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OVERVIEW II (GEAS)

THERMODYNAMICS

December 4/5, 2017

THERMODYNAMICS

■ Branch of physical science that treats of

various phenomena of energy and the related

properties of matter, especially of the laws of

transformation of heat into other forms of

energy and vice versa

THERMODYNAMICS

■ Term derived from Greek words “therme”

(heat) and “dynamis” (power or motion); thus,

thermodynamics means heat power or heat in

motion

BRANCHES OF THERMODYNAMICS

■ Classical thermodynamics

– also known as Macroscopic Approach

– involves observations and measurement of

properties on a large scale

■ Statistical thermodynamics

– also known as Microscopic Approach

– individual molecule is studied and the analysis is

done to collective molecular action by statistical

methods

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF

THERMODYNAMICS

■ Internal Combustion Engines – an engine in which

burning of fuel occurs in a confined space

■ Steam Power Plants – heat energy is converted to

power/electrical energy

■ Gas Turbines – convert natural gas or other liquid

fuels to mechanical energy

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF

THERMODYNAMICS

■ Heat exchangers – device used to transfer heat

between a solid object and a fluid or between 2 or

more fluids

■ Heat engine – converts heat or thermal energy – and

chemical energy – to mechanical energy

■ Refrigerators – reverse of heat engines

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

■ a region in space, or a finite collection of

matter, enclosed by a boundary, on which the

study is focused

■ System Boundary – is an envelope or surface,

which surrounds the system and separates the

system and surroundings

■ Surroundings – defined as anything external to

the system

■ Universe – combination of system and

surroundings

CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC

SYSTEMS

■ CLOSED SYSTEM

– also called control mass

– no mass crosses the boundary of the system

(fixed quantity of matter) but energy, in the form of

heat or work, may cross

WORK – the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another

(measured in joules (J))

HEAT – amount of energy absorbed or released by a body (measured in

J, cal, BTU)

CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC

SYSTEMS

■ OPEN SYSTEM

– often referred to as control volume or control

surface

– a system in which energy (in the form of work and

heat) and matter may cross the boundary

– control volume – a volume in space through which

matter, mass, momentum, and energy may flow

– control surface – boundary of a control volume;

can be real/imaginary and fixed/moving

boundary

CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC

SYSTEMS

■ ISOLATED SYSTEM

– a system in which neither mass nor energy may

cross the boundary

– purely theoretical one since it is an ideal system

but does not exist in reality

– useful in the study and analysis of thermodynamic

principles and laws

CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC

SYSTEMS

■ ADIABATIC SYSTEM

– heat must not cross the boundary

■ DIATHERMIC SYSTEM

– heat may cross the boundary

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY

■ any measurable characteristics of a system

■ some properties are defined in terms of other

properties

TWO CLASSES OF

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

■ INTENSIVE PROPERTY

– properties that are independent of the mass (size)

of the system

– e.g. pressure, temperature, density, melting point

■ EXTENSIVE PROPERTY

– properties that are dependent of the mass (size)

or amount of the system

– e.g. mass, volume, energy, entropy, enthalpy

TYPES OF THERMODYNAMIC

PROPERTIES

■ STATE PROPERTIES

– refer to the physical condition of the working

substance

– refer to its condition as identified through

properties of the substance

■ TRANSPORT PROPERTIES

– refer to measurement of diffusion within the

working medium resulting from molecular activity,

like: viscosities, thermal conductivities, etc.

STATE PROPERTIES

■ TEMPERATURE (T)

– also known as thermal potential

– an indication or degree of hotness and coldness

of a material

– an intensive property that is a measure of the

intensity of the stored molecular energy in a

system

■ Absolute Zero

– the temperature at which the molecules

stop moving

– absolute zero equivalent to 0 K (-273.15°C)

or 0°R (-459.67°C)

