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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE BUILDING AND DESIGN 
BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE 
 
BUILDING SCIENCE II  
(ARC 3413 / BLD61303) 
 
 
ASSIGNMENT 1 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AUDITORIUM : A CASE STUDY ON ACOUSTIC DESIGN 
PERMATA PINTAR, UNIVERSITY KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA  
 
 
 
 
0320498  Choo Zi Zhao 

0325069  Harashadeep Kaur 

0319894  Hirendran  

0325736  Muhammad Ashroff b Abd Wahab 

0320213  Mohamad Anwar Bin Fauzi  

0321409  Mohammad Daniel Mazlan 

0318625  Syed Aswad 

0324705  Teo Chia Yee 


 
 
 
 
Contents 
 
1. Introduction 
1.1 Aim / Objective 
1.2 Site Introduction 
1.3 Drawings 
 
2. Acoustical Phenomena 
2.1 Acoustic in Architecture 
2.2 Sound Intensity Level 
2.3 Deverbration  
2.4 Acoustic of Design  
2.5 Gallery Design  
 
3. Methodology  
 
4. Acoustical Analysis 
4.1 Auditorium Design Analysis 
4.2 Acoustic Treatment 
4.2.1 Wall Panel 
  4.2.2 Flooring & Steps 
4.3.2.1 House 
4.2.3 Curtain 
4.2.4 Seating 
4.2.5 Ceiling 
 
4.3 Materials 
4.3.1 List of Materials and Coefficients 
4.3.2 Sound Absorption Calculations 
 
4.4 Sound and Noise Sources 
4.4.1 External Noises ( Door , Machine, weather ) 
4.4.2 Internal Noises ( Air conditioner , lighting , speaker , projector ) 
4.5 Sound Propagation  
4.5.1 Sound Concentration 
4.5.2 Sound Deflections 
4.5.3 Echoes and Sound Delay 
4.5.4 Reverberation 
4.5.5 Acoustical Deflects 
4.5.6 Sound Shadow  
 
5. Observation 
 
 
 
1 Introduction 
 
PERMATApintar  Auditorium  is  located  on  20.15  acres  in  Universiti  Kebangsaan  Malaysia  campus  in  Bangi, 
Selangor.  As  part  of  the  PERMATApintar  education  programme,  the  school  provides  gifted  Malaysian  students 
with  a  focused  and  holistic  learning  environment. The design concept initiates a strong yet simple form , where 
structural  shape  is  organically  derived  through  the  abstraction  of  the  site’s  natural  valley  and  surrounding 
forest.  The  sloping  nature  of  the  site  directs  the  seamless  integration  of  the  buildings  formation  to  the  land, 
enhancing the campus by anchoring the new auditorium as a primary gateway. 
 
Made  up  of  3  connecting  levels,  the auditorium building is comprised of a lobby, auditorium hall, stage and back 
house  facility.  The  main  feature  is  the  600  -  person  capacity  auditorium  hall,  primarily  catering  to  lectures, 
convocations,  and  the  school’s  musical  theatre  programmes. The back house will serve as a dressing room and 
rehearsal  area,  with  VIP  seating  located  at  the  second  tier.  The  extended  auditorium  foyer  generates  a  new 
public  space,  linking  the  plaza  with  visible  meeting  points.  Natural  and  earth  coloured  materials  are  used  to 
accentuate  the  organic  composition  of  the  auditorium  -  where  a  seamless  aluminium  cladding  scales  the 
facade, inspiring a rhythmic dual tone skin.  

 
 
 
1.1 Aim 
 
Taking  everything  we  learnt  from  the  lectures  into practicality was very important for each of us. It is one thing 
to  be  introduced  to  the  theory  and  nomenclature  in  a  lecture  hall  with  slides,  no  matter  how useful - yet quite 
another  to  conduct  a  field  visit.  There  we  were  fortunate  enough  to  retrieve  architectural  and  construction 
drawings  which  include  plans,  sections  and  schedules  from  the  relevant  authorities.  These  were  necessary  in 
order  to  make  certain  calculations  as  well  as  determine  how  sound  would  react  through  the  geometry  of  the 
space.  
 
We  were  assigned  to  take  down  all  relevant  observations  regarding  sound including noise, systems, materials, 
and  so  on.With  the  use  of  a  sound  meter,  we  also  managed  to  record  the  sound  levels in a more tangible way. 
From there we needed to make calculations to find reverberation times. 
 
