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WiMAX network optimization

WiMAX Network Optimizing Technique

Date Author Remarks

2008.5 WiMAX P&O Team Chines Version

2009.8 WiMAX P&O Team English Version

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WiMAX network optimization

Contents
Section1 Wireless Network Planning and Optimization Process.........................................1
1.1 Basic Process Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Requirement Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Spectrum Scan ..................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.1 Scanning overview ................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2 Scanning test type and test tools............................................................................................... 5
1.3.2.1 Test type..................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2.2 Test tools.................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2.3 Spectrum analyzer parameters setting........................................................................ 5
1.3.3 Test procedure .......................................................................................................................... 6
1.3.3.1 Drive test procedure................................................................................................... 6
1.3.3.2 Fixed location test procedure ..................................................................................... 6
1.3.4 Analysis of test data ................................................................................................................. 6
1.3.4.1 Analysis of drive test data.......................................................................................... 6
1.3.4.2 Analysis of fixed location test data ............................................................................ 7
1.3.5 Analysis of interference in service areas .................................................................................. 8
1.3.5.1 The influence of external interference ....................................................................... 8
1.3.5.2 The influence of external interference on coverage ................................................... 9
1.3.5.3 According to the result of frequency scanning export conclusions and scanning
report.................................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.6 System OMC uplink spectrum scanning instruction .............................................................. 10
1.3.6.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 10
1.3.6.2 Uplink spectrum scanning function ............................................................................................. 10
1.4 Single Station Test............................................................................................................................. 20
1.4.1 Single station test scope and objective ................................................................................... 20
1.4.2 Single station test verification requirement............................................................................ 20
1.4.2.1 Single site verification RNP..................................................................................... 20
1.4.2.2 Coverage area verification ....................................................................................... 20
1.4.2.3 Coverage area KPI target ......................................................................................... 20
1.4.3 Single station test verification contents.................................................................................. 21
1.4.3.1 Single site information verification.......................................................................... 21
1.4.3.2 Functional test verification ...................................................................................... 21
1.4.3.3 Drive test result........................................................................................................ 21
1.4.4 Coverage test verification contents ........................................................................................ 22

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1.4.4.1 Configuration information ....................................................................................... 22


1.4.4.2 Coverage polygon .................................................................................................... 22
1.4.4.3 Coverage street information..................................................................................... 22
1.4.5 Single station and coverage test verification report................................................................ 22
1.5 Calibration Test ................................................................................................................................. 23
1.6 Network Evaluation before Optimization.......................................................................................... 24
1.7 BS Cluster Optimization.................................................................................................................... 26
1.8 Whole Network Optimization and Network Evaluation.................................................................... 27
1.9 Project Acceptance Test and Report Hand in .................................................................................... 28
Section2 Network Planning Issue..........................................................................................29
2.1 Optimization Test Tool Introduction ................................................................................................. 29
2.1.1 Optimization test tool CNT introduction................................................................................ 29
2.1.1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................. 29
2.1.1.2 The use of ZXPOS CNT1 ........................................................................................ 29
2.1.1.2.1 Test process .................................................................................................... 29
2.1.1.2.2 Hardware detection and configuration ........................................................... 30
2.1.1.2.3 Hardware configuration interface introduced................................................. 31
2.1.1.2.4 Hardware configuration interface introduced................................................. 33
2.1.1.3 Work interface ......................................................................................................... 33
2.1.1.4 Window interface..................................................................................................... 35
2.1.1.4.1 Title bar .......................................................................................................... 35
2.1.1.4.2 Menu bar ........................................................................................................ 35
2.1.1.4.3 Status bar........................................................................................................ 35
2.1.1.5 Toolbar..................................................................................................................... 36
2.1.1.6 Replay toolbar.......................................................................................................... 37
2.1.1.7 Right key menu toolbar............................................................................................ 38
2.1.1.8 Menu and function analysis ..................................................................................... 39
2.1.1.9 Explorer window...................................................................................................... 40
2.1.1.9.1 Device Config ................................................................................................ 41
2.1.1.9.2 Windows......................................................................................................... 41
2.1.1.10 Refresh rate to adjust the window style and the curve........................................... 42
2.1.1.10.1 Adjust wireless parameters window refresh rate chart ................................. 42
2.1.1.10.2 Style curve adjustment ................................................................................. 42
2.1.1.11 Test software projects ............................................................................................ 43
2.1.1.12 Export of test data .................................................................................................. 44
2.1.1.12.1 Export pages................................................................................................. 44
2.1.1.13 Subsection of test data ......................................................................................... 45
2.1.1.14 Route map............................................................................................................. 46

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2.1.1.14.1 Toolbar introduction ..................................................................................... 47


2.1.1.14.2 Control Layer ............................................................................................... 49
2.1.1.14.3 Theme setting ............................................................................................... 50
2.1.1.14.4 Map parameters setting ................................................................................ 51
2.1.1.14.5 Custom label settings ................................................................................... 53
2.1.1.14.6 Marker parameters ....................................................................................... 53
2.1.1.14.7 Find the base station..................................................................................... 54
2.1.1.15 Information display and switch .......................................................................... 55
2.1.1.15.1 Values (WiMAX) ......................................................................................... 56
2.1.1.15.2 Information................................................................................................... 56
2.1.1.15.3 Legend.......................................................................................................... 56
2.1.1.16 Drive test map ...................................................................................................... 57
2.1.1.17 Data test ................................................................................................................ 58
2.1.1.17.1 Plans setting page automatic test plan.......................................................... 58
2.1.1.17.2 Message Test page news shows.................................................................... 60
2.1.1.17.3 Throughput shows the throughput of the page ............................................. 62
2.1.1.17.4 Statistics show page ..................................................................................... 63
2.1.1.18 Data Monitor.......................................................................................................... 64
2.1.1.19 WiMAX Logon Tool ............................................................................................. 65
2.1.1.20 WiMAX Logon Tool ............................................................................................. 65
2.1.1.21 WiMAX Communication Info ............................................................................... 66
2.1.1.22 WiMAX Air Interface Message............................................................................. 67
2.1.1.23 WiMAX Modulation Statistics .............................................................................. 68
2.1.1.24 WiMAX Date Throughput..................................................................................... 68
2.1.2 Optimization analysis tool CNA introduction ........................................................................ 69
2.1.2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. 69
2.1.2.2 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ....................................................................... 70
2.1.2.3 Comprehensive description...................................................................................... 70
2.1.2.3.1 Background .................................................................................................... 70
2.1.2.3.2 Product Overview........................................................................................... 70
2.1.2.4 Specific functions description.................................................................................. 70
2.1.2.4.1 Basic function analysis................................................................................... 70
2.1.2.4.2 Segment'RSSI and Segment'CINR functions................................................. 71
2.1.2.4.3 Call event analysis and delay statistics........................................................... 72
2.1.2.4.4 Analysis of handover events........................................................................... 72
2.1.2.4.5 Interference Analysis...................................................................................... 72
2.1.2.4.6 Analysis of dropped calls ............................................................................... 72
2.1.2.4.7 Calls, handover of the incident shows the geographical ................................ 73

