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ENEC 150G ECE COMPREHENSIVE

OVERVIEW II (GEAS)
THERMODYNAMICS
December 4/5, 2017
THERMODYNAMICS
■ Branch of physical science that treats of
various phenomena of energy and the related
properties of matter, especially of the laws of
transformation of heat into other forms of
energy and vice versa
THERMODYNAMICS
■ Term derived from Greek words “therme”
(heat) and “dynamis” (power or motion); thus,
thermodynamics means heat power or heat in
motion
BRANCHES OF THERMODYNAMICS
■ Classical thermodynamics
– also known as Macroscopic Approach
– involves observations and measurement of
properties on a large scale
■ Statistical thermodynamics
– also known as Microscopic Approach
– individual molecule is studied and the analysis is
done to collective molecular action by statistical
methods
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF
THERMODYNAMICS
■ Internal Combustion Engines – an engine in which
burning of fuel occurs in a confined space
■ Steam Power Plants – heat energy is converted to
power/electrical energy
■ Gas Turbines – convert natural gas or other liquid
fuels to mechanical energy
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF
THERMODYNAMICS
■ Heat exchangers – device used to transfer heat
between a solid object and a fluid or between 2 or
more fluids
■ Heat engine – converts heat or thermal energy – and
chemical energy – to mechanical energy
■ Refrigerators – reverse of heat engines
THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM
■ a region in space, or a finite collection of
matter, enclosed by a boundary, on which the
study is focused
■ System Boundary – is an envelope or surface,
which surrounds the system and separates the
system and surroundings
■ Surroundings – defined as anything external to
the system
■ Universe – combination of system and
surroundings
CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC
SYSTEMS
■ CLOSED SYSTEM
– also called control mass
– no mass crosses the boundary of the system
(fixed quantity of matter) but energy, in the form of
heat or work, may cross
WORK – the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another
(measured in joules (J))
HEAT – amount of energy absorbed or released by a body (measured in
J, cal, BTU)
CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC
SYSTEMS
■ OPEN SYSTEM
– often referred to as control volume or control
surface
– a system in which energy (in the form of work and
heat) and matter may cross the boundary
– control volume – a volume in space through which
matter, mass, momentum, and energy may flow
– control surface – boundary of a control volume;
can be real/imaginary and fixed/moving
boundary
CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC
SYSTEMS
■ ISOLATED SYSTEM
– a system in which neither mass nor energy may
cross the boundary
– purely theoretical one since it is an ideal system
but does not exist in reality
– useful in the study and analysis of thermodynamic
principles and laws
CLASSES OF THERMODYNAMIC
SYSTEMS
■ ADIABATIC SYSTEM
– heat must not cross the boundary
■ DIATHERMIC SYSTEM
– heat may cross the boundary
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY
■ any measurable characteristics of a system
■ some properties are defined in terms of other
properties
TWO CLASSES OF
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
■ INTENSIVE PROPERTY
– properties that are independent of the mass (size)
of the system
– e.g. pressure, temperature, density, melting point
■ EXTENSIVE PROPERTY
– properties that are dependent of the mass (size)
or amount of the system
– e.g. mass, volume, energy, entropy, enthalpy
TYPES OF THERMODYNAMIC
PROPERTIES
■ STATE PROPERTIES
– refer to the physical condition of the working
substance
– refer to its condition as identified through
properties of the substance
■ TRANSPORT PROPERTIES
– refer to measurement of diffusion within the
working medium resulting from molecular activity,
like: viscosities, thermal conductivities, etc.
STATE PROPERTIES
■ TEMPERATURE (T)
– also known as thermal potential
– an indication or degree of hotness and coldness
of a material
– an intensive property that is a measure of the
intensity of the stored molecular energy in a
system
■ Absolute Zero
– the temperature at which the molecules
stop moving
– absolute zero equivalent to 0 K (-273.15°C)
or 0°R (-459.67°C)
■ Absolute Temperature
– the temperature measured from absolute
zero
■ SCALES OF TEMPERATURE
– Based on ice point and steam (boiling)
point
o Celsius or Centigrade
o Fahrenheit
– Absolute temperatures
o Kelvin
o Rankine
■ Celsius to Fahrenheit

9
𝐹 = 𝐶 + 32
5
5
𝐶 = 𝐹 − 32
9
■ Rankine
– absolute temperatures on the Fahrenheit
scale
𝑅 = 𝐹 + 460
■ Kelvin
– absolute temperatures on the Celsius scale
𝐾 = 𝐶 + 273
TEMPERATURE INTERVAL
■ the difference between two temperature
readings from the same scale, and the change
in temperature through which the body is
heated
∆𝐾 = ∆𝐶
∆𝑅 = ∆𝐹
■ Celsius/Fahrenheit
5 9
∆𝐶 = ∆𝐹 ∆𝐹 = ∆𝐶
9 5
Question. Find the temperature change
in F° and K from 33°C to 75°C.

