region of the tube is 0.3; (2) slug-to-annular drop flow
transition criterion is given as a case which equations giving average void fraction for the slug
flow and the annular flow are simultaneously satisfied; (3) slug-to-falling film flow transition
occurs when the pressure difference between the crest of large wave and the bottom overcomes
the surface tension; (4) the occurrence of liquid droplets from wave crests gives the transition
criterion between the falling film flow and the annular drop flow.
These criteria were correlated to predict each flow regime boundary respectively considering
flow mechanisms or from experimental results. The correlations obtained were compared with
published flow regime maps for atmospheric air-water flow and showed satisfactory agreement.

KEYWORDS: downward two-phase flow, bubbly flow, slug flow, annular flow, falling
film flow, flow regime transition criterion, average void fraction, flow regime map

nearly fully-developed downward two-phase

I. INTRODUCTION flow was carried out. Correlations for the
Downward two-phase flow in pipes, chan- average void fraction were obtained for each
nels, components etc., is frequently en- flow regime, but the lack of criteria for flow
countered in many industrial apparatuses. regime transition would limit the use of the
Since the direction of downward two-phase correlations. Studies on flow regime transi-
flow is in opposition to that of the buoyancy tion criteria for the vertically downward two-
force acting on bubbles, flow mechanics would phase flow have been performed by Golan &
be complicated compared with that of upward Stenning< 2 l, Sekoguchi (3\ Oshinowo & Char-
two-phase flow. Yet, in many of studies on les<l, Yamazaki & Yamaguchi<'>, Barnea et
the two-phase flow sufficient attention has not at. <6 ) and Takemura et at. <7 ) They presented
been directed to downward flow. In order to flow regime maps obtained from experimental
accomplish a good design of gas-liquid two- observations and only Barnea et at. <6 l among
phase flow systems such as boilers, reactors them proposed several physical mechanisms
and pipelines, accurate knowledge of down- for the transition boundaries. However, pre-
ward two-phase flow is required. diction of flow regime transition boundaries
In Part (I)<Il of the present paper, an ex- for vertically downward two-phase flow is up
perimental study on void fraction distribution to now an unresolved problem.
and correlation of average void fraction m * Tameihara, Fukasaku, Omiya-shi 307.
1014 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

The present paper reports on flow regime

transition criteria for vertically downward I
two-phase flow of air-water mixture. The '
flow regimes covered are bubbly, slug and tn
annular flows. Further, since the annular
flow takes a form of falling film flow at low
gas flow rate and annular drop flow at high
t=' .
gas flow rate, the two flows were considered
individually. Correlations for criteria are pro- (i)
posed considering flow mechanics or using
CD Stainless steel wire (0.06 mm)
formulas of the average void fraction. Insulated wire
Wheatstone bridge circuit
ll. EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT @ Amplifier, Oscilator
AND PROCEDURES Recorder or synchroscope
(f) Liquid film
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

The equipment used is of the same arrange- Fig. 1 Instrumentation for measuring
ment as described in Part (I), where the details liquid film thickness
are given.
Flow regimes were mainly classified on
the basis of visual observation and of many m. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
photographs taken about 100 tube diameters AND DISCUSSION
downstream from the bend exit (LJD=lOO). 1. Criteria for Flow Regime Transition
In order to facilitate visual observation of the ( 1) Bubbly to Slug Flow Transition
flow phenomena occurring inside the tube, a In the bubbly flow regime, as the concen-
square acrylic resin box filled with water was tration of bubbles becomes high, the frequency
installed at observing position. This device of collision of bubbles rises and so bubbles
eliminated distortion of the image observed coalescent. The turbulence in the wake which
from outside due to the "goldfish-bowl effect" occurs in front of a large bubble furthermore
produced by the cylindrical surface of the prompts the occurrence of more large bubbles
tube. Some typical examples of the photo- known as a slug. It can be inferred that a
graphs taken are shown in Part (I). transition from bubbly flow to slug flow regime
For the annular flow, measurements of the occurs by means of this manner of the process.
instantaneous thickness of liquid film were Griffith & Snyder<a> substantiated experi-
accomplished by means of a different con- mentally that observations of bubbly flow with
ductance method from that used in Part (I). voids higher than 0.35 was apparently faulty
The device is shown schematically in Fig. 1. and such a flow was a result of entrance
In this method the film thickness was deter- conditions. Their experiments suggest that
mined from the variation of electrical resis- the average void fraction at which the coales-
tance with changes in the liquid thickness cence of bubbles happens is around 0.25 to
between a set of parallel electrodes. The 0.30. Taite! et al. <9 > used an average void
resistance acts as one resistance built into the fraction of 0.25 as the transition criterion from
Wheatstone bridge circuit. The electrodes bubbly to slug flow and proposed a correlation
consisted of two stainless-steel wires 0.06 mm formula for upward flow. From these studies,
in diameter, stretched 5 mm apart on the it can be inferred that the transition from
diameter of the tube. The device was oper- bubbly to slug flow occurs when the void
ated from 3 VAC, 6 to 8kHz. It was found fraction in the tube reaches a certain value.
that the response of the device was linear Mishima & Ishii<' 0 > showed that the coales-
over wide range of the change of liquid cence of bubbles took place at a local void
thickness. This device was installed at L/ D fraction of 0.3 from a simple geometrical con-
=100. sideration. Using this value, they gave a
Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1015