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2.1.2.4.8 Jitter Analysis of packet loss rate ................................................................... 73


2.1.2.4.9 Table part of the meaning of Item Value ........................................................ 74
2.2 Optimize Test .................................................................................................................................... 76
2.2.1 Test Content ........................................................................................................................... 76
2.2.1.1 Cover Test................................................................................................................ 76
2.2.1.2 Throughout Test....................................................................................................... 76
2.2.1.3 Cut-over Test ........................................................................................................... 76
2.2.1.4 Calling Test.............................................................................................................. 77
2.2.1.5 Operation Test.......................................................................................................... 77
2.2.1.6 Handoff .................................................................................................................... 77
2.2.1.7 Lose Words Rate...................................................................................................... 77
2.2.2 Testing Method ...................................................................................................................... 78
2.2.2.1 DT Testing ............................................................................................................... 78
2.2.2.2 CQT Testing ............................................................................................................ 78
2.3 RF Optimizing Subject ...................................................................................................................... 79
2.3.1 RF Optimizing Goal ............................................................................................................... 79
2.3.2 Antenna Optimization ............................................................................................................ 79
2.3.3 Calibration Power Optimizing................................................................................................ 79
2.3.4 Interference’s Searching and Frequency Scanning ................................................................ 79
2.4 Access and Paging............................................................................................................................. 80
2.4.1 Basic connection flow ............................................................................................................ 80
2.4.1.1 Connection flow chart.............................................................................................. 80
2.4.1.2 Small area option and downlink synchronization .................................................... 80
2.4.1.2.1 OMC parameters chart below ........................................................................ 81
2.4.1.2.2 Physicalal Layer Parameter OMC Configuration .......................................... 82
2.4.1.3 Ranging.................................................................................................................... 82
2.4.1.3.1 Ranging parameters........................................................................................ 82
2.4.1.3.2 Ranging OMC parameter configuration......................................................... 83
2.4.1.4 SBC negotiation ability............................................................................................ 84
2.4.1.4.1 SBC parameters.............................................................................................. 84
2.4.1.4.2 SBC OMC parameters configuration ............................................................. 85
2.4.1.5 Coding and authorization......................................................................................... 87
2.4.1.5.1 OMC parameters configuration...................................................................... 87
2.4.1.6 REG ability negotiation ........................................................................................... 88
2.4.1.7 Service flow setup.................................................................................................... 88
2.4.1.8 Obtaining IP............................................................................................................. 89
2.4.2 Idle Idle model and paging flow............................................................................................. 89
2.4.2.1 The function of idle model....................................................................................... 89

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2.4.2.2 Paging chart ............................................................................................................. 90


2.4.2.3 Entering idle flow chart ........................................................................................... 90
2.4.2.4 Location update........................................................................................................ 91
2.4.2.5 Paging flow .............................................................................................................. 92
2.4.2.6 Exit idel state flow ................................................................................................... 92
2.4.2.6.1 OMC parameters configuration...................................................................... 93
2.5 Handover Technology ....................................................................................................................... 94
2.5.1 Handover types....................................................................................................................... 94
2.5.1.1 Hard Handover (HHO) ............................................................................................ 94
2.5.1.2 Fast BS Switching (FBSS)....................................................................................... 94
2.5.1.3 Macro Diversity Handover(MDHO) .................................................................. 94
2.5.2 HHO workflow....................................................................................................................... 94
2.5.3 The related parameters configure of HO ................................................................................ 95
2.5.3.1 HO configure page................................................................................................... 96
2.5.3.2 HO parameter instruction......................................................................................... 96
2.5.3.3 Neighbor configure page.......................................................................................... 97
2.5.3.4 Neighbor parameters explan .................................................................................... 98
2.5.3.5 Trigger configure ..................................................................................................... 99
2.5.3.6 Trigger parameter instruction................................................................................... 99
2.6 Power Control optimization............................................................................................................. 100
2.6.1 PC and AMC principle......................................................................................................... 100
2.6.1.1 The purpose of PC ................................................................................................. 100
2.6.1.2 The principles of PC .............................................................................................. 100
2.6.1.3 Power Control Classification ................................................................................. 100
2.6.1.4 AMC ...................................................................................................................... 101
2.6.1.5 PC and AMC arithmetic......................................................................................... 104
2.6.2 Power Control and AMC configure ..................................................................................... 104
2.6.2.1 DL Burst Profile configure .................................................................................... 104
2.6.2.2 DL Burst Profile parameters instruction ................................................................ 104
2.6.2.3 UL Burst Profile configure .................................................................................... 105
2.6.2.4 UL Burst Profile parameter instruction.................................................................. 106
2.6.2.5 AMC configure ...................................................................................................... 107
2.6.2.6 AMC frequent parameters instructions .................................................................. 108
2.6.2.7 PC configure parameters........................................................................................ 112
2.6.2.8 PC parameters explanation .................................................................................... 115
2.7 Admission and congestion control .................................................................................................. 125
2.7.1 QOS of the air-interface resource of WiMAX ..................................................................... 125
2.7.1.1 Air-interface resource ............................................................................................ 125

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2.7.1.2 Flux of subscribers’ service-flow........................................................................... 125