Ans: ∆C = 42 C°
∆K = 42 K
∆F = 75.6 F°
STATE PROPERTIES
■ PRESSURE (P)
– also known as mechanical potential
– the normal (perpendicular) component of force
per unit area
– simply a force acting on a surface
𝐹
𝑃=
𝐴
where P = pressure (Pa)
F = force (N)
A = area (m2)
■ Absolute Pressure
– the true pressure measured above a perfect vacuum
■ Gage Pressure
– the pressure measured from the level of atmospheric
pressure by most pressure recording instrument like
pressure gage and open-ended manometer
■ Atmospheric Pressure
– pressure obtained from barometric reading
■ Critical Pressure
– the minimum pressure needed to liquefy gas at its
critical temperature
𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 + 𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒
where 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = absolute pressure
𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚 = atmospheric pressure
= 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi
= 760 mm Hg = 1.013 bar = 760 torr
= 1.032 kg/cm2 = 29.92 in Hg
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = gage pressure
= negative (−) if for a gage reading called
vacuum pressure
*The perfect vacuum is -101.325 kPa
Question. What is the absolute pressure
for a system if the gage pressure is 1
Mpa and the barometric pressure
(atmospheric pressure is 103 kPa).

Ans: 1.103 MPa


STATE PROPERTIES
■ DENSITY (ρ)
– the mass per unit volume
𝑚
𝜌=
𝑉
where ρ = density (kg/m3, g/cm3, lbm/ft3)
m = mass (kg, g, lbm)
V = volume (m3, cm3, ft3)
STATE PROPERTIES
■ SPECIFIC VOLUME (𝑣)
– the volume per unit mass
𝑉
𝑣=
𝑚
1
𝑣=
𝜌
where 𝑣 = specific volume (m3/kg, cm3/g, ft3/lbm)
m = mass (kg, g, lbm)
V = volume (m3, cm3, ft3)
STATE PROPERTIES
■ SPECIFIC WEIGHT (𝛾)
– weight density
– the force of gravity on unit volume
– the weight per unit volume
𝑊
𝛾=
𝑉
where 𝛾 = specific weight (kN/m3, lbf/ft3)
W = weight (kN, lbf)
V = volume (m3, ft3)
STATE PROPERTIES
■ SPECIFIC GRAVITY (γ)
– relative density
– ratio of a certain substance to the density of
water
𝜌𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
𝑆. 𝐺. =
𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
S.G. of freshwater is 1.0
sea water is 1.03
EQUILIBRIUM
■ exists when there are no unbalanced potentials
causing change in the system
■ implies a state of balance
FOUR TYPES OF EQUILIBRIUM
■ THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
– a state of a system wherein the temperature everywhere
within the system is the same
■ MECHANICAL EQUILIBRIUM
– a state of a system wherein the pressure everywhere
within the system does not change with time
■ PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
– a state of a system wherein the mass of each phase does
not change with time
■ CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
– a state of a system wherein the chemical composition
does not change with time
THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
■ a state of a system wherein it is simultaneously in
thermal, mechanical, phase and chemical
equilibrium
ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
■ When two bodies, isolated from other environment,
are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two
are in thermal equilibrium with each other
PROCESS
■ if any one or more properties of a system change,
the system is said to have undergone a process