■ Absolute Temperature

– the temperature measured from absolute

zero

■ SCALES OF TEMPERATURE

– Based on ice point and steam (boiling)

point

o Celsius or Centigrade

o Fahrenheit

– Absolute temperatures

o Kelvin

o Rankine

■ Celsius to Fahrenheit

9

𝐹 = 𝐶 + 32

5

5

𝐶 = 𝐹 − 32

9

■ Rankine

– absolute temperatures on the Fahrenheit

scale

𝑅 = 𝐹 + 460

■ Kelvin

– absolute temperatures on the Celsius scale

𝐾 = 𝐶 + 273

TEMPERATURE INTERVAL

■ the difference between two temperature

readings from the same scale, and the change

in temperature through which the body is

heated

∆𝐾 = ∆𝐶

∆𝑅 = ∆𝐹

■ Celsius/Fahrenheit

5 9

∆𝐶 = ∆𝐹 ∆𝐹 = ∆𝐶

9 5

Question. Find the temperature change

in F° and K from 33°C to 75°C.

Ans: ∆C = 42 C°

∆K = 42 K

∆F = 75.6 F°

STATE PROPERTIES

■ PRESSURE (P)

– also known as mechanical potential

– the normal (perpendicular) component of force

per unit area

– simply a force acting on a surface

𝐹

𝑃=

𝐴

where P = pressure (Pa)

F = force (N)

A = area (m2)

■ Absolute Pressure

– the true pressure measured above a perfect vacuum

■ Gage Pressure

– the pressure measured from the level of atmospheric

pressure by most pressure recording instrument like

pressure gage and open-ended manometer

■ Atmospheric Pressure

– pressure obtained from barometric reading

■ Critical Pressure

– the minimum pressure needed to liquefy gas at its

critical temperature

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 + 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒

where 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = absolute pressure

𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = atmospheric pressure

= 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi

= 760 mm Hg = 1.013 bar = 760 torr

= 1.032 kg/cm2 = 29.92 in Hg

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = gage pressure

= negative (−) if for a gage reading called

vacuum pressure

*The perfect vacuum is -101.325 kPa

Question. What is the absolute pressure

for a system if the gage pressure is 1

Mpa and the barometric pressure

(atmospheric pressure is 103 kPa).

STATE PROPERTIES

■ DENSITY (ρ)

– the mass per unit volume

𝑚

𝜌=

𝑉

where ρ = density (kg/m3, g/cm3, lbm/ft3)

m = mass (kg, g, lbm)

V = volume (m3, cm3, ft3)

STATE PROPERTIES

■ SPECIFIC VOLUME (𝑣)

– the volume per unit mass

𝑉

𝑣=

𝑚

1

𝑣=

𝜌

where 𝑣 = specific volume (m3/kg, cm3/g, ft3/lbm)

m = mass (kg, g, lbm)

V = volume (m3, cm3, ft3)

STATE PROPERTIES

■ SPECIFIC WEIGHT (𝛾)

– weight density

– the force of gravity on unit volume

– the weight per unit volume

𝑊

𝛾=

𝑉

where 𝛾 = specific weight (kN/m3, lbf/ft3)

W = weight (kN, lbf)

V = volume (m3, ft3)

STATE PROPERTIES

■ SPECIFIC GRAVITY (γ)

– relative density

– ratio of a certain substance to the density of

water

𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒

𝑆. 𝐺. =

𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

S.G. of freshwater is 1.0

sea water is 1.03

EQUILIBRIUM

■ exists when there are no unbalanced potentials

causing change in the system

■ implies a state of balance

FOUR TYPES OF EQUILIBRIUM

■ THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM

– a state of a system wherein the temperature everywhere

within the system is the same

■ MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM

– a state of a system wherein the pressure everywhere

within the system does not change with time

■ PHASE EQUILIBRIUM

– a state of a system wherein the mass of each phase does

not change with time

■ CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

– a state of a system wherein the chemical composition

does not change with time

THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

■ a state of a system wherein it is simultaneously in

thermal, mechanical, phase and chemical

equilibrium

ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

■ When two bodies, isolated from other environment,

are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two

are in thermal equilibrium with each other

PROCESS

■ if any one or more properties of a system change,

the system is said to have undergone a process

CYCLE

■ when a certain mass of fluid in a particular state

possess through a series of processes and returns

to its initial state

ENERGY

■ ability or capacity to do work

■ can be converted from one form to another and

transferred between systems

KINDS OF ENERGY

■ POTENTIAL ENERGY

■ KINETIC ENERGY

■ INTERNAL ENERGY (U)