All  of  this  is  eventually  going  to help us conclude our opinions on the effectiveness of this particular auditorium 
as a multipurpose lecture hall. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.3 Drawings 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
1.4 Methodology 
 
1.4.1 Equipment

 
Digital Sound Level Meter 
 
A  digital  sound  level  meter,  a  measuring  instrument  was  used  to  assess  noise  or  sound  levels  by  measuring sound 
pressure  at  particular  points  within  the  auditorium.  The  sound  is  then  evaluated  within  the  device  and  acoustic 
measurement values are displayed. Most common unit of acoustic measurement for sound is the decibel (dB)  
 
Measuring Devices 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Measuring Tape Digital Laser Distance Meter 
 
These devices were used to obtain measurements of the auditorium for drawing and calculation purposes 
 
 
Digital Camera 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A  digital  camera  was  used  to  capture  and  document  visuals of the auditorium which we later used as evidence 
for analysis purposes.  
 
 
 
 
 
3.1 Shape

The shape of the auditorium takes on a fan shape, and gradually grows outwards from the stage
toward the audience. Sound waves from the source travel along the direction of the walls and
reflect uniformly throughout the hall. This configuration allows for sound to be distributed evenly
along the frontal areas of the hall, however causing the back of the hall to experience some
echoing as sound is reflected off the walls. This can be countered by applying materials to
prevent the occurrence of undesirable acoustical defects.

Figure 3.1.1 Parallel auditorium walls create flutter echoes

Figure 3.1.2 Elimination of flutter echoes through splayed walls whilst helping to reflect sound
3.2 Arrangement of seats

The seats within the auditorium are arranged in a fan shaped configuration, to ensure a
maximum number of seats are fitted and to obtain an optimum view of the stage area from
every seat.,
It is tested that by including a 140 degree sound proJection angle from the centre of the sound
source on the stage. Should all seat fall within the angle of the sound projection area, the
seating arrangement is well configured and deemed effective

Figure 3.2.1 Arrangement of seating falls within 140 degree angle from centre of sound source
from centre stage, optimal for speech auditoriums.
3.3 Distance of Sound Travel

Short delayed sound reflections from reflective surfaces that arrive at a listener’s position should
have a path difference of not more than about 9 to 10.5m to direct sound. (correspond to time
delay gap of about 30 m/s) Unamplified speech from source to listener has a range of about 9 to
15m beyond which speech intelligibility is poor. Total distance from the stage to the back of the
auditorium is 23.5 metres, requiring for the hall to be equipped with speakers.

Figure 3.3.1 Sound waves (unamplified) have a maximum travel range of 9-15m before
becoming unintelligible

Figure 3.3.2 Addition of balcony allows for reduction of distance between stage and audience,
allowing audience to be closer to sound source
3.3 Sound Shadowing

Portion of the hall beneath the balcony experiences “sound shadowing”, a phenomenon in
which reflected sound from the ceiling is blocked by the balcony due to the depth of the
overhanging balcony.

Figure 3.3.1 Depth of overhanging balcony

Figure 3.3.2 Sound waves reflected off ceiling obstructed by balcony


3.4 Height Of Ceiling

The raked ceiling maintains a consistent height between the ceiling and the floor, allowing for
sound waves to be reflected more uniformly throughout the auditorium.

Diagrams 3.3.3 Comparison between the flat ceiling and tlited ceiling
3.5 Levelling of stage and seating

In a flat setting where the sound source ( the speaker ) in an auditorium is levelled with the
audience on the ground, issues with hearing and visibility are bound to occur.

Figure 3.5.1 Level sound source and seating


At level with each other, the speaker would be difficult to hear as sound travels further away
from the stage towards the audience in the back. This is due to sound waves losing momentum
and dissipating after passing through layers of audience.
Figure 3.5.2 Elevated stage.
An elevated sound source allows for sound to travel through the hall unobstructed by seating.

Figure 3.5.3 Elevated seating​.