CYCLE
■ when a certain mass of fluid in a particular state
possess through a series of processes and returns
to its initial state
ENERGY
■ ability or capacity to do work
■ can be converted from one form to another and
transferred between systems
KINDS OF ENERGY
■ POTENTIAL ENERGY
■ KINETIC ENERGY
■ INTERNAL ENERGY (U)
– sum of all microscopic forms of energy
– all potential and kinetic energies of atoms or
molecules in a substance/system
– energy within a molecule as a translational,
rotational, and vibrational energy
KINDS OF TRANSFERRED ENERGY
■ HEAT (Q)
– amount of energy absorbed or released by a
body
– measure of total molecular energy of a body
– energy transferred between system and
surroundings because of temperature
difference, or gradient
KINDS OF TRANSFERRED ENERGY
■ WORK (W)
– quantity of energy transferred from one system
to another
– energy transferred between system and
surroundings because of pressure difference, or
gradient
HEAT (Q)
■ amount of energy transferred across the boundary
of a system in a heat interaction with the system’s
surroundings
■ Q > 0 : heat transfer into the system
(+)
■ Q < 0 : heat transfer from the system
(−)
UNITS OF HEAT
■ kcal (kilocalorie)
– amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of water from 14.5°C to
15.5°C
■ cal (calorie)
– amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C
UNITS OF HEAT
■ BTU (British Thermal Unit)
– amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 pound (1 lbm) of water by 1°F
■ J (Joule)
– amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of 4186 kg of water by 1°C
■ 1 cal = 4.1858 J
■ 1 BTU = 1054 J = 252 cal = 778 ft∙lb
CALORIMETRY
■ the science which involves measurement of the
quantity of heat transfer between bodies

HEAT CAPACITY
■ amount of heat required to change the temperature
of a body by 1 degree
SENSIBLE HEAT
■ amount of heat needed to change the temperature
of a body without changing its phase

𝑄𝑠 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇
𝑄𝑠 = sensible heat (cal, BTU)
𝑚 = mass (g, lb)
𝑐 = specific heat (cal/g ∙ C°, BTU/lb ∙ F°)
∆𝑇 = change in temperature (C°, F°)
SPECIFIC HEAT
■ amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
a unit mass of substance by one degree

■ substance specific heat (cal/g ∙ C°)


ice 0.5
water 1
steam 0.5
copper 0.093
lead 0.03
Question. If a 10 kg piece of copper
falls 100 m, how much heat might be
produced? How much would its
temperature change by falling? (specific
heat of copper is about 0.1 kcal/kg ∙ C°)

Ans: 9800 J
2.34 C°
LATENT HEAT
■ amount of heat necessary to change the phase of a
system without changing its temperature
■ hidden heat
■ heat of transformation
LATENT HEAT OF FUSION
■ amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of
a substance from solid to liquid state at its melting
point

𝑄𝐿 = ± 𝑚ℎ𝑓
𝑄𝐿 = latent heat (cal, BTU)
𝑚 = mass (g, lb)
ℎ𝑓 = heat of fusion (cal/g, BTU/lb)
LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION
■ amount of heat necessary to change a unit mass of
a substance from liquid to vapor state at its boiling
point

𝑄𝐿 = ± 𝑚ℎ𝑣
𝑄𝐿 = latent heat (cal, BTU)
𝑚 = mass (g, lb)
ℎ𝑣 = heat of fusion (cal/g, BTU/lb)
latent heat of latent heat of
fusion vaporization
80 cal/g
For ice at its
144 BTU/lb
melting point
334 kJ/kg

540 cal/g
For water at its
970 BTU/lb
boiling point
2257 kJ/kg
■ the TOTAL HEAT entering/leaving a substance is the
sum of the heat that changes the phase of the
substance (latent heat) and the heat that changes
the temperature of the substance (sensible heat)

𝑄𝑇 = 𝑄𝐿 + 𝑄𝑆
Question. How much heat is needed to
change 2 kg of ice at – 10 °C to steam
at 100 °C?

Ans: 1450 kcal


THREE MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
■ CONDUCTION
– simplest mode of heat transfer
– the transfer of heat from molecule to molecule through a
body or through bodies in contact