2.7.1.3 Types of service-flow ............................................................................................ 125
2.7.1.4 Admission and congestion control......................................................................... 127
2.7.2 Admission Control ............................................................................................................... 127
2.7.2.1 Basic principle ....................................................................................................... 127
2.7.2.2 Realization method ................................................................................................ 127
2.7.2.3 The application scene of admission control ........................................................... 127
2.7.2.4 Serveral terms considering by admission control .................................................. 128
2.7.2.5 Admission control parameters explanation............................................................ 128
2.7.2.6 Admission configure page ..................................................................................... 130
2.7.3 Congestion control ............................................................................................................... 130
2.7.3.1 Basic principle ....................................................................................................... 130
2.7.3.2 Realized mode........................................................................................................ 130
2.7.3.3 The scene of congestion control............................................................................. 131
2.7.3.4 Congestion control parameter ................................................................................ 132
2.7.3.5 Congestion control configure page ........................................................................ 133
Section3 WiMAX Terminal Introduction ..........................................................................134
3.1 Summary of frequent terminal sort summary .................................................................................. 134
3.1.1 Sort according to the shape and interface............................................................................. 134
3.1.2 Sort according to the chip vendor......................................................................................... 135
3.2 Detail configuration instruction of frequent terminal ...................................................................... 135
3.2.1 USI CPE terminal................................................................................................................. 136
3.2.1.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction..................................................... 136
3.2.1.2 Use command ........................................................................................................ 139
3.2.2 ZTE terminal (base on Beceem chip)................................................................................... 139
3.2.2.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction..................................................... 139
3.2.2.2 TTIS authentication configuration ......................................................................... 144
3.2.3 GCT terminal ....................................................................................................................... 148
3.2.3.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction..................................................... 148
3.2.3.2 Common command instruction.............................................................................. 149
3.2.3.2.1 Set frequency................................................................................................ 149
3.2.3.2.2 Print packet command.................................................................................. 149
3.2.3.2.3 Dump command ........................................................................................... 150
3.2.3.2.4 Configuration command............................................................................... 151
Section4 WiMAX Network KPI Introduction ...................................................................153
4.1 WiMAX network performance KPI introduction............................................................................ 153
4.1.1 KPI concept .......................................................................................................................... 153
4.1.2 WiMAX KPI introduce ........................................................................................................ 153

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4.1.2.1 Coverage KPI......................................................................................................... 153


4.1.2.1.1 DL/UL RSSI................................................................................................. 153
4.1.2.1.2 DL/UL CINR................................................................................................ 153
4.1.2.1.2 DL/UL Tx Power.......................................................................................... 154
4.1.2.2 System Performance KPI ....................................................................................... 154
4.1.2.2.1 Initial Access ................................................................................................ 154
4.1.2.2.2 Service Flow Setup ...................................................................................... 155
4.1.2.2.3 System Connection Drop Rate ..................................................................... 157
4.1.2.2.4 Hard Handover ............................................................................................. 157
4.1.2.2.5 Delay ............................................................................................................ 161
4.1.2.2.6 Jitter.............................................................................................................. 162
4.1.2.2.7 Packet Loss .................................................................................................. 163
4.1.2.3 KPI recommend value............................................................................................ 163
4.2 KPI statistic tool CNO2 introduction .............................................................................................. 164
4.2.1 Introduction of CNO2 .......................................................................................................... 164
4.2.2 Benefit of using CNO2......................................................................................................... 164
4.2.3 Data Characteristic of CNO2 ............................................................................................... 164
4.2.4 Advantage of CNO2............................................................................................................. 165
4.2.5 Main Operation Statistic steps of CNO2 for WiMAX ......................................................... 165

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Figure Content
Figure 1 Network Optimizing Flow............................................................................................................. 2
Figure 2 Structure of Network Optimizing Project...................................................................................... 3
Figure 3 The influence of interference on coverage .................................................................................... 9
Figure 4 The opening of the spectrum scanning method ........................................................................... 12
Figure 5 Opening of the methods of scanning the spectrum...................................................................... 12
Figure 6 Spectrum scanning parameters set............................................................................................... 13
Figure 7 Opening of the base-band interference analysis method ............................................................. 14
Figure 8 Opening of base-band interference analysis method ................................................................... 14
Figure 9 Analysis of base-band interference parameters ........................................................................... 15
Figure 10 Spectrum scan result.................................................................................................................. 16
Figure 11 The curve plot of spectrums scanning ....................................................................................... 17
Figure 12 Base-band interference analysis reported result ........................................................................ 18
Figure 13 Brief Flow for Network Evaluation........................................................................................... 24
Figure 14 Hardware configuration windows ............................................................................................. 31
Figure 15 Advanced configuration window............................................................................................... 32
Figure 16 Suspension of the dialog box testing equipment ....................................................................... 33
Figure 17 The main operation interface..................................................................................................... 34
Figure 18 Main interface title bar .............................................................................................................. 35
Figure 19 Main interface menu bar............................................................................................................ 35
Figure 20 Main interface status bar............................................................................................................ 35
Figure 21 Main interface toolbar ............................................................................................................... 36
Figure 22 Replay toolbar ........................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 23 Set replay position ..................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 24 Set replay position ..................................................................................................................... 38
Figure 25 Device Config page ................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 26 Window management page........................................................................................................ 41
Figure 27 Wireless Parameters window menu chart .................................................................................. 42
Figure 28 Chart Option dialog box ............................................................................................................ 43
Figure 29 Export Manager—Export page.................................................................................................. 44
Figure 30 Export Manager—LogMask page ............................................................................................. 45
Figure 31 Geographical display windows.................................................................................................. 47
Figure 32 Route Map window toolbar ....................................................................................................... 47
Figure 33 Control layer dialog box ............................................................................................................ 49
Figure 34 Themes Settings dialog box....................................................................................................... 50

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Figure 35 Themes setting dialog box――SetSymbol ............................................................................... 51


Figure 36 Themes setting dialog box――Auto Generate Values .............................................................. 51
Figure 37 Map parameters setting.............................................................................................................. 52
Figure 38 Custom label settings................................................................................................................. 53
Figure 39 Marking Options settings window............................................................................................. 54
Figure 40 Find cell windows...................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 41 Information display ................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 42 Information display――Values (WiMAX) ............................................................................... 56
Figure 43 Information display――Information......................................................................................... 56
Figure 44 Information display――Legend................................................................................................ 57
Figure 45 Drive test map............................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 46 Data Test windows - Test Plan Settings page ............................................................................ 58
Figure 47 Data Test window - Test page news........................................................................................... 61
Figure 48 Data Test window-data throughput of the page ...................................................................... 62
Figure 49 Data Test window-statistic page.............................................................................................. 63
Figure 50 Data Monitor windows .............................................................................................................. 64
Figure 51 WiMAX system landing interface ............................................................................................. 65
Figure 52 WiMAX basic information ........................................................................................................ 66
Figure 53 WiMAX basic information ........................................................................................................ 67
Figure 54 WiMAX air interface message .................................................................................................. 68
Figure 55 WiMAX various adjustments of the data encoding................................................................... 68
Figure 56 WiMAXView window-data throughput page ......................................................................... 69
Figure 57 Connection flow chart ............................................................................................................... 80
Figure 58 Physicalal Layer Parameter OMC Configurations .................................................................... 82
Figure 59 Ranging OMC parameter configurations................................................................................... 84
Figure 60 SBC parameters configuration-1 ............................................................................................... 86
Figure 61 SBC parameters configuration-2 ............................................................................................... 87
Figure 62 Parameters configuration of Coding and authorization ............................................................. 88
Figure 63 Chart of service flow setup........................................................................................................ 89
Figure 64 Paging chart ............................................................................................................................... 90
Figure 65 Entering idle flow chart ............................................................................................................. 91
Figure 66 Location update flow chart ........................................................................................................ 91
Figure 67 Paging flow chart....................................................................................................................... 92
Figure 68 Exit Idle flow chart.................................................................................................................... 93
Figure 69 Pagegroup OMC parameters configuration ............................................................................... 93
Figure 70 Workflow chart of HHO ............................................................................................................ 95
Figure 71 HO page configure .................................................................................................................... 96
Figure 72 OMC Neighbor configure.......................................................................................................... 98

