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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 1

TABLE OF PICTURE ............................................................................................................... 3

1.1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 5

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION........ 5

1.3 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 6

1.4 TRANSMISSION TOWER ............................................................................................ 6

1.5 TRANSMISSION TOWER TYPE BASED ON FUNCTION ..................................... 11

1.4.1 Suspension Towers ................................................................................................ 12

1.4.2 Tension Towers (Angle) ........................................................................................ 13

1.4.3 Transposition towers.............................................................................................. 14

1.4.4 Special Towers ...................................................................................................... 14

1.6 PART OF TRANSMISSION TOWER ........................................................................ 15

1.7 TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN AND SPESIFICATION ....................................... 16

1.7.1 Overall Descriptive Specification .......................................................................... 17

1.7.2 Tower Specifications ............................................................................................. 17

1.7.3 Minimum Clearances ............................................................................................. 18

1.7.4 Current Carrying .................................................................................................... 18

1.7.4.1 Bare Conductor OHL (Including ACSR, TACSR and ACCC) ......................... 18

1.7.4.2 Conductor Motion Suppression ......................................................................... 23

1.7.5 Insulators ............................................................................................................... 24

1.7.5.1 Pin Insulators ..................................................................................................... 25

1.7.5.2 Suspension Insulator .......................................................................................... 26

1.7.5.3 Strain Insulator ................................................................................................... 27

1.7.5.4 Ground Clearance around the conducting wire ................................................. 27

1.8 TRANSMISSION TOWER PROTECTION ................................................................ 28

1.8.1 Safety from Lightning Disturbance ....................................................................... 28

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1.8.1.1 Wire Ground Steel Wire (GSW) / Optic Ground Wire (OPGW) ...................... 29

1.8.1.2 GSW Jumper ...................................................................................................... 30

1.8.1.3 Arcing Horn ....................................................................................................... 30

1.8.1.4 Transmission Line Arrester (TLA) .................................................................... 31

1.8.1.5 Liaison Conductor .............................................................................................. 33

1.8.1.6 Grounding Rods ................................................................................................. 34

1.8.2 Safety from Mechanical Vibration / Stress Generated by Wind ........................... 35

1.8.2.1 Spacer ................................................................................................................. 35

1.8.2.2 Armor Rod ......................................................................................................... 35

1.8.2.3 Counter weight ................................................................................................... 36

1.8.2.4 Vibration Damper .............................................................................................. 36

1.8.3 Security from Threat / Possibility of Human Disorders ........................................ 36

1.8.3.1 ACD (Anti Climbing Device) / Climbing Challenge ........................................ 36

1.8.3.2 Hazard Ranger Plate .......................................................................................... 37

1.8.4 Safety from Possible External Disorders (Aircraft, Skydiving) ............................ 37

1.8.4.1 Ball Signs ........................................................................................................... 37

1.8.4.2 Aviation Lamp ................................................................................................... 38

1.9 ADDITIONAL ACCESORIES .................................................................................... 38

1.9.1 Tension Clamp ....................................................................................................... 38

1.9.2 Suspension Clamp ................................................................................................. 38

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 39

2 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
TABLE OF PICTURE

Fig 1. Lattice Tower (Single Circuit) ......................................................................................... 7

Fig 2. Tubular Steel H- Frame Tower ........................................................................................ 8

Fig 3. Guyed-V Tower with Double Insulator Strings Per Phase Conductor ............................ 8

Fig 4. Latice Tower With Double Circuit .................................................................................. 9

Fig 5. Angle Tower .................................................................................................................. 10

Fig 6. Suspension Tower.......................................................................................................... 12

Fig 7. Tension Tower ............................................................................................................... 13

Fig 8. Tower Deviation ............................................................................................................ 13

Fig 10. Part of Transmission Tower ........................................................................................ 16

Fig 11. Design of Transmission Tower.................................................................................... 16

Fig 12. ACSR Conductor ......................................................................................................... 19

Fig 13. TACSR Conductor ...................................................................................................... 20

Fig 14. Conductor Spesification .............................................................................................. 24

Fig 15. Insulators ..................................................................................................................... 24

Fig 16. Pin Insulator ................................................................................................................. 25

Fig 17. Suspension Insulator .................................................................................................... 26

Fig 18. GSW Wire ................................................................................................................... 29

Fig 19. GSW Jumper................................................................................................................ 30

Fig 20. Arcing horn conductor side ......................................................................................... 30

Fig 21. Arcing horn tower side ................................................................................................ 31

Fig 21. Lightning Arrester ....................................................................................................... 31

Fig 22. TLA ............................................................................................................................. 32

Fig 23. Connector, GSW / OPGW wire to ground .................................................................. 33

Fig 24. Ground tower ............................................................................................................... 34

Fig 25. (a) Spacer 4 conductor, (b) Spacer 2 conductor .......................................................... 35

Fig 26. Armor Rod ................................................................................................................... 35

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Fig 27. Counter Weight............................................................................................................ 36

Fig 28. Vibration Damper ........................................................................................................ 36

Fig 29. ACD (Anti Climbing Device) / climbing barrier......................................................... 36

Fig 30. Hazard signs plate ........................................................................................................ 37

Fig 31. Ball signs ..................................................................................................................... 37

Fig 32. Tower flight lights ....................................................................................................... 38

Fig 33. Suspension Clam ......................................................................................................... 38

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

Electric transmission is the process by which large amounts of electricity produced at


power plants, such as industrial-scale wind facilities, is transported over long distances for
eventual use by consumers. Due to the large amount of power involved, and the properties of
electricity, transmission normally takes place at high voltage (69 kV or above). Electricity is
usually transmitted to a substation near a populated area. At the substation, the high voltage
electricity is converted to lower voltages suitable for consumer use, and then transmitted to end
users through relatively low-voltage electric distribution lines.