Raked seating arrangement increases the ability of the audience in the furthest parts of the hall
from the stage to still hear clearly the sound from the stage, as well as allowing for unobstructed
visibility of the stage from all parts of the hall.
3.6 Angle Of Ceiling panels

The angle of the ceiling panels allows for greater efficiency in the ceilings ability to usefully
reflect sound to the required parts of the hall. As in Permata Pintar’s auditorium, the flat ceiling
panels allow for a 70% efficiency in reflecting sound back to the audience. However, beyond the
efficient ceiling panels, the ceiling should use a concave shape to concentrate sound back to
the audience and preventing undesirable echoing.

Figure 3.6.1 Ceiling panels following angle of tilted ceiling reflect sound waves further than
necessary

Figure 3.6.2 Ceiling panels are oriented at horizontally flat angle to direct reflected sound
waves toward audience
 
4.3 Acoustic Treatment 
 
4.3.1 Wall Panel  
 
As  seen  in  the  diagram,  the  thickest  grade  (​CMU  4  ​as  highlighted  in  orange)  of  masonry  block  is  utilized 
throughout  the  internal  wall.  This  is  useful as the slightly rough surface of these blocks is able to absorb larger 
frequency  noises  more  effectively.  The  use of CMU 4 blocks covers both the seating for the audience as well as 
the walls surrounding the stage 
 

 
Diagram 4.3.1.A The types of wall surfaces throughout auditorium 
 
  Notation  Grade 

  CMU1  90mm Concrete Masonry Unit Block 

  CMU2  114mm Concrete Masonry Unit Block 

  CMU3  140mm Concrete Masonry Unit Block 

  CMU4  140mm ​Rockface​ Concrete Masonry Unit Block 


Table 4.3.1 Types of wall materials used externally and internally 
 
 
 

The  higher  the  annotation-number,  the  higher  the  width  (thickness)  of  the  masonry  blocks.  These  are  also 
commonly  known  as  cinder  blocks.  Throughout  the  parallel  halls  of  the  auditorium,  double  layering  of  masonry 
units are used. There is an air cavity separating them.  

On top : CMU(s) as seen inside auditorium followed by Right : Backstage 


Bottom : CMU(s) as seen outside auditorium Left : Side elevation and Right : Back elevation 
 
   

The  panels are a block-system of modular hollow ​concrete masonry units of similar composition. Within many of 
these blocks is a visible cavity 

Typically,  concrete  does  not  make  an  effective  sound  absorber​.  However,  ​porous  concrete  ​surfaces  with 
interconnected  pores  work  well  for  sound  absorption.  At  the  porous  surface,  the  energy  of  sound  is  converted 
into  heat.  Porous  concrete  absorbs  sound but has poor sound insulation. According to research, this may cause 
sounds to be heard from outside. In our experience, very little was heard. 
 
Therefore,  painting  or  plastering  porous  concrete  reduces  sound  absorption  and  increases  its  sound insulating 
characteristics.  This  is  why  the  concrete is not painted on in the actual hall, making it ideal for a multi-purpose 
auditorium.  This  is  the  case  backstage.  The  more  the  concrete  weighs,  or  the  denser  the  concrete,  the  more 
sound insulation (the greater sound transmission loss) rating. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.3.2 Floor Panel   
 
a) Stage 
 

 
Figure 4.3.2(a) Ground floor plan  
Highlighted area : Flooring of stage and backstage 
 

 
From the left : Figure 4.3.2(b) Photo of front stage ; Figure 4.3.2(c) photo of back stage 
   
  ​Laminate timber flooring is used for the stage and backstage of the auditorium. It is an unreal timber but 
it  is  more  economical  than  other  real  timber  flooring.  Laminate  timber  flooring  is  durable  as  it  resists  to 
scratches, stains and fade. Activities or performances on stage might require music instrument and other heavy 
equipments  for  the  shows.  Hence, it is suitable to use as a stage flooring in order to keep good appearance and 
quality  of  the  floor.  However,  the  acoustic  design  of  the  flooring  is  less  satisfying  due  to  the  loud  and  hollow 
sound  created  by  laminate  timber  floors.  The  level  of  noises  caused  is  different  depending  by  various  shoes 
types. 
 