transition correlation for vertical upward flow a=0.175 to Eq. ( 1) becomes

from the formula of the similar type with
3.76(ja/h)+l.28/(FrL Eo 114 )=1. (2)
Eq. ( 1) which will be shown below. But in
those analysis, they did not take into account This equation would give the boundary for
the effect of the void profile. The void pro- bubble-to-slug flow transition.
files of downward bubbly flow are in a form ( 2) Slug to Annular Flow Transition
close upon a truncated cone as shown in Part The correlations for average void fraction
(1). In order to obtain a simple relation in slug flow and typical annular drop flow
between the local and the average void frac- were obtained in the Part (1)< 1 J as follows:
tions, the void profile was approximated with For slug flow
the shape of the truncated cone, which was
(1-Coa)(jaiJ'L)-Coa+Cta! FrL=O, ( 3)
constant at r!R<0.5 as shown in Fig. 2.
Assuming that, on the basis of the consider- where
ation by Mishima & Ishii' 10 l, the coalescence
C0 =1.2-1/(2.95+350Eo-L 3 ), ( 4)
of bubbles takes place when the local void
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

fraction in the central region of the tube is and cl is the coefficient related to the drift
0.3 and consequently the transition occurs, velocity. In downward flow with relatively
the average void fraction at the transition is low Eotvos number, Eo<100, it was verified
0.175. that C1 was given by the Wallis's correlation
Actual for rising bubbles in the stagnant liquid, i.e.
C1 =0.345[1-exp{(3.37- Eo)/10}], ( 5)
d I For annular drop flow
,~- -9 (1-a) 2317 -2CwFrl.
I [1-_s_ (1-a)16J7. Pa(!a)z]=o,
0,5 0 Cw a' 12 PL )L
r/R (6)
Fig. 2 Void profile in bubbly flow where Ci and Cw are the interfacial and wall
friction factors, respectively.
It was approximately verified in the Part A boundary between the slug and annular
(1)< 1 J that the average void fraction in nearly flows will be given as a case which Eqs. ( 3)
fully-developed downward bubbly flow was and ( 6) are simultaneously satisfied. In the
given by region of the transition boundary, as seen in
Part (I )(Il,
(1-Coa)(j ahL)-Coa+ l.53a/(FrL Eo 1 ' 4 )
=0, ( 1) jaljL-z1 and a2;0.5,
where a is the average void fraction, j 0 jjL and the value of Ci seems not to be so large
is the ratio of the gas to liquid volumetric compared with that of Cw. Therefore, if
velocity, FrL is the Froude number p 0 4:.pL, the second term in brackets on the
left-hand side of Eq. ( 6) can be neglected;
Eq. ( 6) reduces to
based on the liquid volumetric velocity, Eo is
( 7)
the Eotvos number
This equation also gives the average void
Eo=(pL-p 0 )gD2/a,
fraction for the falling film flow as shown in
and Co is the distribution parameter. (N.B. In Part (I). In order to simplify a resultant
this paper, non-dimensional numbers will be taken equation, Eq. ( 7) would be used instead of
as positive for convenience' sake.) Substituting Eq. ( 6 ). Then, by eliminating a in Eqs. ( 3 )
1016 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

and ( 7 ), a criterion for slug-to-annular drop

flow transition is given by
CoFrL +
[ 1
{1-(2CwFr}Y 123 }Co
-1] J:a

=1. ( 8)