For newly constructed wind energy facilities, if no existing suitable transmission


facilities are available, new transmission lines and associated facilities will be required. The
construction, operation, and decommissioning of high-voltage transmission lines and
associated facilities would create a range of environmental impacts. The type and magnitude
of the impacts associated with transmission line construction, operation, and decommissioning
would vary depending on line type and size, as well as the length of the transmission line, and
a variety of other site-specific factors.

1.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION

Voltage, current, power, and electrical energy are some of the most frequently used
terms when discussing transmission line characteristics.

1. Voltage. The voltage of a transmission line determines the line’s ability to transmit
electricity. This electric force, or electric potential, is measured in volts (V), or more
typically in kilovolts (kV); 1 kV = 1,000 V.
2. Current. The current through a transmission line is a measure of the amount of electricity
that is moving through a conductor. Current flow through a conductor is measured in
amperes (amps).
3. Power. Power flowing through a power station is measured in watts (W), or more typically
megawatts (MW), where 1 MW = 1,000,000 W. Power (more accurately, complex power)
in an alternating-current system depends on the system voltage and current flow and is
comprised of two components: real power and reactive power. If a small circuit has no
reactive components (like these found in motors or computer power supplies) and is purely
resistive (like those of an incandescent light bulb or toaster), then all power transferred
through the circuit is real power (i.e., pure MW). Once a motor, for example, is added to a

5 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
circuit, a reactive power component (measured in megaVARs [MVAR], for megavolt-
amps reactive) is introduced along with the real power component. Both aspects of
complex power are present and important in transmission syste operations, and the
respective amount of each is related to the line’s power factor. Unfortunately, real power
is often used synonymously for complex power. This simplification neglects the effects.
That reactive power can have on system stability and system operation.

1.3 TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

Based on the function of each component, SUTT / SUTET transmission system grouped as
follows:

1. Current Carrying / Carrier

2. Insulation / Isolation

3. Structure / Structure

4. Junctions

1.4 TRANSMISSION TOWER

The transmission tower is an important accessory and the performance of the


transmission line depends very much on the design of the transmission tower. The electric
transmission towers or pylons can be classified several ways. Here we will try to classify it
broadly. The most obvious and visible tower types are
1. Lattice structure
2. Tubular pole structure
Varieties of tower types are used in practice. Traditionally self supporting lattice
structures are used for electricity transmission line towers (see FigA). You will mostly find the
use of self supporting type lattice structures for transmission lines in most of the power
companies . The lattice structures can be erected easily in very inaccessible locations as the
tower members can be easily transported. Lattice structures are light and cost effective. The
main disadvantage of lattice structure is that it requires more ROW (Right Of Way). Right Of
Way is the stretch of land acquired along the route length of line keeping the towers in the
middle of ROW width. See FigD where the width of ROW is shown by double headed arrow.
The ROW width is as per the standard set by Local authority or government agency. Clearly
ROW is more for higher voltage line.

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In the sketch of a single circuit lattice tower (FigA), two numbers of ground conductors
are used. Theta is the shield angle. For reliably protecting the conductors from lightening this
angle θ should be less than 30 degrees. In the FigA the phase conductors used are bundled type
(twin conductor).

Fig 1. Lattice Tower (Single Circuit)


In many cases due to public resentment the use of lattice structures has been restricted.
So alternativ transmission structures are adopted by some power companies. Steel tubular pole
structures have been used quite successfully by some power companies forhigh and extra high
tension transmission lines. The installation of these structures are costly but requires less time.
See the sketch of a tubular steel pole structure (FigB). The tubular structure can be a single
tubular form or H-form. Like Lattice tower it can also be designed for carrying two or more
circuits. A lattice tower with double circuit is shown in FigureD. More transmission companies
are considering the use of this type of tower especially in populated areas.

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Fig 2. Tubular Steel H- Frame Tower
The lattice guyed-V transmission towers has also been used by the transmission
companies in cases where more space is available.. These are simple, easy and cheaper to
install. The guyed towers also require less time for installation. The main disadvantage is that
these towers require more space due to presence of guy wires. See the sketch of the tower
(FigC). This tower uses two string insulators per phase arranged in V form.

Fig 3. Guyed-V Tower with Double Insulator Strings Per Phase Conductor

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Another classification is from the point of view of materials used. The transmission
towers are usually made from steel and galvanized steels. Aluminium is also used as
construction material for transmission lines. In many countries wooden transmission towers
are also used for HV/EHV transmission, if plenty of wood of considerable length(or height) is
available at reasonable cost. The wooden towers are mainly single pole or H-frame type.