 
 
   
b) Audience’s areas 
 
 

 
Figure 4.3.2(d) Ground floor plan  
Highlighted area : Flooring of audience’s area 
 
 
 

 
Figure 4.3.2(e) First Floor Plan 
Highlighted area : Flooring of audience’s area (Balcony) 
 
 
   
 
From the left : Figure 4.3.2.(f) Flooring in auditorium followed by Right : Figure 4.3.2.(g) steps 
 
    Flooring and steps finishes in the audience’s region are saxony carpet tiles​. ​Saxony carpet ​tiles is good 
in  sound  absorption  and  has  thick  padding  under  it  to  deflect  sound.  It  is  smooth  on  the  surface  while  its 
texture  is  densely  packed  with  fibre.  Thick  padding  usually  installed  underneath  the  carpet  to  deflect  sound. 
Nevertheless,  there  are  disadvantages  of  using  carpet  flooring.  It  is  less  durable  and  hygienic  as  allergen and 
dusts  get  trapped in it easily. The appearance of footprints and vacuum cleaner marks are also the weakness of 
saxony carpet.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.3.3 Curtains 
These  curtains  are  places  strategically  above  the  stage  to  mask  any  potentially  visible  exposed 
machinery  /  systems  from  the  audience  sitting  below.These  weigh  heavily  to  maintain  drapery  and  prevent 
movement.  The  top  masking  curtains  are  designed  to  keep  most  of the machinery (light and ventilation) out of 
view of the audience, as demonstrated in the diagram at the bottom of the page 
 
 

 
 
 
 
4.3.4 Seating 
 
In  the  case  of  the  seating  in  our  assigned  auditorium,  no  special  considerations  seemed  to  have  taken  place 
with  regards  to  seat  choice  and  acoustics.  The  seats are economical, and serve their basic function of seating 
more than 600 users comfortably. The fabric seems thin. 
Therefore it can be concluded that the sound inside the auditorium will be depend on the occupancy at the time.  
 
The  seats  also  made  considerably  noise  upon  unfolding  the  attached  table.  These  creaking  noises  of  the  seat 
frame may be mildly distracting. Also, when sat on, a considerable thud is heard. 

 
 
 
 
4.3.5 Ceiling 
 
Plaster  ceiling  has  been  used  throughout  the  hall.  Especially  in  the  region  above  the  ground-floor-seating,  the 
plaster  panelling  is  used  to  shield  audience  from  the  view  of  various  service-components  like  air-conditioning 
and electrical conduits.  
 
  Notation   

  CLP-1  Preformed plasterboard 

  CL-8  Fibrous Plasterboard 

 
 
 
4.3 Materials  
4.3.1 Material Coefficient  
 
The  majority  range  of  hearing  frequency  for  human  speech  is  300Hz  to  3000Hz,  thus  the  sound  frequencies 
chosen for each absorption coefficient of materials are 125Hz, 500Hz and 2000Hz. 
 
 
Components   Materials  Descriptions  Absorption Coefficient (Hz) 

125  500  2000 

Wall  Rockface Concrete  140mm thick wall with  0.02  0.03  0.04 
  Masonry Unit Block  block-system of 
modular hollow.  
 

Ceiling  Preformed  In total of nine 90  0.20  0.10  0.04 


  Plasterboard Ceiling  degrees L shaped 
preformed 
plasterboards.  

Flooring  Saxony Carpet Tiles  16 oz carpet tiles with  0.02  0.08  0.35 
  300mm length and 300 
width. 

 
 
 
Doors  Hollow Metal Doors  Double entry door in  0.35  0.44  0.54 
  ironmongery schedule. 

Seatings  Fabric Chairs  Thin fabric covering of  0.13  0.59  0.61 
  chairs attached with 
foldable table. 

Steps  Saxony Carpet Tiles  16  oz  carpet  tiles  with  0.02  0.08  0.35 
  300mm  length  and  300 
width  on  steps  of 
300mm  tread  and 
150mm riser. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Railing   Glass Railings  Steel handrail are  0.10  0.04  0.02 
  attached beside the  
glass railings. 

 
 
 

Control Room   Glass Windows  Glass with 4mm thick  0.15  0.03  0.02 
  panels. 

 
 
 

Flooring on Stage  Timber Floor  Laminated timber  0.02  0.05  0.10 


  flooring. 

 
 
Curtains  Cotton Curtains  200kg of front masking  0.03  0.13  0.49 
curtain ; front centre 
masking curtain and 
mechanism for 400kg. 