In this paper, from the reason described

in Part (I)(ll, the churn flow is not classified
as an independent regime, included in the slug
flow regime. Thus a correlation for the tran-
sition from the slug to churn flow would not
be considered also in this Part< 1l, although the
churn flow is distinguished from the slug flow
based on the visual observation for reference
as shown in Fig. 10 which will be given later.
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

( 3) Falling Film to Slug Flow Transition

At low flow rates of liquid and gas, the Fig. 3 Model of large wave
liquid takes a free-fall situation and the inter-
face between the gas and liquid is relatively to those at downstream respectively, the
smooth. This situation disappears as the liquid following relation is obtained:
flow rate increases, and the interface becomes
unstable and so a solitary wave grows abrupt-
ly. The sudden increase in the amplitude of - VwpLg+-rw.,.DLlz=O, ( 9)
the large wave reduces the cross section of where Pt and P2 are the pressures at positions
the gas core so that the Bernoulli effect in- CD and respectively. AL and Aa are the
creases the pressure difference between the cross-sectional areas of liquid and gas flows,
crest of the wave and the bottom. When this respectively. Llz is the length between CD and
pressure difference overcomes the surface , o the average liquid film thickness and V w
tension, the gas core is blocked by the liquid the volume of large wave.
at some location and the slug flow may occur. If AL ~Aa and the gravity force on the
On the basis of this consideration a criterion liquid film except the large wave is balanced
for the falling film to slug flow would be by the wall shear stress, i.e.
developed. Since it is difficult to obtain a
precise criterion, here an analysis would be
done approximately. In order to develop a cor- then, Eq. ( 9) reduces to
relation for transition boundary, the following
assumptions are made: (1) the large wave Pt-P= V wPLYI Aa. (10)

takes an annular two-dimensional shape and This suggests that the gravitational force
falls down at a constant velocity; (2) the gas acting on the large wave is balanced by the
velocity is neglected and consequently the pressure difference (Pt-P2 ) across the wave.
interface shearing stress is not considered. The pressure difference is approximated by
Considering the motion as seen by an observer the sum of enlargement and contraction losses
moving with the large wave, then, the gas as:
flows through a path with a constriction as
shown in Fig. 3.
From momentum balance in the flow direc- where Uo is the gas velocity at the constric-
tion for the region between positions CD and
in Fig. 3, if PLPa and the liquid film
tion. ' and 'care the loss coefficients for
the enlargement and the contraction, respec-
thickness and velocity at CD upstream are equal tively.

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1017

When the cross-sectional area of the gas 1 PL

core at the constriction is sufficiently small ((,+(c) . (pL-pa)
compared with that at the bottom of the large
wave, using Eq. (11) and A 0 l w"' V w, Eq. (10) _ _!_. f!_r;_ (2C w)-14/23. !!_Fr}_,aJ23"' _1_(.!!._
2 PL lw Eo lw
Although there is no way to introduce a
where l w is the width of the large wave. equation giving the accurate relationship for
For the radial direction, when the differ- the transition, if l w"' D, and (e and (c are
ence pressure between the crest of the wave about constant, Eq. (15) takes the form
and the bottom overcomes the force due to
surface tension, the gas core is blocked by
the liquid. Therefore, a criterion giving the where, K 1 and K 2 are constants and must be
falling film-to-slug flow transition is determined experimentally. In Fig. 4, data
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

for the transition from falling film flow to

(1/2)p 0 (u~-uD (=2a cos() !lw)"-'a jl w. (13)
slug flow were given as a relation between
The interfacial velocity u; is approximated by Froude number FrL and Eotvos number Eo
the average velocity of the falling film, if the together with the results of Sekoguchi< 3 l,
flow is turbulent; that is, Barnea<'l and Takemura et at.<n From the
results, values of 0.92 for K1 and 7.0 for K 2
u;~jd(1-a). (14)
were chosen for constants in Eq. (16) to fit data,
Using Eqs. ( 7) and (12) to (14) yields which was indicated by a solid line in Fig. 4.