Fig 4. Latice Tower With Double Circuit


Even concrete poles/towers are used by transmission companies of some countries for
HV/EHV power transmission.
Another main classification is from the point of view of functioning of tower. That
means whether the tower is suspension type, angle type or dead end type. Depending on the
deviation angle of the line the respective tower is chosen. The suspension type of towers only
carry the load of the conductor in normal situation. However suspension towers are usually
designed to work satisfactorily for very small angular deviationn of line. The standard code of
practice of different countries has specified the maximum deviation angle for use of suspension
towers. The angle towers are used when the line route deviates more than this specified
maximum angle. The angle towers can again be sub grouped for different ranges of angular
deviation. So the towers can be categorized as small angle, medium angle or large angle towers.
The towers used at the termination point of line are dead end towers and are designed to carry

9 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
large unbalanced load. The dead end towers are the strongest and heavy. In practice large angle
towers are designed so that they can be used as dead end towers. Doing so will eliminate the
need for designing one more tower type that is dead end. The angle towers use tension insulator
strings. See the picture below.

Fig 5. Angle Tower


The numbers of transmission towers required to be erected per kilometer depends on
the topography of the line route. So the span length of the line depends on the topography. For
a particular conductor, the span should be such so that under highest temperature the line
maintains minimum clearance (as per local standard) to ground or other nearby objects.
Obviously more towers are required to be erected per kilometer in hilly or other difficult
terrain. When the path of line deviates more often from the straight route then the line requires
more towers per kilometer. Angle towers are used whenever the line route such deviates so that
the suspension tower cannot be used. From the above discussion it is clear that the choice of
transmission tower types depends upon several factors. Also you must have observed that when
the tower carries only one circuit then the phase conductors are usually arranged horizontally(or
triangular form). In this arrangement more Right Of Way is required but the tower height will
be less, resulting in saving in tower materials so tower cost is reduced. When the transmission
tower carries two or more circuits, then the phase conductors are usually arranged vertical (See
above photograph and FigD sketch). In this configuration the requirement of Right Of Way is
less but tower height is more. Usually this is the choice in double or multicircuit case.
Sometimes double circuits are also arranged horizontally and single circuit vertically according
to the availability of Right Of Way and optimized total cost.

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The type of tower foundation depends on the soil type where the tower is to be erected.
Some common foundation types are for dry soil, wet soil, rocky soil, sandy soil and submerged
type. In most cases existing standard design can be adopted to reduce the overall cost of tower
installation. In the earth quake prone areas, data pertaining to seismic activity of the area is
very important for consideration in foundation. The foundation cost on river bank or river bed
is much more than on plain land. The design of transmission tower and line is complex which
need to consider loading under different conditions. Several softwares are available in the
market for the analysis and design purpose.

1.5 TRANSMISSION TOWER TYPE BASED ON FUNCTION

According to different considerations, there are different types of transmission towers.


The transmission line goes as per available corridors. Due to unavailability of shortest distance
straight corridor transmission line has to deviate from its straight way when obstruction comes.
In total length of a long transmission line there may be several deviation points. According to
the angle of deviation there are four types of transmission tower.
Type Tower Function Deviation
Aa Suspension 0° − 3°
Bb Tension/Section 3° − 20 °
Cc Tension 20° − 60°
Dd Tension 60° − 90°
Ee Tension > 90°
Ff Tension > 90°
Gg Transposisi

As per the force applied by the conductor on the cross arms, the transmission towers can be
categorized in another way.
1. Tangent suspension tower and it is generally A - type tower.
2. Angle tower or tension tower or sometime it is called section tower. All B, C and D types
of transmission towers come under this category.
Apart from the above customized type of tower, the tower is designed to meet special usages.
The major types of Transmission towers can categorize as bellow.
1. Suspension Tower
2. Tension Tower

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3. Transposition Tower
4. Special Tower
Following are the types of transmission tower types which are widely used by
considering the technical background. These transmission types are mainly classified
according to its unique features and different applications on electrical power transmission.
Transmission line tower designers have been endeavouring to develop tower with such shapes
wich blend with the environment. Normally the tower shapes are being used with conservation
environmental attraction .The highest attention and the pubic become more and more conscious
of the detrimental effects to transmission line towers on the land.

1.4.1 Suspension Towers

Fig 6. Suspension Tower


Mainly the Suspension towers are on the way of that straight line of transmission line .
It may also vary maximum to degree of 5 angle . The high voltage suspension towers are design
to carry the only weight of the conductor in straight line position.Most of towers in any
transmission line is fall into this type of tower category and construction cost of suspension
type transmission lines are much cheaper compare to other types of transmission lines.These
type of towers are used on the lines for straight run or for small angle of deviation up to 2° or
5° . Conductor on suspension towers may be supported by means of I-string, V- string or the
combination of I & V strings.

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1.4.2 Tension Towers (Angle)

Fig 7. Tension Tower


Electrical Tension towers are used at locations where the angel of deviation is more
than degree of 5. These towers are also known as angle towers and the tower are designed to
take the tension load of the cable. Tension towers are mostly use for turning points and for the
section isolate locations.
The piece of line from one angle tower to other angle tower is known as section and
length of the section may vary and depend on the geographical location. All the towers in
between the section is suspension towers. Suspension towers are lightweight and much
economical compare to angle towers.
Tension tower can further divide in to two categories and these tower type are also can
be categorized according to deviation angle in location of appropriate towers. The types of
tension towers due to angle of vary are mentioned in bellow.