∆𝑇
𝑄 = 𝑘𝐴𝑡
∆𝐿
𝑄 = heat (cal, BTU)
𝑘 = thermal conductivity (cal/cm2 ∙ s ∙ C°/m, BTU/ft2 ∙ hr ∙ F°/ft)
𝐴 = area measured at right angles to the direction of flow of heat (sec, hr)
𝑡 = time (sec, hr)
∆𝑇
∆𝐿
= average temperature gradient (C°/m, F°/ft)
THREE MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
■ CONVECTION
– the transfer of heat due to motion of molecules of
the medium
– energy transfer between a solid surface and an
adjacent moving gas or liquid
■ RADIATION
– heat transfer takes place without any intervening
medium
– radiant energy travels as electromagnetic wave
THERMAL EXPANSION
■ expansion due to heat results from the motion of
molecules
■ Heat applied to a material causes the molecule to
vibrate faster, increasing the distance b/w molecules.
The increased distance b/w molecules accounts for
the expansion of the material
■ Coefficient of Expansion (/C°)
– rate of expansion / expansivity
– the fractional change ( in length or in volume) per degree
change in temperature
THERMAL EXPANSION
■ LINEAR EXPANSION

∆𝐿 = 𝛼𝐿𝑜 ∆𝑇
∆𝐿 = change in length (m, ft)
𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)
𝐿𝑜 = initial length (m, ft)
∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)
THERMAL EXPANSION
■ AREA EXPANSION

∆𝐴 = 2𝛼𝐴𝑜 ∆𝑇
∆𝐴 = change in area (m2, ft2)
𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)
𝐴𝑜 = initial area (m2, ft2)
∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)
THERMAL EXPANSION
■ VOLUME EXPANSION

∆𝑉 = 𝛽𝑉𝑜 ∆𝑇
∆𝑉 = 3𝛼𝑉𝑜 ∆𝑇
∆𝑉 = change in volume (m3, ft3)
𝛽 = coefficient of volume expansion (/C°, /F°) = 3𝛼
𝛼 = linear coefficient of expansion (/C°, /F°)
𝑉𝑜 = initial volume (m3, ft3)
∆𝑇 = temperature change (C°, F°)
WORK
■ defined as the product of a force and the distance moved in the
direction of the force (mechanical definition)
■ is done by a system if the sole external effect on the
surroundings could be the raising of a weight
𝑑𝑊 = 𝑃𝐴𝑑𝑙 = 𝑃𝑑𝑉
𝑉2
𝑊 = න 𝑃𝑑𝑉 = 𝑃(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 )
𝑉1
∆𝑊 = 𝑃∆𝑉
■ W > 0 : (+) work done BY the system
■ W < 0 : (−) work done ON the system
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
■ If an amount of heat flows into a system, then this
energy must appear as increased internal energy for
the system and/or work done by the system on its
surroundings

𝑄 = ∆𝑈 + 𝑊
Question. If a system absorbs 800 cal
of heat at the same time does 400 J of
work, find the change in internal energy
of the system.

Ans: 2950 J
IDEAL GAS LAW
■ relates the pressure, volume, and temperature of an
ideal gas
■ measurements of the behavior of various gases lead
to three conclusions
– the volume V is proportional to the number of
moles n
– the volume V varies inversely with the absolute
pressure P
– the pressure P is proportional to the absolute
temperature
IDEAL GAS EQUATION
𝑃𝑉 = 𝑛𝑅𝑇
P = absolute pressure
V = volume
n = number of moles
R = ideal gas constant/universal gas constant
= 8.314472 J/mol∙K [const.27]
T = absolute temperature
IDEAL GAS EQUATION
𝑚
𝑃𝑉 = 𝑅𝑇
𝑀
m = mass
M = molar mass (g/mol)

𝑃𝑉 = 𝑚𝑅′𝑇
m = mass
𝑅
R’ = gas constant =
𝑀
IDEAL GAS EQUATION
for constant mass (or constant number of moles)
𝑛𝑅 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑃𝑉
= 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
𝑇

GENERAL GAS LAW/COMBINED GAS LAW


𝑃1 𝑉1 𝑃2 𝑉2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2
BOYLE’S LAW
■ In a confined gas, if the absolute temperature is held
constant, the volume is inversely proportional to the
absolute pressure

𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2
CHARLES’ LAW
■ In a confined gas, if the absolute pressure is held
constant, the volume is directly proportional to the
absolute temperature

𝑉1 𝑉2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2
GAY-LUSSAC’S LAW
■ In a confined gas, if the volume is held constant, the
absolute pressure is directly proportional to the
absolute temperature

𝑃1 𝑃2
=
𝑇1 𝑇2
ENTHALPY, H
■ the thermodynamic function that is equivalent to the
sum of internal energy of the system plus the product
of the volume and pressure applied to the system