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Figure 73 OMC Trigger configure ............................................................................................................. 99


Figure 74 OMC DL Burst Profile configure ............................................................................................ 104
Figure 75 OMC UL Burst Profile configure ............................................................................................ 106
Figure 76 AMC configure 1..................................................................................................................... 107
Figure 77 AMC configure 2..................................................................................................................... 108
Figure 78 DL AMC enable....................................................................................................................... 108
Figure 79 DL FEC.................................................................................................................................... 109
Figure 80 UL AMC enables ..................................................................................................................... 109
Figure 81 UL FEC.....................................................................................................................................110
Figure 82 DL AMC method ......................................................................................................................110
Figure 83 UL AMC methods ....................................................................................................................110
Figure 84 AMC parameter ........................................................................................................................111
Figure 85 PC configure page 1 .................................................................................................................113
Figure 86 PC configure page2 ..................................................................................................................113
Figure 87 PC configure page3 ..................................................................................................................114
Figure 88 PC configure page4 ..................................................................................................................114
Figure 89 PC configure page5 ..................................................................................................................115
Figure 90 DL PC enables ..........................................................................................................................115
Figure 91 Boosting....................................................................................................................................116
Figure 92 PC paramters ............................................................................................................................116
Figure 93 UL PC enables ..........................................................................................................................117
Figure 94 UL CINR average1 ...................................................................................................................117
Figure 95 UL CINR average 2 ..................................................................................................................118
Figure 96 UL power adjust .......................................................................................................................118
Figure 97 UL PC enables ..........................................................................................................................118
Figure 98 UL PC methods ........................................................................................................................119
Figure 99 UL PC message ....................................................................................................................... 120
Figure 100 Drop off ................................................................................................................................. 120
Figure 101 Drop off 2 .............................................................................................................................. 120
Figure 102 PC adjustment........................................................................................................................ 122
Figure 103 Subchannel limit .................................................................................................................... 123
Figure 104 Subchannel limit 2 ................................................................................................................. 123
Figure 105 DL-MAP................................................................................................................................ 124
Figure 106 Admission configure page ..................................................................................................... 130
Figure 107 Congestion control configure ................................................................................................ 133
Figure 108 Indoor CPE ............................................................................................................................ 134
Figure 109 USB Card............................................................................................................................... 134
Figure 110 Express CPE .......................................................................................................................... 135

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Figure 111 Outdoor CPE.......................................................................................................................... 135


Figure 112 USI CPE IE Configure Page.................................................................................................. 136
Figure 113 USI CPE Physical layer parameters configuration ................................................................ 137
Figure 114 USI CPE authtication IE configurations................................................................................ 138
Figure 115 USI software upgrade ............................................................................................................ 139
Figure 116 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 1............................................................................. 140
Figure 117 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 2............................................................................. 140
Figure 118 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 3............................................................................. 141
Figure 119 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 4............................................................................. 142
Figure 120 ZTE Beeccem chip parameter A............................................................................................ 143
Figure 121 ZTE Beeccem chip parameter B............................................................................................ 143
Figure 122 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 1 ............................................................... 145
Figure 123 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 2 ............................................................... 146
Figure 124 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 3 ............................................................... 147
Figure 125 ZTE Beeccem Chip authentication configuration 4 .............................................................. 148
Figure 126 GCT Card Configure page..................................................................................................... 149
Figure 127 Initial access flow .................................................................................................................. 155
Figure 128 Service setup flow ................................................................................................................. 156
Figure 129 System connection drop flow ................................................................................................ 157
Figure 130 Hard handover flow ............................................................................................................... 159
Figure 131 Hard handover duration flow................................................................................................. 161
Figure 132 Land interface........................................................................................................................ 166
Figure 133 Template management interface ............................................................................................ 166
Figure 134 Create indexes template......................................................................................................... 167
Figure 135 Analysis tool interface ........................................................................................................... 167
Figure 136 Choose statistic indexes interface.......................................................................................... 168
Figure 137 Statistic result interface ......................................................................................................... 168

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TABLE CONTENT
Table 1 Information of Interference in DT................................................................................................. 7
Table 2 Noise Floor List of XX Site .......................................................................................................... 7
Table 3 Main Interference List in Each Frequency Band at Site 1............................................................. 8
Table 4 Running the ZXPOS CNT1 ........................................................................................................ 34
Table 5 State of the status icon function .................................................................................................. 36
Table 6 Note the toolbar button................................................................................................................ 36
Table 7 Toolbar help replay function ....................................................................................................... 37
Table 8 The main interface toolbar .......................................................................................................... 39
Table 9 Toolbar button functions instructions.......................................................................................... 47
Table 10 WiMAX basic information.......................................................................................................... 67
Table 11 Specific abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 70
Table 12 OMC Physicalal Layer Parameter............................................................................................... 81
Table 13 Ranging parameter introduction.................................................................................................. 83
Table 14 SBC parameters introduction ...................................................................................................... 85
Table 15 UL FEC ..................................................................................................................................... 102
Table 16 DL FEC ..................................................................................................................................... 102
Table 17 DIUC recommended value........................................................................................................ 105
Table 18 UIUC recommended configure ................................................................................................. 106
Table 19 Table of admission control parameter explanation.................................................................... 128
Table 20 Congestion control parameters explanation .............................................................................. 132
Table 21 KPI reference value................................................................................................................... 163

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Section1 Wireless Network Planning and


Optimization Process
 Knowledge

 Basic process introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Requirement analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level1

 Spectrum scan----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level1

 Single station test -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Calibration test ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Network evaluation before optimization ----------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 BS cluster optimization ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level2

 Whole network optimization and network evaluation ------------------------------------------------ Level2

 Project acceptance test and report hand in --------------------------------------------------------------Level2

1.1 Basic Process Introduction


Network optimizing is a significant point during the wireless network constructing, the function of
wireless network always varies while the network is developing, subscriber amount is increasing and
subscriber distribution altered. Therefore, network optimization is to guarantee the network function will
satisfy the subscribers all the time.
The complete flow of wireless network optimization is shown as figure 1.The unnecessary stages in
this flow will be cancelled according to the client’s requirement and project situation in actual network
optimizing projects. For the optimization of the third party, stages should be selected base on the contract of
network optimization.