Fig 8. Tower Deviation


0-10 degree tension towers (TD1)
10- 30 degree tension towers (TD3)
30-60 degree tension towers (TD6)

13 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.4.3 Transposition towers

Fig 9. Transposition Tower


Transposition towers are specially used for transpose the conductors of three-phase line.
Transposition arrangement also called as span transposition. These type of towers are widely
used in long transmission line. These types of towers are much less use in recently. Major idea
behind transposition is the change the three phase according to determied arrangement to obtain
better performance in Transmission line. There are several types of transpositions arrangements
use in electrical transmission industry. On span transposition is one of the transposition
arrangement which use to carried out near a tension tower due to greater ground clearance
available near the tower than in the mid span of the tower.

1.4.4 Special Towers


These towers are used at locations such as those involving long-span river crossings,
valley crossings, power line crossings from above existing lines, power lines crossings bellow
existing lines (Gantry type structures) , tapping to existing lines, special termination towers etc.
The cost for special tower is much higher than suspension tower line costs. The design of
special tower are much based on the location. Special Towers are widely used for tapping
existing lines, Special termination towers and falling on the line route. Body extension and leg
extension.
If we consider on the height of transmission tower , height of all towers in same
transmission line are not same. Differnt type of tower hieght can find out by using transmission
tower body extension and leg extension . Span between towers are not same in everywhere in
same high voltage transmission line due to different geographical location.

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1.6 PART OF TRANSMISSION TOWER

Transmission towers have to carry the heavy transmission conductor at a sufficient safe
height from ground. In addition to that all towers have to sustain all kinds of natural calamities.
So transmission tower designing is an important engineering job where all three basic
engineering concepts, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering concepts are equally
applicable. A power transmission tower consists of the following parts,

1. Peak of transmission tower


2. Cross arm of transmission tower
3. Boom of transmission tower
4. Cage of transmission tower
5. Transmission Tower Body
6. Leg of transmission tower
7. Stub/Anchor Bolt and Base plate assembly of transmission tower.

The main parts among these are shown in the pictures.

Peak of Transmission Tower

The portion above the top cross arm is called peak of transmission tower. Generally earth shield
wire connected to the tip of this peak.

Cross Arm of Transmission Tower

Cross arms of transmission tower hold the transmission conductor. The dimension of cross arm
depends on the level of transmission voltage, configuration and minimum forming angle for
stress distribution.

Cage of Transmission Tower

The portion between tower body and peak is known as cage of transmission tower. This portion
of the tower holds the cross arms.

Transmission Tower Body

The portion from bottom cross arms up to the ground level is called transmission tower body.
This portion of the tower plays a vital role for maintaining required ground clearance of the
bottom conductor of the transmission line.

15 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
Fig 10. Part of Transmission Tower

Fig 11. Design of Transmission Tower

1.7 TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN AND SPESIFICATION

The towers and conductors of a transmission line are familiar elements in our landscape.
However, on closer inspection, each transmission line has unique characteristics that have

16 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
correspondingly unique implications for the environment. In this section, we list design
specifications (line characteristics) that are commonly required to define a transmission line.
Many of these specifications have implications for the net environmental effects. For the
purpose of this report, a range of values is considered for these specifications, with the
exception that a fixed nominal voltage of 150 kV is assumed.

1.7.1 Overall Descriptive Specification


The most basic descriptive specifications include a line name or other identifier,
nominal voltage, length of line, altitude range, and the design load district. The line identifier
is commonly taken from endpoint names, e.g., Inland−Macedonia on the Cleveland Electric
Illuminating Co. system. The endpoint names are generally geographic points, but may be
substation names or major industrial facilities. The nominal voltage is an approximation to
actual line voltage that is convenient for discussion. Actual voltage will vary according to line
resistance, distance, interaction with connected equipment, and electrical performance of the
line. For AC lines, the nominal voltage is close to the RMS (root mean square) voltage.The
altitude range is a rough surrogate for weather and terrain. This is important, since nearly all
aspects of line design, construction, and environmental impacts are linked to weather. The
design load district is another surrogate for weather. These districts are defined by the National
Electrical Safety Code (NESC) and by some local jurisdictions. The design wind and ice
loading on lines and towers is based on the design load district. This affects insulator
specifications as well as tower dimensions, span lengths, tower design, and conductor
mechanical strength and wind dampening.

1.7.2 Tower Specifications


The towers support the conductors and provide physical and electrical isolation for
energized lines. The minimum set of specifications for towers are the material of construction,
type or geometry, span between towers, weight, number of circuits, and circuit configuration.
At 150 kV, the material of construction is generally steel, though aluminum and hybrid
construction, which uses both steel and aluminum, have also been used. The type of tower
refers to basic tower geometry. The options are lattice, pole (or monopole), H-frame, guyed-V,
or guyed-Y. The span is commonly expressed in the average number of towers per mile. This
value ranges from four to six towers per mile. The weight of the tower varies substantially with
height, duty (straight run or corner, river crossing, etc.), material, number of circuits, and
geometry. The average weight of 670 towers for 150-kV lines included in the EPRI survey

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(EPRI 1982) is 28,000 lb. The range of reported tower weights is 8,500 to 235,000 lb. The type
of tower (specific tower geometry) is very site-dependent, and, for any given conditions,
multiple options are likely to exist. The next section provides some illustrations of specific
tower types and describes their relative impacts. The number of circuits is generally either one
or two. The circuit configuration refers to the relative positioning of conductors for each of the
phases. Generally the options are horizontal, vertical, or triangular. The vertical orientation
allows for a more compact ROW, but it requires a taller tower.