Fig. 4 Falling film-slug flow transition

( 4) Falling Film to Annular of wave height, the height decreases with the
Drop Flow Transition mean film thickness.
As the gas flow rate increases in falling Figure 5 shows a typical example of the
film flow, the interface becomes unstable un- relationship between the maximum height of
der a certain condition in the shearing force the wave and the superficial gas velocity for
due to the gas flow and so the height of the D=16 mm. When the gas velocity is suffi-
wave increases. Following the increase of ciently high, the shearing force due to the
the wave height the liquid droplets begin to gas flow tears away droplets of liquid from
occur from the wave crest, and after the peak wave crests. These droplets are entrained in
1018 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

8 D=16(mm)
jL(m/s) 6
7 0 0.066

E 6
0 0.30 0

0.50 0
>< 6
<{ 51-
0.60 0


2 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 ~.
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

0 I I I
0.01 0.1 10 100
jiG I ( m/s)
Fig. 5 Example of wave height in annular flow

the gas flow. If the occurrence of liquid

droplets characterizes the annular drop flow,
the condition at the maximum height of wave '-)
may give the criterion of the boundary be- 1 t- _ : : ; l u g; Annular -
tween the falling film flow and the annular \
drop flow. According to the experiments ~ 0.5 o
carried out in Part<'', the average void frac- E I q~
__, _______ ~' I '
'? .-p Eqs.(6)

tion of this condition is slightly higher than '. &(17)

o,~ ~
that of the falling film flow. Hence, using Falling film
the average void fraction for the falling film 0.1~--o0=16(mrn) -
flow given by Eq. ( 7 ), the average void frac-
- 24 ~
tion aw for the maximum height of wave was 0.05t- '.
assumed as follows : I
0.1 0.5 1 5 10
jiG I (m/s)
where K is a constant which is just slightly Fig. 6 Relation between h and ja
larger than unity. Substituting aw in Eq. (17) at maximum height of wave
for a in Eq. ( 6) produces a correlation which
gives the flow condition at the maximum film-to-annular drop flow transition criterion
height of wave. When the value of K was can be expressed by
determined to fit experimental data for the
maximum height of wave, it was well ap-
proximated by 1.0035. In Fig. 6, the result Hence, for the purpose of obtaining a simple
is shown by dotted line for D=16 mm and by correlation for the air-water flow, data for
solid line for D=24 mm together with experi- the maximum height of wave were plotted in
mental data. the form of the Froude number FrL against
From Eqs. ( 6) and (17), it will be found the velocity ratio j 0jjL as illustrated in
that, if Cw and pal pL are constant, falling Fig. 7.
Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1019

based on the visual observation for the falling

film and the annular drop flows were plotted

.~ .r Eq,(t9)
o D=t6(mm)
14 on the flow regime map in the form of FrL
against j 0/jL. From the result, a criterion

-fqs(6) (),
- &(17) eo, - with the same form to Eq. (19), was given
empirically by
" 0"

0, A comparison between Eq. (20) and data ob-

0.1 ~
-~- tained from the visual observation is illustrated
in Fig. 10 which will be presented later.
rl ,/ 2. Comparison with Existing
10 tOO
iGI jl Transition Boundaries
The present flow regime criteria would be
Fig. 7 Relation between j 0 Jh and FrL
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

at maximum height of wave compared with existing transition boundaries.

Figure 8 illustrates the comparison of bubble-
The resulting relationship could be approxi- to-slug flow transition for air-water flow at
mately given by atmospheric pressure in the tubes with inside
diameters of different kinds. Although there
are some discrepancies in the boundary lines,
The result is shown by a solid line in Fig. 7 the present curve lies in the intermediate re-
together with that obtained from Eqs. ( 6) and gion between them. Especially, the agreement
(17), and data. They are almost identical. with the results of Oshinowo & Charles< 4 >,
However, the gas core already contains and Martin< 12 ' is good. Some discrepancies
some liquid droplets before the wave height may be due to the mixing methods of gas
reaches the maximum. Therefore, the criterion and liquid, the upstream configuration of the
which is judged from the visual observation channels, definitions of the flow regime, and
for the transition would be in the region so on. In addition, from observations, the
where the velocity ratio j 0/jL is lower than transition from one flow regime to the an-
that given by Eq. (19). The flow regime data other is gradual with respect to flow rates.