– sum of all microscopic forms of energy

– all potential and kinetic energies of atoms or

molecules in a substance/system

– energy within a molecule as a translational,

rotational, and vibrational energy

KINDS OF TRANSFERRED ENERGY

■ HEAT (Q)

– amount of energy absorbed or released by a

body

– measure of total molecular energy of a body

– energy transferred between system and

surroundings because of temperature

difference, or gradient

KINDS OF TRANSFERRED ENERGY

■ WORK (W)

– quantity of energy transferred from one system

to another

– energy transferred between system and

surroundings because of pressure difference, or

gradient

HEAT (Q)

■ amount of energy transferred across the boundary

of a system in a heat interaction with the system’s

surroundings

■ Q > 0 : heat transfer into the system

(+)

■ Q < 0 : heat transfer from the system

(−)

UNITS OF HEAT

■ kcal (kilocalorie)

– amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1 kg of water from 14.5°C to

15.5°C

■ cal (calorie)

– amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C

UNITS OF HEAT

■ BTU (British Thermal Unit)

– amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 1 pound (1 lbm) of water by 1°F

■ J (Joule)

– amount of heat required to raise the

temperature of 4186 kg of water by 1°C

■ 1 cal = 4.1858 J

■ 1 BTU = 1054 J = 252 cal = 778 ft∙lb

CALORIMETRY

■ the science which involves measurement of the

quantity of heat transfer between bodies

HEAT CAPACITY

■ amount of heat required to change the temperature

of a body by 1 degree

SENSIBLE HEAT

■ amount of heat needed to change the temperature

of a body without changing its phase

𝑄𝑠 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇

𝑄𝑠 = sensible heat (cal, BTU)

𝑚 = mass (g, lb)

𝑐 = specific heat (cal/g ∙ C°, BTU/lb ∙ F°)

∆𝑇 = change in temperature (C°, F°)

SPECIFIC HEAT

■ amount of heat required to raise the temperature of

a unit mass of substance by one degree

ice 0.5

water 1

steam 0.5

copper 0.093

lead 0.03

Question. If a 10 kg piece of copper

falls 100 m, how much heat might be

produced? How much would its

temperature change by falling? (specific

heat of copper is about 0.1 kcal/kg ∙ C°)

Ans: 9800 J

2.34 C°

LATENT HEAT

■ amount of heat necessary to change the phase of a

system without changing its temperature

■ hidden heat

■ heat of transformation

LATENT HEAT OF FUSION

■ amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of

a substance from solid to liquid state at its melting

point

𝑄𝐿 = ± 𝑚ℎ𝑓

𝑄𝐿 = latent heat (cal, BTU)

𝑚 = mass (g, lb)

ℎ𝑓 = heat of fusion (cal/g, BTU/lb)

LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION

■ amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of

a substance from liquid to vapor state at its boiling

point

𝑄𝐿 = ± 𝑚ℎ𝑣

𝑄𝐿 = latent heat (cal, BTU)

𝑚 = mass (g, lb)

ℎ𝑣 = heat of fusion (cal/g, BTU/lb)

latent heat of latent heat of

fusion vaporization

80 cal/g

For ice at its

144 BTU/lb

melting point

334 kJ/kg

540 cal/g

For water at its

970 BTU/lb

boiling point

2257 kJ/kg

■ the TOTAL HEAT entering/leaving a substance is the

sum of the heat that changes the phase of the

substance (latent heat) and the heat that changes

the temperature of the substance (sensible heat)

𝑄𝑇 = 𝑄𝐿 + 𝑄𝑆

Question. How much heat is needed to

change 2 kg of ice at – 10 °C to steam

at 100 °C?