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Figure 1 Network Optimizing Flow


The wireless propogation environment should be ensured firlstly in the process of network optimizing,
and then the problems in the network should be solved step by step form part to entire (from single BS to
cluster then to whole network).
The functions of main stages in network optimization are as below:
1. Requirements analysis: to understand the working target and obtain useful information.
2. Spectrum scanning: to ensure the wireless environment (without interference).
3. Sample station inspection: to ensure a single station works well.
4. BS cluster optimization: to ensure a part of network area works well.
5. Entire network optimization: to ensure the whole network works well.
A network optimizing project may adopt the organization structure as a network programming project,
which is shown as figure 2.

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Figure 2 Structure of Network Optimizing Project

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1.2 Requirement Analysis


The purpose of requirement analysis is to obtain the detail requirement of a project, including the
client’s anticipation about the result optimized, the standard of checking and acceptance.
According to the normal process, the network is already active at this stage; detail information can be
collected via communicating with clients. For the network optimization executed by equipment vendor or
program designed corporation, the relevant information should be collected by internal approach.
In this stage, some information needs collecting and some content needs confirming, such as to know the
requirement of coverage and capacity, including the scope of optimizing area, the scope of essential area
and the wireless environment of optimizing area, especially the information of area that has particular
requirement about data capacity. These areas should be ensured essentially in an optimization process.
1. To obtain the information of current network, including the longitude/latitude, station type,
antenna height, sector orientation, declination angle, antenna model, feeder line length,
emission power, area wireless parameter programming, etc.
2. To collect the system parameter configuration, including the basic parameters of physicals
layout and MAC layout, power control and AMC, handoff parameter, acceptance and
congestion control parameters, calling group configuration and IP address scheme, etc.
3. To collect problems of the current network, including client’s complaint and feedback from
other paths, especially the most urgent problem which client can not suffer should be solved
essentially.
4. To confirm the checking standard of each sub-project, the checking standard should be clear
in the contract of network optimization; if it is not clear, these information should be
confirmed at the requirement analysis stage; every sub-project in the network optimization
should have checking standard, otherwise it will be difficult to confirm whether the
optimizing work achieve the standard.
5. To confirm the parameter of each project under testing: including the selection standard,
calling mode requirement, testing period configuration (busy, null, load) of the testing path
and testing point.
6. To confirm the division between client and us: confirm what task the client should do and
what resource the client should provide.
For item 4, only if the network optimization is at the third party, the last 3items will be confirmed with
client together.

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1.3 Spectrum Scan


1.3.1 Scanning overview
Spectrum scanning is to know whether the interference exists in the system spectrum, including
scanning and interference checking. Generally, the scanning is needed; the interference checking should be
implemented by the company which has the relevant intelligence. Spectrum scanning is conducted for
confirming whether there existing interference within the working frequency band and selects proper
channel number with no or little interference for the current network. In the WiMAX system, the TDD
mode is adopted by the network, so scanning either uplink or downlink is enough.

1.3.2 Scanning test type and test tools


1.3.2.1 Test type
The spectrum scanning can be classified into two types: drive test and fixed location test. The
drive test can find possible areas with interference but it cannot identify the accurate locations of
interference sources. While the spectrum scanning at fixed locations can search out more detailed
information about interfering frequencies, such as their direction and position, strength, etc. Select
the test type depending on the actual situation; referring to the Regulations of Frequency Scanning.

1.3.2.2 Test tools


1. Spectrum Analyzer
2. Omni antenna type and antenna gain
3. Filter loss
4. LNA gain
5. Proper RF cable (confirm cable loss)
6. GPS receiver
7. PCMCIA card (or Flash memory/Serial cable/Floppy disk)
8. Laptop

1.3.2.3 Spectrum analyzer parameters setting


1. Central frequency
2. Scanning band span
3. Scan time span
4. Resolution Band Width (RBW): 10 kHz (or actual RBW)
5. Ref level
6. Attenuation

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1.3.3 Test procedure


1.3.3.1 Drive test procedure
1. Determine the test routes. It is required that the test routes passes through the whole coverage
area as much as possible.
2. Connect the test devices; set the resolution band width (RBW) as 10 kHz; the band width is
XX MHz~XX MHz.
3. Conduct the DT on the designated routes, recording the variation information of the signal
when passing on different paths.
4. Analyze the test data.

1.3.3.2 Fixed location test procedure


1. Select the test points;
2. Locate with the GPS, recording the longitude and latitude of test points;
3. Connect the test devices, and set the test software properly;
4. Without antenna connection, measure noise floor of the spectrum analyzer. Note that the RBW
setting during this step should be accorded with that used in the actual frequency scanning process.
If the noise floor is normal, go on to the next steps; otherwise, check out whether the spectrum
analyzer can work properly.
5. Connect antenna, filter, etc., and measure the noise floor of target frequency band, then save
the result;
6. Interference test: Measure the interference within target frequency band. Note that reserve the
test data after the peak value is keeping stable. Repeat such test, until all uplink and downlink
frequency bands which need to be measured have been tested. Save results.
7. When the test is finished, output the recorded data or related figure files and complete the test
report.

1.3.4 Analysis of test data


1.3.4.1 Analysis of drive test data
According to the DT in XX service area, it is found that there exist interference signals within the
tested frequency bands (including in the uplink and downlink). The detailed information about the
interference is as follows:
1. Distribution figure of positions with interference: mark the positions where there exists
interference in the figure and make a serial number for each position.

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2. Figure of signals received in positions where there exists interference: provide the frequency
spectrum figure featuring the interfering signal. For each position, present a corresponding
frequency spectrum figure, which can be named after “Interference at the position X”.