= Oshinowo
--- Martin

0 ---- Sekoguchi


0.1 '-----'----'---'---'-'-..I....LI....L-__l__.J...._L..L.LJ....LJ..L_L__j--l.,_LJ......LJLl.J
0.01 0.1 . 1.0 10
Fig. 8 Comparison of prediction with other maps for bubbly-slug transition

1020 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

Thus, transition boundaries should be under- visually. A reason for the disagreement be-
stood as a band with a certain width rather tween Eq. ( 8 ) and the boundary by Seko-
than a single curve. This also would cause guchi<'J would be as follows: the increase of
the discrepancies. the gas flow rate makes the length of liquid
Figure 9 illustrates the comparison of the slugs shorten in the slug flow so that their
present criteria for the slug-to-annular flow slugs become unstable, and collapse and crea-
transition with several published transition tion of liquid slugs were reiterated irregularly.
boundaries for the air-water flow at atmos- This irregular region seemed to be the churn
pheric pressure in about 1 inch I. D. tubes. (or froth) flow. As was indicated in Part (I)(IJ,
The slug-to-annular drop flow transition for- however, the boundary between the slug flow
mula presented, i.e. Eq. ( 8) agrees well with and the churn flow did not appear clearly in
the boundaries between the slug flow and the the change of average void fraction. When
annular flow by Yamazaki & Yamaguchi< 5 >, liquid slugs vanish completely, the shift to
or the slug flow and the froth flow by Oshi- the annular drop flow appears to be relatively
nowo & Charles< 4 J except that by Sekoguchi<'J. sudden. Thus, the slug-to-churn flow regime
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

In higher gas flow rates adjoining the slug transition is rather indefinite though the exis-
flow, the description of the flow regime varies tence of the churn flow is qualitatively under-
considerably with different investigators. It stood. In the present paper, the churn flow
would be due to the fact that the boundaries was included in the slug flow, considered as
between the slug and the churn (or froth) an agitated one as described previously. Be-
flows and between the churn and the annular cause of such an indefiniteness, considerable
drop flows are difficult to be distinguished discrepancies would exist in the region.

.... (Eq.(8)
Eo=84.5- 91.4

(s' ug )o.v.s "- ,
- "".( '-,..- ( Whispy annuladv
,, ...__
,, (
'-- Slug "'-, ~~~- - _ _ Froth o,s
1.0 ""
,=_ .\_.. .,;;-;;;;.:;;-:-.:. ::-.: .::4,.~-
''~~--- _-:.::------
Eq(16) ' film)o
(Annularls ~
\ ~. Annular drop
Falling film ', ~.:-,.
,., /Eq.(20l
(Falling film lo , ,.
Source Flow regime ' "",..,
= Oshinowo ( lo
--- Yamazaki ( ly .,
--- Sekoguchi ( ls

0.1 1.0 10 100

jG/ h
Fig. 9 Comparison of prediction with other maps for slug-annular transition

At low gas and liquid flow rates the fall- Sekoguchi<'J is shown in Fig. 9, where the
ing film flow appears. The correlation for agreement with the present correlation is good.
the slug-to-falling film flow transition was At low liquid flow rates, Oshinowo &
determined based on data ranging from 10 to Charles< 4 J classified flow regime into falling
50 mm in tube diameter. The boundary of film and falling bubbly-film flows. In the

Vol. 26, No. 11 (Nov. 1989) 1021

former, both gas and liquid flow: rates are Slt!On line between the falling film and the
usually low and the gas core contains no annular drop flow given in the present study.
liquid droplets. On the other hand, in the From this it can be inferred that the two
latter, gas flow r.ate is higher and the liquid boundaries show about the same one.
film contains small dispersed air bubbles. In order to test general applicability of the
Furthermore, the shearing action of the gas obtained correlation, data of flow patterns
flow is now becoming more important and the taken in 24 mm diameter tube are presented
gas core contains liquid droplets. As seen in in Fig. 10, together with the present boundary
Fig. 9, a boundary line between these flow lines. The figure shows that the prediction
regimes agrees approximately with the tran- is in excellent agreement with the data.