𝐻 = 𝑈 + 𝑃𝑉
ENTROPY, S
■ measure of the unavailability of the system to do work
■ measure of the randomness of the molecules of a
substance
■ property of a substance which remains constant if no heat
enters or leaves the system, while it does work or alters its
volume, but which increases or decreases should a small
amount of heat enter or leave
𝑄
𝑆=
𝑇
■ Gas constant of Air
𝑓𝑡 ∙ 𝑙𝑏𝑓 𝑘𝐽
𝑅′ = 53.34 = 0.287
𝑙𝑏𝑚 ∙ °𝑅 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝐾
■ Specific ratio, k
𝑐𝑝
𝑘=
𝑐𝑣
monoatomic k = 1.667
diatomic k = 1.40
𝑐𝑝 − 𝑐𝑣 = 𝑅′
𝑅′ 𝑘𝑅′
𝑐𝑣 = 𝑐𝑝 =
𝑘−1 𝑘−1
PROCESS OF IDEAL GASES
■ Adiabatic Process
■ Isometric Process
■ Isobaric Process
■ Isothermal Process
■ Polytropic Process
ADIABATIC PROCESS
■ ISENTROPIC PROCESS
■ an internally reversible constant entropy process of a
working substance
■ a reversible process in which there is no flow of heat
between a system and its surroundings (Q = 0)
ADIABATIC PROCESS
𝑘 𝑘
– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1= 𝑃2 𝑉2
2
– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = ‫׬‬1 𝑃𝑑𝑉
2
– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − ‫׬‬1 𝑉𝑑𝑃
– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇 = −𝑊
– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇
– heat transferred 𝑄=0
– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 0
ISOMETRIC PROCESS
■ ISOCHORIC/ISOVOLUMIC PROCESS
■ an internally reversible constant volume process of a
working substance
ISOMETRIC PROCESS
𝑃1 𝑃2
– PV and T relation =
𝑇1 𝑇2
2
– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = ‫׬‬1 𝑃𝑑𝑉 = 0
2
– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − ‫׬‬1 𝑉𝑑𝑃
– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇
– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇
– heat transferred 𝑄 = ∆𝑈
𝑇2
– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ln
𝑇1
ISOBARIC PROCESS
■ an internally reversible constant pressure process of
a working substance
ISOBARIC PROCESS
𝑉1 𝑉2
– PV and T relation =
𝑇1 𝑇2
2
– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = ‫׬‬1 𝑃𝑑𝑉
2
– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = − ‫׬‬1 𝑉𝑑𝑃 =0
– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇
– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇
– heat transferred 𝑄 = ∆𝐻
𝑇2
– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ln
𝑇1
ISOTHERMAL PROCESS
■ an internally reversible constant temperature
process of a working substance
ISOBARIC PROCESS
– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1 = 𝑃2 𝑉2
2
– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = ‫׬‬1 𝑃𝑑𝑉
– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = 𝑊𝑛
– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 0
– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 0
– heat transferred 𝑄 = 𝑊𝑛
𝑉2
– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑅′ ln
𝑉1
POLYTROPIC PROCESS
𝑛
■ an internally reversible process during which 𝑃𝑉 is
constant
POLYTROPIC PROCESS
𝑛 𝑛
– PV and T relation 𝑃1 𝑉1= 𝑃2 𝑉2
2
– non-flow work 𝑊𝑛 = ‫׬‬1 𝑃𝑑𝑉
– steady flow work 𝑊𝑠 = 𝑘 𝑊𝑛
– change in internal energy ∆𝑈 = 𝑚𝑐𝑣 ∆𝑇 = −𝑊𝑛
– change in enthalpy ∆𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 ∆𝑇
– heat transferred 𝑄 = 𝑚𝑐𝑛 ∆𝑇
𝑇2
– change in entropy ∆𝑆 = 𝑚𝑐𝑛 ln
𝑇1
■ PURE SUBSTANCE
– states in phase change processes, saturation
temperature, saturation pressure, critical point, triple
point
■ PROCESSES OF THERMODYNAMICS SYSTEM
– irreversible and reversible process
■ 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
– Clausius statement, Kelvin-Planck statement
■ GAS CYCLES
– Rankine cycle, Carnot cycle
■ VAPOR CYCLES
– Otto cycle, Diesel cycle
■ 3rd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Midterm Comprehensive Overview
January 13-14, 2018

Final Comprehensive Overview


February 10-11, 2018