 
 

Windows  Louvered glass  -  0.10  0.04  0.03 


  windows 

 
 
 
Figure 4.3.1 Tables of materials and sound absorption coefficient 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.3.2 Sound Absorption Calculations 
Sound  absorption  coefficient  of  each  material  is  based  on  the  ​500  Hz  ​of  sound  coefficient  from  ​figure  4.3.1 
table for following calculations: 
 
Walls 
Surface area 
= (374.16​m2​ ​x 2) + (37.74m x 12.92m) + (125.86m​2 ​x 2) + 411.86m​2 ​+ 128.94m​2 ​x2) 
= 748.32m​2 ​+ 487.6m​2 ​+ 251.7m​2 ​+ 411.86m​2 ​+ 257.88m​2   
= 2157.36m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= S x 𝛼𝑠  
= 2157.36m​2 ​x 0.03 
= 64.72 m​2 ​sabins 
 
Ceiling 
Surface area 
  =  (132.42m​2  ​+164.38m​2  ​+159.98m​2  ​+157.35m​2  ​+154.74m​2  ​+148.39m​2  ​+144.55m​2  ​+140.64m​2  ​+158.85m​2 
+195.43m​2 ​) 
= 1556.73m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= 1556.73m​2 ​ x 0.01  
= 155.67m​2 ​sabin 
 
 
 
 
Flooring 
Surface area 
= (Ground Floor 1059.7m​2 ​) + (Balcony 192.03m​2 ​) 
= 1251.73m​2   
 

Absorption of surface 
= 1251.73m​2 ​x 0.08 
= 100.14m​2 ​sabins 
 
Doors 
Surface area 
= (77.4m​2 ​x 2) + (38.74m​2 ​ x 2) 
= 154.94m​2 ​+ 77.47m​2   
= 232.41m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= 232.41m​2 ​x 0.44 
= 102.26m​2 ​sabins 
 
Railings 
Surface area 
= (23.12m​2 ​x 2) + (1.55m x 19.6m) 
= 46.24m​2 ​+ 30.38m​2   
= 76.62m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= 76.62 x 0.04 
= 3.07m​2 ​sabins 
 
Seatings 
Surface area 
= (0.66m x 0.66m) + (0.75m x 0.66m) 
= 0.44m​2 ​+ 0.50m​2   
= 0.94m​2   
 

Absorption of surface 
= 0.9306m​2 ​x 0.59 
= 0.549m​2 ​sabins 
 
* Total no. of seatings in auditorium = 627 seats 
 
Total seating absorption coefficient  
= 627 x 0.549m​2 ​sabins 
= 344.22 m​2 ​sabins 
 
Stage Flooring 
Surface area  
= 28.09m​2  
 
Absorption of surface 
= 28.09m​2 ​x 0.05 
= 1.41m​2 ​sabin 
 
Control Room - Exterior Walls  
Surface area 
= 86.09m​2 ​+ 46.84m​2   
= 132.93m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= 132.93m​2 ​x 0.03 
= 3.99m​2 ​sabins 
 
Control Room - Windows 
Surface area 
= 3.60m​2 ​x 5 
= 18m​2   
 
Absorption of surface 
= 18m​2 ​x 0.03 
= 0.54m​2 ​sabins 
 
Total sound absorption coefficient  
  =  ​64.72  m​2  ​sabins  +  155.67m​2  ​sabin  +  100.14m​2  ​sabins  +  102.26m​2  ​sabins  +  3.07m​2  ​sabins + 344.22 m​2 
sabins + 3.99m​2 ​sabins + 0.54m​2 ​sabins + 1.41 m​2 ​sabin 
= ​776.02m​2 ​sabins 
 
   
4.4 External and Internal Noises 

 
Diagram shows the three major poor planning sectors 
 
4.4.1 External Noises 
Outside  the  hall,  there  are  a  number  of noises that can disrupt the hall. Due to the louvred windows situated at 
the  ceiling of the hall, sounds from the external surroundings can be heard at higher dBs than needed, especially 
the  drizzling  of  raindrops. As the bottom of the doors are not sealed with blockers, conversations and footsteps 
from outside the hall can infiltrate the space. 
 
4.4.1.1 Doors 
 
There  are  no  transition  corridors  between  the  auditorium  and  the  foyer,  so  should  there  be  activity  happening 
around  the  foyer,  the  disturbance  can  clearly  be  heard  inside.  This  is  because  the doors were installed with no 
seals. 
 