0= 24 (mm)
Eo= 77.8
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

.J 0 0
Eq.(JG)\ 0

0 Bubbly
0 Slug
<> Churn
6 Falling film
0.1 0 Annular

0.01 0.1 10 100

jG I j L
Fig. 10 Example of comparison of prediction with observed flow pattern

tion by assuming that the phase distribution

IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS is expressed by the truncated cone and the
For the vertically downward two-phase coalescence of bubbles occurs at the void
flow, flow regime criteria are developed con- fraction of 0.3 in the central region of the
sidering some mechanisms of flow transition tube. The comparison of the present cri-
and from the experimental data. Several flow terion with the data taken over tube diam-
regime maps have been proposed up to now. eters from 10 to 140 mm showed relatively
However, most of those are based primarily good agreement.
on visual observation and the criteria are not (2) The slug-to-annular drop flow transition
given in the form of equation. In the present criterion was given as a case which the
study, the criteria are correlated by means of formulas of the average void fraction for
the non-dimensional numbers and are compared the slug and annular flows were simultane-
with independent literature data for air-water ously satisfied. The applicable range of
flow at low pressure. There appears to be this criterion is due to the validity of the
no published data available for testing the correlation equation for the average void
present correlation over a wide range of tube fraction of the slug flow and the annular
diameter, channel configuration and fluid prop- flow given in Part ( 1) 0 l. So further in-
erties. The summary and conclusions on the vestigations will be necessary to ascertain
flow regime boundaries are as follows : the application of these equations to other
(1) The bubbly-to-slug flow transition crite- flow conditions.
rion was derived from the drift flux equa- (3) The slug-to-falling film flow transition
1022 ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno!.,

boundary correlation was obtained from a Surface tension

a: (N/m)
simple theory based on the Bernoulli and r : Shear stress (Pa)
surface tension effects acting on the large (Subscripts)
G : Gas phase, i: interface
wave, and on the basis of data of several L: Liquid phase, w: wall, wave
investigators ranging from 10 to 50 mm in
tube diameter. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
(4) Further, a transition boundary between
The author wishes to acknowledge the
the falling film and annular drop flow was
advice and encouragement received from Prof.
obtained empirically from the experimental
T. Hanawa, Prof. K. Sato and Prof. Y. Oguchi
results of the maximum height of the wave,
of Shibaura Institute of Technology, and Prof.
which was taken for tube diameters 16 and
A. Inoue and Prof. M. Aritomi of Tokyo In-
stitute of Technology, and Mr. T. Takahara
[NOMENCLATURE] and Mr. K. Nojiri for the assistance during
A : Cross-sectional area the progress of this study.
Downloaded by [] at 18:54 16 October 2017

C : Friction factor
C0 : Distribution parameter ---REFERENCEs---
C1: Coefficient (1) Usui, K., SATO, K.: ]. Nucl. Sci. Techno/.,
D: Diameter of tube (m) 26[7], 670 (1989).
Eo: Eotvos number (=(pL-pa)YD 2 /a) (2) GoLAN, L. P., STENNING, A. H.: Proc. Inst.
f: Function Mech. Engrs., 184 (Pt. 3C), 108 (1969-70).
FrL: Froude number (=hf.../gD(pL-pa)lpL) (3) SEKOGUCHI, K.: "Dennetukogaku-shinten", (in
g: Gravitational constant (m/s2 ) Japanese), Vol. 1, 180 (1973), Yokendou.
hMAX: Maximum height of wave (mm) (4) OsHINowo, T., CHARLES, M. E.: Can.]. Chem.
j: Volumetric flux (m/s) Eng., 52, 25 (1974).
K, K 11 K2: Coefficients (5) YAMAZAKI, Y., YAMAGUCHI, K.: ]. Nucl. Sci.
l w: Width of large wave (m) Techno/., 16[4], 245 (1979).
L: Distance from bend exit (m) (6) BARNEA, D., et al.: Chem. Eng. Sci., 37[5],
P: Pressure (Pa) 741 (1982).
Velocity in gas core at wave crest (m/s) (7) T AKEMURA, T., et al.: Nucl. Eng. Des., 95,
Interfacial velocity (m/s) 365 (1986).
Volume of large wave (ms) (8) GRIFFITH, P., SNYDER, G. A.: MIT Rep. 5003-
z: Coordinate in direction of flow (m) 29 (T/D-20947), (1964).
a: Average void fraction (9) TAITEL, Y., et al.: AIChE ]., 26[3], 345 (1980).
aw: Average void fraction at maximum M MISHIMA, K., IsHII, M.: Int. ]. Heat Mass
height of wave Transfer, 27[5], 723 (1984).
o: Average liquid film thickness (m) (11) WALLis, G. B.: "One-dimensional Two-Phase
Loss coefficient for enlargement Flow", (1969), MaGraw-Hill.
Loss coefficient for contraction ~~ MARTIN, C. S.: Trans. ASME, ]. Fluids Eng.,
Angle, p : Density 715 (1976).