1.7.3 Minimum Clearances


The basic function of the tower is to isolate conductors from their surroundings,
including other conductors and the tower structure. Clearances are specified for phase-to-tower,
phase toground, and phase-to-phase. Phase-to-tower clearance for 150 kV ranges from about
10 to 17 feet, with 13 feet being the most common specification. These distances are maintained
by insulator strings and must take into account possible swaying of the conductors. The typical
phase-to-ground clearance is 30 to 40 feet. This clearance is maintained by setting the tower
height, controlling the line temperature to limit sag, and controlling vegetation and structures
in the ROW. Typical phase-to-phase separation is also 30 to 40 feet and is controlled by tower
geometry and line motion suppression.

1.7.4 Current Carrying


Components included in the current carrier function are SUTT / SUTET components
that function in the process of distributing electric current from Power Station to GI / GITET
or from GI / GITET to other GI / GITET. Components which include current-carrying
functions, namely:

1.7.4.1 Bare Conductor OHL (Including ACSR, TACSR and ACCC)

As the current carrier medium in SUTT / SUTET with current capacity according to the
specification or rating that is stretched through SUTT / SUTET poles through insulators as the
insulator of the conductor with the pole. In the tension pole, the conductor is held by a clamp /
compression dead end clamp strain, while the suspension pole is held by a suspension clamp.
Conductor materials used for electrical energy lines need to have the following properties:

1. High conductivity

2. High mechanical tensile strength

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3. Low density

4. Economical

5. Flexible / not easily broken

Usually conductors in SUTT / SUTET are stranded or stranded conductors, in order to


have greater capacity than solid conductors and make it easier to handle. The types of
conductors based on their materials:

1. Copper Type Conductor (BC: Bare copper)

This conductor is a good conductor because it has high conductivity and good
mechanical strength.

2. Aluminium Type Conductor

Conductors with aluminum materials are lighter than copper type conductors, their
conductivity and mechanical strength are lower. Types of aluminum conductors include:

A. ACSR Conductor (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced)


This type of conductor, its inner part is a steel having high mechanical strength, while
its outer aluminum having high conductivity. Because the nature of the electrons prefers the
outside of the conductor rather than the inner part of the conductor, most of the SUTT and
SUTET use ACSR type conductors. For areas where the air contains high sulfur content is used
type ACSR / AS, ACSR type conductor whose steelnya conductor coated with aluminum.

Fig 12. ACSR Conductor

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B. Conductor type TACSR (Thermal Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced)
In the transmission line that has a high capacity channeling / load system is installed
TACSR type conductor. This type of conductor has a larger capacity but the weight of the
conductor does not change much, but it affects sagging.

Fig 13. TACSR Conductor

20 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
Table 1-1 List of conductors used for SUTT / SUTET

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C. Conductor type ACCC
The conductor of this type, its inner composite having high mechanical strength,
because it is not from conductive material, hence this material does not expansion when
burdened by current or voltage. For conductor of this type not corrosion suitable for coastal
area, while the outer part is aluminum Which has high conductivity. This type of conductor is
chosen because it has the characteristics of high conductivity & low sag conductor.

Fig 14. ACCC Conductor


Excellence of ACCC Conductors:
1. Conductivity:
 ACCC conductors can supply twice as much current as conventional or conventional
Conductor.
• Core / lighter core enables the addition of aluminum area up to 28% without weight gain.
2. Reduce Losses
 Under the same load conditions reduce losses 30 to 40% compared to conductors with the
same diameter and weight
3. Power of Weight
 Hybrid Carbon Composite Core is stronger and lighter than steel core
4. Longer span
 Stronger and stable dimensions allow longer span or lower tower.

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Table 1-1 List of Conductor for ACCC Type

1.7.4.2 Conductor Motion Suppression

Wind-induced conductor motion, aeolian vibration, can damage the conductors. A


variety of devices have been employed to dampen these oscillatory motions. By far, the most
common damper style on 150 kV lines is called the Stockbridge damper. These devices look
like elongated dumbbells hung close to and below the conductors, a few feet away from the
point of attachment of the conductors to the tower. The weighted ends are connected by a short
section of stiff cable, which is supported by a clamp to the conductor immediately above.

23 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
Dampers can prevent the formation of standing waves by absorbing vibrational energy.
Typically, a single damper is located in each span for each conductor.

Fig 14. Conductor Spesification

1.7.5 Insulators

Fig 15. Insulators


Insulation serves to isolate the part that is in tension with the non-voltage part, both
during normal continuous operation and during the surge (including lightning) inside the
transmission line. According to its function, a good insulator must meet the properties of:
24 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1. Electrical characteristics
The insulator has a rated lightning impulse voltage resistance and working voltage,
minimum breakdown voltage according to the working voltage and is an insulating material
flanked by a metal so it is a capacitor. Its capacitance is magnified by pollutants as well as the
air humidity on its surface. If the isolation value decreases as a result of the pollutant or damage
to the insulator, there will be an isolation failure which may eventually lead to interference.
2. Mechanical Characteristics
The insulator shall have a mechanical strength to bear the loading load of the
conductor conductor as well as the heavy load of the insulator and conductor. Insulator design
varies according to tower function. For suspension towers (line of conductors is straight), the
insulator assembly is called a suspension string. For deviation towers (the conductors change
direction), the insulator assembly is called a strain string. For 150-kV lines, the insulator strings
are built up from individual porcelain disks typically 5.75 inches thick and 10 inches in
diameter. The full string is composed of 18 to 28 disks, providing a long path for stray currents
to negotiate to reach ground. At this voltage, two to four insulator strings are commonly used
at each conductor connection point, often in a V pattern to limit lateral sway. The main concept
of any insulator is to breakdown electrical conductivity of high voltage power transmission or
distribution line form transmission or distribution tower.