Data analysis: describe the information of interference in a table like follows. “Position of
interference” means the geographic position of the interference. If ensure interference occurs in
several positions, present the position where the interference is the strongest.

Table 1 Information of Interference in DT

Peak
Position of Center frequency of Interference
Power
interference Interference (MHz) Bandwidth (kHz)
(dBm)

Information of
Interference in
DT

1.3.4.2 Analysis of fixed location test data


1. Figures of frequency spectrum during frequency scanning: the figure of frequency spectrum
generally contains two parts: the background noise and interfering frequency spectrum of each
band. Present a figure of interference frequency spectrum for each band; the figure of frequency
spectrum is also demanded even though no interference exists in the band.
2. Table of data analysis: background noise measurement means measuring the background noise
of the frequency scanning apparatus without the built-out antenna. Conduct such measurement at
all sites, with the main purpose of checking out if the frequency scanning apparatus has set
properly. If several RBW settings are used during the test, it needs to measure the background
noise under each RBW setting and list them in the following table.

Table 2 Noise Floor List of XX Site

Table Frequency Band (or Noise Floor without Noise Floor with
Channel Number) Antenna (dBm) Antenna (dBm) Remark

Note: There are only major interference being listed in the above “Interference list”, the interference
intensity (power) being generally above -105dBm. In terms of the weaker interferences, they can be

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consulted from the above frequency spectrum figure. This requirement is the same to the following
test points.

Table 3 Main Interference List in Each Frequency Band at Site 1

Central Frequency Interference Equivalent Peak


of Interference Bandwidth Peak Power Power Relative to
(MHz) (kHz) (dBm) RBW (kHz) RBW=10kHz (dBm)
450.048 20 -70 10 -70
450.12 40 -84 100 -94

1.3.5 Analysis of interference in service areas


According to the test result of DT, present the areas with relatively strong interference and describe the
interference details;
According to the test result of the point test, supply the information of the sites with relatively serious
interference;
Present the information of the frequency bands within which there is relatively much interference;
Present the primary analysis about the interfering signals (for example, showing whether the
interference signal is regular or not), along with the rough range of the interference intensity (power).
According to the result of frequency scanning, we can get the following conclusions:

1.3.5.1 The influence of external interference


If interference exists in radio system, it can influence all performance and the most important
influence is coverage radius (reverse coverage radius especially).
Since WIMAX is a spread spectrum communications system, the low power and narrow
bandwidth interference only influence less WIMAX system, but the high power and wide
bandwidth interference can interference seriously WIMAX system. There is an example to
calculate the influence.
An interference calculation example is given in 2500MHz WIMAX system, because there are
some PTT systems, radio access system and many illegal users, these high power and wide
bandwidth interference will influence seriously the 2500MHz WIMAX system if it is set up.
If the interference with 20KHz bandwidth and average –70dBm spectrum power is spread over
1.23MHz bandwidth of WIMAX system, then the rise over thermal (ROT) at BTS receiver is
–70+10log10(20/1230)=-87.89dBm. The thermal noise without interference is –108dBm, so this
interference makes thermal noise rise 20dB.

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According to Hata formula:


L(dB)  46.3  33.9 log10 f MHz  13.82 log10 h1   (h2 )  (44.9  6.55 log10 h1 ) log10 d km  Cm
 (h2 )  3.2(log10 11.75h2 ) 2  4.97
Cm  3(In Urban Area)

If BTS antenna height is 30 meters, mobile antenna is 1.5 meters, B is 80 present and frequency
band is 2500MHz, so above formula can be changed:
L(dB)  129.82  35.22 log10 d km
The BTS sensitivity is invariable value, so the link budget coverage radius should decrease when
the thermal noise is raised 20dB. According to above formula:

d km1
L  129.82  35.22 log10 d km1  129.82  35.22 log10 d km 2  35.22 log10 ( )
d km 2
L
d km1
So:  10 35.22  3.7
d km 2
This means that the coverage radius decrease 1/3.7 times.

1.3.5.2 The influence of external interference on coverage


Now give an example, the influence of interference on coverage is as follows:

relationship between equivalent interference and coverage radius

100.00%
present of coverage radius and area

90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
decrease

radius
50.00%
area
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
-108 -104 -100 -96 -92 -88
equivalent interference(dBm)

Figure 3 The influence of interference on coverage

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1.3.5.3 According to the result of frequency scanning export


conclusions and scanning report.
When finished the scanning test, we need to make conclusions and export scanning report. The
report format can refer to < WiMAX spectrum scanning report template>.

1.3.6 System OMC uplink spectrum scanning instruction


1.3.6.1 Overview
The guide book is writed for WiMAX wireless network optimization. The WiMAX technology
has initially with my colleagues in the background, you can directly refer to the instructions of the
work flow and processing methods.
The guide book is writed for the guidance of WiMAX wireless interference investigation work
environment.
The main method is to clear away the use of system functions to locate and troubleshoot
interference. It supports the functions of the above version 3.20.02B1 version.

1.3.6.2 Uplink spectrum scanning function


1.1 Introduction
Uplink spectrum scanning includes two functional modules, the spectrum scanning and
analysis of base-band interference.
1.1.1 Spectrum Scan
Spectrum scanning function is defined as a prerequisite for access to non-users, in the specified
uplink Segment (also designated carrier) on the specified antenna configuration of the entire
channel bandwidth for the sub-carrier power (average power or peak power) scan, and reported the
results of scanning to the background, which can be configured in the background shows the whole
bandwidth of the spectrum (the power of all subcarriers), channel bandwidth and PAPR RSSI,
similar to the function of spectrum analyzer.
1.1.2 Analysis of base-band interference
For broadband interference, RSSI can be observed in general to judge, therefore, interfere with
the analysis of base-band narrowband interference only. Through the analysis of base-band
frequency spectrum characteristics of each symbol in order to determine whether there is
interference. If there is interference, will be the peak position (interference location) average
(subcarriers), and peak position of the variance, more than the ratio threshold, such as the specific
results reported to the background.
1.2 The purposes and the basic principles of base-band interference analysis
1.2.1The purpose of base-band interference analysis