THREE MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER

■ CONDUCTION

– simplest mode of heat transfer

– the transfer of heat from molecule to molecule through a

body or through bodies in contact

∆𝑇

𝑄 = 𝑘𝐴𝑡

∆𝐿

𝑄 = heat (cal, BTU)

𝑘 = thermal conductivity (cal/cm2 ∙ s ∙ C°/m, BTU/ft2 ∙ hr ∙ F°/ft)

𝐴 = area measured at right angles to the direction of flow of heat (sec, hr)

𝑡 = time (sec, hr)

∆𝑇

∆𝐿

= average temperature gradient (C°/m, F°/ft)

THREE MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER

■ CONVECTION

– the transfer of heat due to motion of molecules of

the medium

– energy transfer between a solid surface and an

adjacent moving gas or liquid

■ RADIATION

– heat transfer takes place without any intervening

medium

– radiant energy travels as electromagnetic wave

THERMAL EXPANSION

■ expansion due to heat results from the motion of

molecules

■ Heat applied to a material causes the molecule to

vibrate faster, increasing the distance b/w molecules.

The increased distance b/w molecules accounts for

the expansion of the material

■ Coefficient of Expansion (/C°)

– rate of expansion / expansivity

– the fractional change ( in length or in volume) per degree

change in temperature

THERMAL EXPANSION

■ LINEAR EXPANSION

∆𝐿 = 𝛼𝐿𝑜 ∆𝑇

∆𝐿 = change in length (m, ft)

𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)

𝐿𝑜 = initial length (m, ft)

∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)

THERMAL EXPANSION

■ AREA EXPANSION

∆𝐴 = 2𝛼𝐴𝑜 ∆𝑇

∆𝐴 = change in area (m2, ft2)

𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)

𝐴𝑜 = initial area (m2, ft2)

∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)

THERMAL EXPANSION

■ VOLUME EXPANSION

∆𝑉 = 𝛽𝑉𝑜 ∆𝑇

∆𝑉 = 3𝛼𝑉𝑜 ∆𝑇

∆𝑉 = change in volume (m3, ft3)

𝛽 = coefficient of volume expansion (/C°, /F°) = 3𝛼

𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)

𝑉𝑜 = initial volume (m3, ft3)

∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)

WORK

■ defined as the product of a force and the distance moved in the

direction of the force (mechanical definition)

■ is done by a system if the sole external effect on the

surroundings could be the raising of a weight

𝑑𝑊 = 𝑃𝐴𝑑𝑙 = 𝑃𝑑𝑉

𝑉2

𝑊 = න 𝑃𝑑𝑉 = 𝑃(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 )

𝑉1

∆𝑊 = 𝑃∆𝑉

■ W > 0 : (+) work done BY the system

■ W < 0 : (−) work done ON the system

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

■ If an amount of heat flows into a system, then this

energy must appear as increased internal energy for

the system and/or work done by the system on its

surroundings

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊

Question. If a system absorbs 800 cal

of heat at the same time does 400 J of

work, find the change in internal energy

of the system.

Ans: 2950 J

IDEAL GAS LAW

■ relates the pressure, volume, and temperature of an

ideal gas

■ measurements of the behavior of various gases lead

to three conclusions

– the volume V is proportional to the number of

moles n

– the volume V varies inversely with the absolute

pressure P

– the pressure P is proportional to the absolute

temperature

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇

P = absolute pressure

V = volume

n = number of moles

R = ideal gas constant/universal gas constant

= 8.314472 J/mol∙K [const.27]

T = absolute temperature

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

𝑚

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑅𝑇

𝑀

m = mass

M = molar mass (g/mol)

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑚𝑅′𝑇

m = mass

𝑅

R’ = gas constant =

𝑀

IDEAL GAS EQUATION

for constant mass (or constant number of moles)

𝑛𝑅 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑃𝑉

= 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑇

𝑃1 𝑉1 𝑃2 𝑉2

=

𝑇1 𝑇2

BOYLE’S LAW

■ In a confined gas, if the absolute temperature is held

constant, the volume is inversely proportional to the

absolute pressure

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

CHARLES’ LAW

■ In a confined gas, if the absolute pressure is held

constant, the volume is directly proportional to the

absolute temperature

𝑉1 𝑉2

=

𝑇1 𝑇2

GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW

■ In a confined gas, if the volume is held constant, the

absolute pressure is directly proportional to the

absolute temperature

𝑃1 𝑃2

=

𝑇1 𝑇2

ENTHALPY, H

■ the thermodynamic function that is equivalent to the

sum of internal energy of the system plus the product

of the volume and pressure applied to the system

𝐻 = 𝑈 + 𝑃𝑉

ENTROPY, S

■ measure of the unavailability of the system to do work

■ measure of the randomness of the molecules of a

substance

■ property of a substance which remains constant if no heat

enters or leaves the system, while it does work or alters its

volume, but which increases or decreases should a small

amount of heat enter or leave

𝑄

𝑆=

𝑇

■ Gas constant of Air

𝑓𝑡 ∙ 𝑙𝑏𝑓 𝑘𝐽

𝑅′ = 53.34 = 0.287

𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∙ °𝑅 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾

■ Specific ratio, k

𝑐𝑝

𝑘=

𝑐𝑣

monoatomic k = 1.667

diatomic k = 1.40

𝑐𝑝 − 𝑐𝑣 = 𝑅′

𝑅′ 𝑘𝑅′

𝑐𝑣 = 𝑐𝑝 =

𝑘−1 𝑘−1

PROCESS OF IDEAL GASES

■ Adiabatic Process

■ Isometric Process

■ Isobaric Process

■ Isothermal Process

■ Polytropic Process

ADIABATIC PROCESS

■ ISENTROPIC PROCESS

■ an internally reversible constant entropy process of a

working substance

■ a reversible process in which there is no flow of heat

between a system and its surroundings (Q = 0)

ADIABATIC PROCESS

𝑘 𝑘

– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1= 𝑃2 𝑉2

2

– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉

2

– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − 1 𝑉𝑑𝑃

– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇 = −𝑊

– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

– heat transferred 𝑄=0

– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 0

ISOMETRIC PROCESS

■ ISOCHORIC/ISOVOLUMIC PROCESS

■ an internally reversible constant volume process of a

working substance

ISOMETRIC PROCESS

𝑃1 𝑃2

– PV and T relation =

𝑇1 𝑇2

2

– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉 = 0

2

– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − 1 𝑉𝑑𝑃

– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇

– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

– heat transferred 𝑄 = ∆𝑈

𝑇2

– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ln

𝑇1

ISOBARIC PROCESS

■ an internally reversible constant pressure process of

a working substance

ISOBARIC PROCESS

𝑉1 𝑉2

– PV and T relation =

𝑇1 𝑇2

2

– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉

2

– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − 1 𝑉𝑑𝑃 =0

– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇

– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

– heat transferred 𝑄 = ∆𝐻

𝑇2

– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ln

𝑇1

ISOTHERMAL PROCESS

■ an internally reversible constant temperature

process of a working substance

ISOBARIC PROCESS

– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2

2

– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉

– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = 𝑊𝑛

– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 0

– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 0

– heat transferred 𝑄 = 𝑊𝑛

𝑉2

– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑅′ ln

𝑉1

POLYTROPIC PROCESS

𝑛

■ an internally reversible process during which 𝑃𝑉 is

constant

POLYTROPIC PROCESS

𝑛 𝑛

– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1= 𝑃2 𝑉2

2

– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = 1 𝑃𝑑𝑉

– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = 𝑘 𝑊𝑛

– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇 = −𝑊𝑛

– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇

– heat transferred 𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑛 ∆𝑇

𝑇2

– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑛 ln

𝑇1

■ PURE SUBSTANCE

– states in phase change processes, saturation

temperature, saturation pressure, critical point, triple

point

■ PROCESSES OF THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEM

– irreversible and reversible process

■ 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

– Clausius statement, Kelvin-Planck statement

■ GAS CYCLES

– Rankine cycle, Carnot cycle

■ VAPOR CYCLES

– Otto cycle, Diesel cycle

■ 3rd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Midterm Comprehensive Overview

January 13-14, 2018

February 10-11, 2018

- ME114 - Project AEnviado porRafael Gustavo
- 9a-Thermodynamics Mc Practice ProblemsEnviado porFrancis Nicole V. Quiroz
- Thermodynamic NotesEnviado porKarthick Jyothieshwar
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- System Theory in CDEnviado porNurryku
- fluid flowEnviado porsam_kamali85
- Classical Thermo.pptEnviado porPradeep Kumar Mehta
- Entropy Minimization in Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger Using Cuckoo AlgorithmEnviado porAjith Krishnan
- BIO439 2011 02 ThermodynamicsEnviado porrazorghot1
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