1.7.5.1 Pin Insulators

Fig 16. Pin Insulator


Pin Insulator is widely use for overhead high voltage power transmission lines and these
types of insulators much popular in 33kv distribution lines. Pin insulators are mainly classified

25 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
in to two according to their manufacture materials. Most of Pin insulators manufactured by use
of Glass and Porcine materials .For higher voltages of transmission line use more numbers of
pin insulators compare to low voltage transmission lines.Pin insulators are also use for higher
and lower voltage transmission and distribution lines in Patrice. The type of pin insulators use
for higher voltage line is normally known as Post type of insulators. Post insulators have several
numbers of petticoats which higher than normal pin insulators which use for low voltage
applications and the height of post insulator are also higher too.

1.7.5.2 Suspension Insulator

Fig 17. Suspension Insulator


Suspension Insulator are the most commonly used insulator types in High-voltage
transmission applications. Suspension Insulator has highereconomical advantage for high
voltage application compare to other insulators. There are so many advantages of Suspension
insulators over other . Normal voltage ratings of suspension insulators are 11kV and by number
of discs can be adjusted for relevant transmission line voltages. For example for 132 kV
transmission line use 132kv/11 kv = normally 13 discs. Suspension Insulator has greater
􀃥exibility over other insulator types. If any insulator disc is damage in Transmission line it is
much easily replace even the Transmission line is energized.The Suspension insulators also
has great capability of taking cares of the tension of the conductor at transmission line compare
to other types of conductors.

26 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.7.5.3 Strain Insulator
Strain Insulator are widely used where the tension load of conductor is higher. The most
important factor of strain insulator is a mechanical strength.Stay Insulators and Shackle
insulators are part of Strain Insulators and these types of insulators widely use where high
mechanical strength is necessary in low voltage applications. These are the main three types of
insulators which use widely for power transmission and distribution lines.

1.7.5.4 Ground Clearance around the conducting wire


Air insulation serves to isolate between the live and non-voltage parts and the
electrically intercepting phase. Failure of air isolation function is caused by breakdown voltage
exceeded (improper distance, change of air resistance, overvoltage), and air clearance (ground
clearance) has minimum clearance that is the shortest distance between SUTT / SUTET carrier
with ground surface, And other activities around it, which must not be shorter than that
specified for the safety of humans and other living creatures as well as the safety of SUTT /
SUTET operations (Regulation of the Minister of Mines and Energy No. 01.P / 47 / MPE /
1992 dated 07 February 1992 , Article 1, verse 9).

27 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
Table 1-3 Safe Distance Standards / ROW

1.8 TRANSMISSION TOWER PROTECTION

Protection SUTT / SUTET is a safety install of lightning, vibration / stress disturbance


mechanically generated by the wind, threats / possible disturbances caused by humans,
Interference from outside (hit by airplane, parachute etc) and also the safety of the broken
conductor vein.

1.8.1 Safety from Lightning Disturbance

SUTT / SUTET is an easy installation which is easy target for lightning strike because
of its high structure and being in an open location. The lightning strike on the SUTT / SUTET
is an injection of the electric charge. This charge injection raises the voltage rise in the SUTT
/ SUTET, resulting in the SUTT / SUTET voltage generating more impulse waveform and

28 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
propagating to the ends of the SUTT / SUTET. More stress due to lightning strikes is often
called lightning surge. If a surge of lightning surge arrives at the GI, then that over voltage will
damage the isolation of GI equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to make a protective device in
order that the surge voltage arriving at the GI does not exceed the strength of the insulating GI
equipment. Components included in the lightning protection function are all components of the
SUTT / SUTET that function in protecting the transmission line from a lightning strike,
consisting of:

1.8.1.1 Wire Ground Steel Wire (GSW) / Optic Ground Wire (OPGW)

GSW / OPGW wire is a medium to protect the phase conductor from lightning strikes.
This wire is mounted on top of the phase conductor with the least possible angle of protection,
assuming lightning strikes from above the conductor. However, if lightning strikes from the
side it can lead to a stranded phase conductor and may result in interference.

Fig 18. GSW Wire


Wire made from galvanized steel, or already coated with aluminum. In SUTET built in
1990s, in ground wire functioned fiber optic for telemetry, teleprotection and
telecommunication, known as OPGW (Optic Ground Wire), so have Some functions. The
number of Wire GSW / OPGW on SUTT or SUTET is at least one above the phase conductor,
but generally two are installed. Installing a single conductor for two conductors will make the
protection angle so large that the phase conductor is easily struck by lightning. In tower tension
type, GSW / OPGW wire installation can use dead end compression and protection rods with
helical dead end. While the suspension tower type is used suspension clamp to hold the GSW
/ OPGW wire.