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The received signals of WiMAX system, beside we need the terminal signal, may also include
other source signals, the source of the signal system where if falls on WiMAX channel bandwidth,
and up to a certain intensity, the interference has become. WiMAX systems will interfere with a
certain degree of performance degradation, such as access would cause some users uploading and
downloading speeds drop, performance instability. Serious interference will lead terminal unable to
access network and so on. Analysis of base-band interference is in accordance with the purpose of
setting the parameters of the background base-band sampling and analysis, from the surface to
determine whether there is interference. If there is interference, it will interfere with the analysis of
the results (such as the interference location) reported to the background, so that we can know
which band is the existence of interference in the band WiMAX system settings, you can
circumvent the interference of these frequencies, to improve the WiMAX system performance.
1.2.2 The principle of base-band interference analysis
According to base-band received frequency domain data for each sub-carrier power calculation,
and through 22 sub-carrier power comparison between the subcarriers from the largest power, as
peak power, and then divided by the peak power of all other sub-carrier average power , the PAPR.
The use of PAPR calculated with the background set the threshold for comparison, if the reporting
period exceeds the threshold PAPR specific ratio of the proportion of the background set to
illustrate the existence of interference, the results will be reported to the background interference.
1.3 Use instructions
1.3.1 Start conditions
WiMAX systems operating normally, the background of the single window alarms (CSIM,
MPIM, and WBPM) without warning. No user access (a user can start the scan access, but may
interfere with the baseband business and affect the results of the analysis)
1.3.2 Start Methods
1.3.2.1 Spectrum Scan
Select [View → System Tools → Analysis of RF / Views → System Tools → RF Analysis]
menu, enter the "spectrum scanning / Spectrum Scan" interface. Please refer to follow Figure 4
and Figure 5.
The more detail operation of spectrum scanning, please refer to the document of<WiMAX spectrum
scanning guidance>.

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Figure 4 The opening of the spectrum scanning method

Figure 5 Opening of the methods of scanning the spectrum

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Select [Scan Settings spectrum / Set] or click the icon on the toolbar settings to scan the network
element / NE setting, and choose to scan the antenna / Select antenna, the type of scan / Scan type
setting (power scan or peak power scan), the duration of scanning / Report working hours (m), the data
reported to the cycle / Report period (s) and so on. As follow figure 6.

Figure 6 Spectrum scanning parameters set

Choose [to start scanning the spectrum / Start] or click the icon on the toolbar to start scanning.

1.3.2.2 Analysis of base-band interference


Select [View → System Tools → Analysis of RF / Views → System Tools → RF Analysis] menu,
enter the "base-band interference analysis / Interfere Analyse" interface. As follow Figure 7 and Figure 8.

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Figure 7 Opening of the base-band interference analysis method

Figure 8 Opening of base-band interference analysis method

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Select [base-band interference analysis set / Set] or click the icon on the toolbar settings to scan the
network element / NE setting, and choose to scan the antenna / Select antenna, the duration of
scanning / Report working hours (m), data reported to the cycle / Report period (s) and so on. In the
"threshold PAPR" / PAPR threshold (dB) text box, enter the PAPR threshold value specific value, unit
of dB; in the "threshold than the proportion of over peak value" / Overrun PAPR threshold (%) text
box Enter "Over peak value threshold than the proportion of" the specific value of 0.01 units, enter the
20 representatives of 20%, as shown in Figure 6. Here, to determine whether to select the threshold of
interference is crucial. If the selected threshold is too low, more power will be part of the normal data
ruled Dead; if selected threshold is too high may result in undetected Dead. According to "Simulation
Analysis of Interference Rejection Report V1.1", a number of interference statistics to determine the
threshold rate and the miscarriage of justice under the ignore judge rate, and bit error rate value, and
ultimately set the threshold for interference: QPSK way to determine the interference threshold to
10.5dB, 16QAM interference approach to determine the threshold 12.5dB, check the nearest whole
number can be input. Over peak value threshold proportion can input according to requirements.

Figure 9 Analysis of base-band interference parameters

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Choose [the beginning of base-band interference analysis / Start] or click the icon on the toolbar to
start scanning.
1.3.3 Stop method
1.3.2.3 Spectrum Scan
Select [stop spectrum scanning / Stop] or click on the toolbar to stop scanning. To stop the success of
the interface in the log to stop the success of tips given. To stop the failure of the interface in the log the
reasons for failure are given prompt.
1.3.2.4 Analysis of base-band interference
Select [Analysis of base-band to stop scanning / Stop] or click on the toolbar to stop scanning. To
stop the success of the interface in the log to stop the success of tips given. To stop the failure of the
interface in the log the reasons for failure are given prompt.
Reported the results of 1.3.2.4
1. Spectrum scanning:
Open Scan function if successful, will be given in the log to open a successful interface prompts; in
the "spectrum scanning table," observed reported RSSI, PAPR, such as data, network element every
cycle, a return to a news report in the spectrum scanning Table interface to add a record, as shown in
Figure 10.

Figure 10 Spectrum scan result


In the "scan curve plot of the spectrum" can be observed that the bandwidth of the spectrum graphics,
as shown in Figure 11:

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Figure 11 The curve plot of spectrums scanning


Map abscissa bandwidth on behalf of the band, the representative of power ordinate.
Clear away function if the failure to open, in the log the reasons for failure are given prompt
interface.
2. Baseband interference analysis:
If you open the base-band interference analysis of the success of the interface is given in the log to
open a successful tips. If the open fails, the log gives the reasons for failure prompted interface.
After the success of start, if there is interference (ie, memory cycles calculated in the base-band
sub-carrier average power ratio PAPR PAPR set the background threshold high, and the proportion above
the threshold set to meet or exceed the proportion of the background), will be the peak position
(interference location) average (subcarriers), and peak position of the variance, more than the ratio
threshold, such as the specific results reported to the background. If every report period returns a
message, in the spectrum scanning interface will add a record, as shown in Figure 12.

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Figure 12 Base-band interference analysis reported result


Reported the results of three major parameters:
1. The peak location (the location of interference) average / Interference Location Average, 2. That is
the figure reported to the sub-carrier, 3. From No. subcarriers can be provided in accordance with the
method followed to calculate the frequency bands where interference.
4. Peak location variance / Interference Location Variance, 5. This parameter can be compared to
determine whether interference with a fixed location in the same 6. The peak position of the variance is
zero, at one place, as the Figure peak location variance is zero of 512. 7. That interference in the 512
fixed on the sub-carrier. The deviation value is more small, 8. Interference occurred in the more fixed
position, 9. Contrarily. 10. The location of interference 11 not more fixed.
12. More than the specific ratio of the threshold / Over Threshold Ration, 13. The main report shows
that in a cycle, 14. PAPR exceeds a set threshold ratio.
If there is no interference, then there will be no background in data reporting. The definition of
interference is related to the setting threshold of PAPR and the proportion of the over threshold value.
Notes: 1. Background PAPR threshold set to 0 when data should be reported, but there is not
interference.
2. Detection of interference, the need to constantly adjust the settings background PAPR threshold, so
that the peak position reported to minimize the variance (preferably 0), this report should be the peak
position is relatively fixed to the existence of interference the location of the. Bandwidth on the 10M and
7M, the peak position of 512, corresponding to its center frequency; 5M bandwidth for the peak position

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of 256, corresponding to its center frequency. 10M, 5M width of each sub-carrier is about 10K, 7M about
7K, it can interfere with the location value, center frequency, the width of each subcarrier to calculate
about the existence of band interference, this can also scan curves with the spectrum to see.
3. To detect the existence of band interference can be by modifying the system to the center frequency
band to avoid interference.

