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Unit  5

Grammar Chart
Tags questions come at the end of sentences. They are frequently used in spoken English to either check or ask for
Negative tag questions: Tag questions are negative when the sentences She’s happy, isn’t she?
they refer to are positive. John works from home, doesn’t he?
Positive tag questions Tag questions are positive when the sentences they Pete is not in the city, is he?
refer to are negative. Clara doesn’t study French, does she?
Auxiliary Verbs: If there is an auxiliary verb (have - be) in the sentence, then We have spent all our money, haven’t we?
the tag question uses the same auxiliary verb. This isn’t working, is it?
We should go, shouldn’t we?
With Modal Verbs: If the sentence has a modal verb, the tag question uses
The baby won’t cry, will he?
the same modal verb.
You could help me, couldn’t you?
Exception - I am: If the sentence starts with I am, the tag question is, aren’t I? I’m the winner, aren’t I?
Intonation: Use rising intonation when asking for information.
Use falling intonation when checking for information or looking for agreement.

It is also known as Indirect Speech. Use it to report or rephrase what someone has said.
Direct Reported
Direct Speech (original statement) Reported Speech
Speech Speech
Simple Simple Tim: “I go rock climbing every
Tim said that he went rock climbing every weekend.
Present Past weekend.”
Simple Past Susie: “Jason loved kayaking when he Susie said that Jason had loved kayaking when he
Past Perfect was younger.” was younger.
Present Past
Julie: “They are eating dinner.” Julie said that they were eating dinner.
Continuous Continuous
Future Hudson family: “We will go surfing The Hudson family said that they would go surfing
(will) while on vacation.” while on vacation.
Note 1: If reporting a general truth, the present tense can be retained. E.g. The teacher said that Bogota has cold weather.
2: With reported speech, the word that is optional after said.

Time Expressions Direct Speech Reported Speech

Change time expressions when referring to the present, past or future in now then
order to match the moment of speaking.
tomorrow the next day
• Direct Speech: Tim: “I want to go home now.”
Reported Speech: Tim said he wanted to go home then. yesterday the day before
• Direct Speech: Sally: “We were in India last year.” this (week) that (week)
Reported Speech: Sally said that they had been in India the year before. last (year) the (year) before

Pronouns: Change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Paul: “I want to take my girlfriend hiking.” Paul said he wanted to take his girlfriend hiking.
Betty: “I am cooking for your parents.” Betty said that she was cooking for my parents.
Unit  6

Grammar Chart
The first conditional is used to talk about situations which are realistically possible in the present or the future — things
which may happen.
If clause Result clause
Verb Verb
If + subject Complement Subject Will Complement
(Simple Present) (base form)
If John studies harder, he will succeed at school.
(I know John very well and I know that he can be very disciplined. So I think it is very probable that sooner or later he will
get good grades.)

The second conditional is used to talk about ideal conditions (imagined or impossible) in the present or the future.
Conditions which are unlikely to happen.
If clause Result clause
Verb Would/Could/ Verb
If + subject Complement Subject Complement
(Simple Past) Might (base form)
If Pete had time, he would study something else.
(I know Pete very well and I know that he is a very busy person. He would like to study, but he doesn’t have enough time to do it.)

The third conditional is used to talk about unreal situations or conditions which are impossible to fulfill because they
occurred in the past. We can just imagine what would have happened if the situation had been different. It is often used to
express criticism or regret.
If clause Result clause
Verb Would/Could/ Verb
If + subject Complement Subject Complement
(Past Perfect) Might (Present Perfect)
If Sally had won the lottery, she would have traveled to Europe.
(Sally didn’t win the lottery. I know she hasn’t been to Europe, but she wants to.)
a. When the Result clause comes before the “If clause” no comma is used.
John will succeed at school if he studies harder.
b. For the second conditional the word “would” can be changed for other modal verbs like could or might.
If John had the money, he could fly around the world.
c. When using the verb to be with the second conditional, were is used for all pronouns.
If I were John I would travel to Europe.
d. When making negative sentences, either a clause or both clauses can be negative.
If John has the money, he won’t buy a car.
If John hadn’t had the money, he wouldn’t have bought a car.

Use wish to talk about things and situations you want to be true in the present, but they are not.
Wish Clause
Subject Verb (wish) Subject Verb (Simple Past) Complement
Sally wishes she were older.
(Sally is currently only 14 years old, but she wants to be older.)
• When using the verb to be, were is used for all pronouns.