4.4.1.2 Louvered windows 

 
Louvered  windows  are  situated  on  the  ceiling  of  the  auditorium,  directly  above  the  stage.  Because of this, any 
noise can be heard throughout the auditorium, whether it be rain, airplanes’ engines, or even birds chirping. 
 
4.4.2 Internal Noises 
 
There are more undesired internal noises that disturb the efficiency of the hall. The lights and the air conditioner 
produces  a  faint  humming  sound  when  turned  on,  and  the  speakers  make unneeded echoes whenever sound is 
played  through  them.  'Clacking'  sounds  can  be  heard  from  the  chairs  whenever  they  are  used.The  cheap fabric 
used on the chairs is a bad sound absorber. It does not act as a real human if there is no one sitting on it.  
  

 
 
 
● Air conditioner 
Produces decent amount of noise that will bother the acoustic feel of the auditorium. 
 
● Lights 

 
Produces some slight noise deflection. 
 
● 3 angled sound speakers 
 
Projecting  at  every  angle  in  the  auditorium,  the  speakers  direct  sound without a proper direction,two speakers 
are  attached  to  the  wall,  two  at  the  edge  of  the  stage,  as  well  as  a  hollow  space  under  the  stage  for  the 
subwoofers.This  indicates  of  poor  planning  and  lack  of  consideration  of  the  speakers  placement  that  causes 
noise deflection.  
 
Control room glass panels 

 
Glass  panels  can  be  seen  at  the  top seating level of the auditorium which act as the railing of the top level and 
the  control  room’s  barrier  from  the  auditorium,  the  window  can't  be  opened  whatsoever,(it  merely  acts  as  a 
viewpoint  from  the  control  room)due  to  that  action,  the  sound  reduction  index  rises.  As  mentioned  that  the 
glass can’t be opened, the sound will reduce and flutter as it hits the glass  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.5 Sound Propagation 
 
4.5.1 Sound Concentration 
 
 

SIL measurement of the auditorium when the lights was switched on.

SIL measurement of the auditorium when the lights and Air-Conditioner was switched on.
SIL measurement of the auditorium when the lights, Air-Conditioner and Speakers was
switched on.
 
In conclusion, throughout the three conditions of the auditorium, the point in which sound is the most 
concentrated is at the seatings beneath the cantilevered platform. This could possibly be due to the short 
distance between floor and ceiling in said area providing a higher amount of reflection, resulting in an increase 
of decibels. 
 
 
 
4.5.2 Sound Reflections 
 
It is essential for the sound to be reflected back towards the audience to ensure the sound are more effective. 
At the same time, the amount of sound reflected should also be considered with the added design of these 
reflections in order to reduce the presence of echoes. To reduce the resultant reflected sound, the surface of 
the auditorium must be concealed with an absorbent materials even so the ceiling reflectors function to reflect 
sound effectively back to the audience and the choice of materials and combination use of excessive reflection 
surface of the auditorium have shown the possibilities to make a fluent and lively soundscape. 
 
 
 
Diagram shows the sound propagation towards row 5, 11, and 18. 
 
4.5.3 Echoes and Sound Delay 
 
Sound  delay  refers  to  the  difference  in  travel  time  between  the  direct  sound  and  reflected  sound  to a specific 
point.  If  the  time  delay  between  both  paths  of  sound  is  relatively  brief,  the  reflected  sound  will  reinforce  that 
which  travels  directly  from  the  source.  However,  should  the time delay be too long, the reflected sound will not 
merge  with  the  direct  sound,  thus  affecting  the  overall  sound  quality.  This  acoustical  defect is called an echo, 
and the minimum time delay to consider a sound as such varies – 40ms for speech, and 100ms for music 
 
 
   
 

.   
 
 
   
Time Delay = ​( R1 + R2 ) - d 
0.34   
=​ ( 4.6 + 2.8 ) - 5 
0.34   
= 7.06 ms .     
   
7.06ms sound delay is acceptable for a speech-oriented auditorium 
   
 
 

 
Time Delay = ​( R1 + R2 ) - d 
0.34   
=​ ( 4.2+ 5.5) - 8.3 
0.34   
= 4.2ms .     
   