29 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.8.1.2 GSW Jumper

To keep the GSW and OPGW Wire connection with the tower, at the end of the GSW
/ OPGW Wire travers are installed GSW jumper connected to GSW wire. The connecting wire
is made of GSW wire which is cut to length that is tailored to the needs. GSW jumper on tower
tension type is installed between tower and GSW / OPGW wire as well as between dead end
compression or protection rods with helical dead end wire GSW / OPGW. It is intended that
the lightning disturbance flow can flow directly to the tower or inter-wire GSW / OPGW. While
in the type of tower suspension, Jumper GSW mounted on the tower and connected to the GSW
/ OPGW wire with clamp connecting (parallel group, wire clipe) or with install it on the GSW
/ OPGW clamp wire suspension.

Fig 19. GSW Jumper

1.8.1.3 Arcing Horn

The simplest protective lightning protection tool is arcing horn. Arcing horn works to
cut passive lightning impulse voltage (unable to extinguish follow current by itself). Arcing
horn mounted on SUTT / SUTET ie:

1. Arcing horn conductor side

Fig 20. Arcing horn conductor side

30 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
2. Arcing horn tower side

Fig 21. Arcing horn tower side

1.8.1.4 Transmission Line Arrester (TLA)

Basically the transmission line is well designed so that it is immune to lightning strikes.
Important parameters in tower design are geometry, altitude, shiled wire and grounding tower
level. But in some cases it is impossible to design perfectly, only the optimal solution can be
done. This optimization is based on the cost balance of tolerable designs and outages. Given
the geographic transmission path has a life cycle and customer needs to the higher level of
service. While changing the design of the transmission line is usually expensive, installing a
lightning arrester on a TLA transmission line is an effective solution to improve system
reliability.

Fig 21. Lightning Arrester


Since the towers are tall, well-grounded metallic structures, they are an easy target for
lightning. This puts the conductors, other energized equipment, and even customer equipment
at high risk. To control the effects of lightning, an extra set of wires is generally strung along
the extreme top points of the towers. These wires are attached directly to the towers (no

31 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
insulation), providing a path for the lightning directly to and through the towers to the ground
straps at the base of the towers. The extra wires are called shield wires and are either steel or
aluminum-clad steel with a diameter of approximately ½ inch. A transmission lightning arrester
must be capable of acting as an insulator, draining several millions of leakage current to the
ground at system voltage and transforming into excellent conductor, draining thousands of
amperes of surge current to the ground, having a lower voltage than the voltage withst and
string insulator when there is more voltage , And losing the aftershocks flowing from the
system through TLA (power follow current) after the lightning surge has been successfully
dissipated.

TLA can protect the system from the following events:


1. Back flashover,
The incident where lightning strikes the system grounding parts (such as tower and GSW) but
the lightning current can not be flowed to the ground due to the local grounding impact of the
flood that is not working properly.
2. Flash over
An event where the GSW protection is not maximal so that lightning strikes directly on the
conductor.

Fig 22. TLA


The main component of TLA
1. Clamp
The device is attached to the conductor conductor to the TLA which serves to hold the
conductor. In conductor conductor types having more surface aluminum compositions such as
ACCC, the conductor must be coated with armor rod to reduce material fatigue.

32 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
2. Corona ring
The role of the corona ring is to distribute the gradient of the electric field and lower the
maximum value below the corona threshold, preventing corona discharge.
3. Housing Insulator
Is a tube made of aluminum coated insulators. This tube is the space for TLA-forming metal
oxide material. Usually the coating insulator used is a type of siikon, because it has a light
weight.
4. Disconnector
Is a device attached to a non-voltage side TLA that is routed to the grounding conductor.
Disconnector will work decide, if TLA condition is damaged.
5. Grounding
Is a conductor attached to a TLA whose function is to forward lightning current and leakage
current to the ground.
6. Arrester Coondition Monitoring (ACM)
Is a measuring instrument to know the data leakage current and lightning data passing through
the TLA. To know the lightning data and TLA data is required to download the data flow of
lightning (Leakage Current) and leakage current (Leakage Current).

1.8.1.5 Liaison Conductor

On SUTT / SUTET poles located in high lightning areas are usually installed Conductor
connectors. Materials used for connecting conductors generally same as the GSW / OPGW
wire. These connecting conductors act as running medium of lightning surge with a lower
inductance value than Inductance tower for lightning current that grabbed GSW / OPGW wire
and tower SUTT / SUTET can be directly channeled to the ground.

Fig 23. Connector, GSW / OPGW wire to ground

33 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
The top end of the conductor is connected directly to the GSW / OPGW wire Using a
connection clamp or connected to a lightning trap rod Mounted on the tower. While the bottom
end is connected with Earthing tower. With the installation of the connecting conductor is not
expected to occur A reverse current whose value is greater than the actual lightning strike
current, So that interference with transmission can be reduced.

1.8.1.6 Grounding Rods

The grounding Rod is a grounding equipment for the transmission system that works
for continue the electric current from the SUTT tower or SUTET to the ground and avoid
occurrence of back flashover on the insulator when the grounding system hit by lightning
strikes. The tower housing consists of a copper conductor or steel conductor clamped on A
grounding pipe planted near a pile foundation, or by planting a plate Aluminum / copper around
the foundation tower that serves to drain the current from Ground conductor due to lightning
strikes.