4.02ms sound delay is acceptable for a speech-oriented auditorium 
 
 
 
   
Time Delay = ​( R1 + R2 ) - d 
0.34   
=​ ( 6.5 + 4.1) - 10.2 
0.34   
=1.18 ms .     
 
1.18ms sound delay is incredibly short, even for a speech oriented-auditorium 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.5.4 Reverberation 
 
Reverberation  is  defined  as  the  persistence  of  sound  after  a  sound  is  produced.  It  is  primarily  caused  by  the 
successions  of  reflections  off  the  surfaces  in  the  room,  which  will  result  in  the  prolonged  period  of  audibility 
after  the  source  of  sound  has  ceased.  Reverberation  time  plays  a  major  part  in  affecting  the quality of speech 
and  music  within  a  given  space - it can either create a live space, in which sound continues to reflect for a long 
period  of  time,  or  a  dead  space,  in  which  sound  cannot  be  sustained.  Reverberation  time  differs  for  different 
types of sound - what is optimal for speech-oriented activity produces disastrous results for music. 
 
Rt = 0.16V/A , whereby 
V= volume of the room (m3), 
A= total absorption of room surfaces 
 
Since, 
V = 5753.6m3 
A= 776.02m2 sabins 
then, 
0.16( 5753.6)/ 776.02 
=1.18s  
 
Since  the  recommended  reverberation  time  for  large  rooms  (>7500m3)  is  1.00, the reverberation time for this 
hall  is  too  long.  Thus,  it  is  not  conducive  for  good  speech  intelligibility.  However,  it  is  suitable  for 
music-orientated activities, 
 
Rt = 0.16V/A , whereby 
V= volume of the room (m3), 
A= total absorption of room surfaces 
 
Since, 
V = 5753.6m3 
Rt = 1s  
Then 
0.16( 5753.6)/1  
= 920.58m2 sabins  
 
920.58m2 sabins - 776.02 sabins (current auditorium absorption) = 144.56m2 sabins  
 
In  order  to  have  a  good  speech  intelligibility  auditorium,  Permata  Pintar  Auditorium  has  to  increase  their 
absorption of room surfaces to another 144.56m2 sabins.  
 
 
 
 
4.5.5 Acoustical Defects and Design Issues 
 
Besides  the  extremely  low  reverberation  time,  this  auditorium  also  suffers  from  flutter  echoes  due  to 
substandard  design.  Despite  the  low  sound  delay  due  to  the  speakers  directing  sound  in  every  angle,  flutter 
echoes  tend  to  appear  around  the  stage.  This  is  because  of  the  different  ceiling  surfaces  between  the  two 
spaces. 
 
External  noise  could  be  heard  from  inside  the  auditorium  due  to  a  lack  of  measures  in  terms  of  design.  For 
instance,  the  doors  that  leads  to  the  foyer  were  found  to  have  a lack of seals, leaving voids beneath the doors 
unobstructed.  Louvred  windows  can  be  found  on  the  roof  of  the  auditorium,  allowing  foreign  sounds  to disrupt 
the interior space, especially during rain. 
 
  Furthermore,  the  usage  of  cheap  seats  are  one  of  the  main  reasons  for  the  occurrence  of  acoustical 
defects.  The  thin  fabric  does  not  act  as  a  great  sound  absorbent  materials.  This  is  an  inefficient  use  of  the 
available  sound  energy,  and  a  better  acoustical  feel  would  be  produced  if  the  seats  were  made  with  better 
material.   
References 
Flooring : 
http://www.colincheneyflooring.com.au/main/page_timber_species.html  
http://www.floorfacts.com/compare/laminate-floors.html  
https://crystalcarpet.net/hollow-sounding-laminate-floors-what-will-help/  
https://www.lowes.com/projects/build-and-remodel/carpet-buying-guide/project  
http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/rooms-and-spaces/floors/your-guide-to-the-different-types-of-carpet  
https://www.builddirect.com/learning-center/home-improvement-info/sound-transmission/  
 
Sound Frequency : 
http://www.seaindia.in/blog/human-voice-frequency-range/  
 
Materials Coefficient: 
https://cds.cern.ch/record/1251519/files/978-3-540-48830-9_BookBackMatter.pdf  
 
 
Reverberation: 
http://www.acoustics.com/101.asp