Fig 24. Ground tower


The types of grounding tower on SUTT / SUTET:
1. Electrode bar, which is a metal rail that is planted in the ground.
This grounding is the simplest and most effective, where the value of ground resistance is low.
2. Electrode plate, which is a metal plate grown in the ground in a manner
Horizontal or vertical. Grounding is generally for security against lightning.
3. Counter poise electrode, which is a conductor that is deployed on a regular basis
Horizontal in the ground. This grounding is created on the area of value high ground resistance
or to improve the value of earth prisoners.

34 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
4. Mesh electrode, ie a number of conductors that are horizontally deployed in land that is
generally suitable for slope areas.

Components of the grounding tower:


1. Conductor earth, made of materials that konduktifnya great.
2. Ground clamp or cable shoe.
3. Grounding Rods.
4. Clamp of earth conductor connection.

1.8.2 Safety from Mechanical Vibration / Stress Generated by Wind

1.8.2.1 Spacer
This component serves as a separator / perentangam and simultaneously as a silencer vibration
in the conductor and also keep the conductor on one phase bundle move in tune.

Fig 25. (a) Spacer 4 conductor, (b) Spacer 2 conductor


1.8.2.2 Armor Rod
This component serves to protect the aluminum conductor from mechanical stress point
junction with insulator on tower suspension. Armor rod is a wire that is placed on the conductor
as a coating before installing Suspensio Clamp and damper to reduce fatigue on the conductor
due to the vibration on the conductor, but each armor rod has a different size, armor rod for the
damper has a smaller size than the armor Suspension clamp rod on.

Fig 26. Armor Rod

35 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.8.2.3 Counter weight
This component serves to keep the conductor jumper to be stable positioned so as not to come
in contact with the tower when blown or a shock.

Fig 27. Counter Weight


1.8.2.4 Vibration Damper
This component serves as a vibration damper at the point of termination between the conductor
and the insulator.

Fig 28. Vibration Damper


1.8.3 Security from Threat / Possibility of Human Disorders

1.8.3.1 ACD (Anti Climbing Device) / Climbing Challenge


This component serves to prevent / inhibit unauthenticated humans to climb towers.
Climbing barriers are made spiky, spaced 10 cm in length with others and mounted on each
foot of the tower below Signs of danger.

Fig 29. ACD (Anti Climbing Device) / climbing barrier

36 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.8.3.2 Hazard Ranger Plate
This component serves to provide an alarm warning of high voltage / extra high
voltage

Fig 30. Hazard signs plate


1.8.4 Safety from Possible External Disorders (Aircraft, Skydiving)

1.8.4.1 Ball Signs


This component serves to signal the pilot of the aircraft and the ship's vessel about
the existence of the SUTT / SUTET transmission line. Ball beacons installed on GSW / OPGW
wire.

Fig 31. Ball signs

37 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
1.8.4.2 Aviation Lamp
Is a warning sign in the form of lights against air traffic, serves to signal to aircraft
pilots that there is a conductor transmission line. The type of flight light is as follows:

A. Flight light mounted on tower with supply from low voltage network

Fig 32. Tower flight lights


B. The flight light attached to the conductor shall be attached by the induction system of the
conductor conductor.

1.9 ADDITIONAL ACCESORIES

1.9.1 Tension Clamp


Tension Clamp is a tool to hold the ends of wires, serves to hold the pull wire in tension tower.
Tension Clamp mounting should really be considered so wires can not be separated.
1.9.2 Suspension Clamp
Suspension Clamp is a device mounted on the ends hanging on the tower suspension insulator
holding the wires profit. Design Clamp on slightly different ACCC conductor, clamp used on
the ACCC coated with rubber to protect aluminum, this is because the aluminum used is a type
of Annealed (softened).

Fig 33. Suspension Clam

38 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line
REFERENCES

[1] Anonym. Electrical Transmission Tower Types and Design. https://


www.electrical4u.com/electrical-transmission-tower-types-and-design/, 15 April 2017
[2] Anonym. 2011. Transmission Tower Types. http://www.skmeleksys.com/2011/02/
transmission-tower-types.html, 15 April 2017
[3] Anonym. 2017. High Voltage Transmission Tower Types In Power Industry.
http://www.electricalpowerenergy.com/2017/02/28/high-voltage-transmission-tower-types-
in-power-industry/, 15 April 2017
[4] Blanco, Ivan. dkk. 2010. Construction of Transmission and Distibution Lines.
Madrid : IMIA Conference
[5] Castro, D.Robert. 1995. Overview of the transmission line design process. Los
Angeles: Los Angeles Departemen of Water and Power

[6] Hage. 2009. Tower Listrik. http://dunialistrik.blogspot.co.id/2009/01/menara-


listrik-tower-listrik.html, 15 April 2017
[7] Mohan, K. Jogan and C. Preeti. 2013. Analysis of Transmission Towers with
Different Configurations. India : Bharat Institute of Engineering and Technology
[8] Molburg, J.C. dkk. 2007. The Design, Constructionn, and Operation of Long
Distance HV Electricity Transmission Technologies. United State : Argonne National
Laboratory
[9] Rajashekar, K dkk. 2013. Analysis And Design Of 220kv Transmission Line Tower
In Different Zones I & V With Different Base Widths – A Comparative Study. Delhi : Andhra
University

39 |150 kV Tower Equipment and Accesories For Suspension Type With 2 Circuit Line