1.3.6.3 Other notes


WiMAX as a result of the current agreements and products are constantly improved, updated
hardware and software faster than each of the requirements and objectives of the test is not entirely
consistent. Up-to-date information, therefore, to understand the changes in the parameters, the complete
network optimization is a necessary condition for network optimization is also a goal.
The guide book may be the upgrade version of change.

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1.4 Single Station Test


1.4.1 Single station test scope and objective
This document describes drive test and network statistics acceptance test procedure for Preliminary
Acceptance (PA), Final Acceptance (FA) & Stability Acceptance (SA) and RF systems performance criteria
for a WiMAX 802.16e wireless network using hardware and software provided by vendor.
The purpose of single station testing is to make sure each station works well, to avoid someone affects
the entire performance. The single test main include two parts: Single site verification test and Coverage
area verification test.

1.4.2 Single station test verification requirement


1.4.2.1 Single site verification RNP
Singles site verification (SSV) shall be one of requirement for the WiAMX Rollout network to
achieve service readiness.
On completion of site installation, the vendor shall perform alarm parameter consistency check
before site activation.
The drive test routes shall include serving areas for 3 sectors and to have handover between sectors.
The drive test measurement shall be conducted on normal working day within 9am to 10 am.
Vehicle speed should not be more than 70km/h.
The vendor shall perform single site Verification by having RSSI and CINR Coverage scanning for
all sector. Single Site Verification report is to be submitted no later more than 2 days after site
activation. The report shall include but not limited to the following: Site information, Defined
measurement test routes, Drive test coverage plot, and Drive test measurement logs.
Coverage scanning includes RSSI and CINR & Tx Power data collection. Basic functionality test
include: Call setup (VoIP), Packet setup (FTP), Download and upload Throughput (FTP), Intra-site
handover.

1.4.2.2 Coverage area verification


All data shall be collected in mobility condition and test areas within the designed service
coverage area. The “designed service coverage area” is defined as the coverage polygon. The
data collected shall be evenly distributed within the designed service coverage area.

1.4.2.3 Coverage area KPI target


Data shall be collected under mobility condition and complete agreed drive test route.

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Field measurements by drive tests (air interface measurements) will be carried out to measure and
validate the coverage of the cluster. Drive tests shall be performed using WiMAX scanner and
having statistically significant number of data.
All data collected shall be logged and recorded for post-processing and verification.

For Single Site Verification(SSV), the KPIs target are:


At least 90% of the measured downlink RSSI shall be greater or equal to -85dBm.
At least 90% of the measured downlink CINR shall be greater or equal to 10dB.

1.4.3 Single station test verification contents


1.4.3.1 Single site information verification
Before Single Site Verification test, We must confirm the following site information:

 Radio Specification: Antenna Azimuth, Mechanical Down Tilt, Antenna


Type, Antenna Height
 Cell Configurations: BS_ID, Frequency, Preamble_Index, TxPower

1.4.3.2 Functional test verification


Functional test must include the following:

 Functional Test: Network Access, Ping Test, Throughput Test, Intra-site


HO, Inter-site HO

1.4.3.3 Drive test result


After drive test, we export coverage test plot.

 Drive test Plot : Drive Test Route, RSSI Coverage Plot, CINR Coverage
Plot, Tx Power Plot

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1.4.4 Coverage test verification contents


1.4.4.1 Configuration information
In first part give planned and optimization configuration information, it must include the
following site information:

 Site_ID, Cell_ID, BS_ID, Cluster, Azimuth, M_Tilt, Frequency,


Premble_Index , TX_Power, Antenna_Height

1.4.4.2 Coverage polygon


In this part there should be coverage polygon plot. The RSSI of polygon layer is more than -85
dBm. The CINR of polygon layer is more than 10 dB.

1.4.4.3 Coverage street information


The report should give a table file of coverage street name, and a mapinfo file of coverage
polygon.

1.4.5 Single station and coverage test verification report


When finished the verificatiost test, we need to collect test results and export test verification report.
The report format can refer to the document of < WiMAX single site verification report template>.

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1.5 Calibration Test


Adjustment test is used for testing the loss in different environment, so that the coverage of other
environment can be calculated according to the data of the environment that has been tested.
Adjustment test consists of items below during network optimizing:
1. Indoor penetrating loss testing
i. This process is to test the loss between Indoor and outdoor, in order to know the Indoor coverage
situation according to the drive test.
ii. Through the concurrent test of two terminals Indoor and outdoor, the Indoor penetrating loss
can be obtained according to the receiving power of the weo terminals.
2. Vehicle antenna adjustment test
i. This process is to test the loss of vehicle antenna; it is used for the tools which need vehicle
antenna. The test result of inside vehicle can be deduced according to the vehicle antenna testing.
ii. Put the antenna of testing tool inside or on the top of the vehicle, according to the signal
strength, the gain between vehicle antenna and inside can be obtained.
3. MS antenna test
i. This process is to test the signal difference between the MS antenna and inside vehicle, the
inside coverage effect can be deduced according to the testing data of MS antenna.
ii. Connect the MS antenna with the vehicle top and test the receiving power, compare with the
receiving power of inside vehicle, the antenna gain in normal situation can be obtained.
4. Test of average penetrating loss in vehicle
i. Test the signal difference between inside and outside vehicle, calculate the outside
communicating position according to the inside testing data, such as the coverage effect of
pedestrian path.
ii. Put two terminals at normal positions inside and outside the vehicle, test using PING package
concurrently, and make a record of the receiving power in both circumstances, the penetrating
loss can be got after comparing.
All adjustment testing should use multiple test points, the final value should be the mean value.
When the testing values are being preceded, the coverage effect of different environment can be obtained
according to the test result inside vehicle.
If the condition of above equipments (including vehicles) are not in accord, the adjustment testing should
be added in the CNT1 and get the loss roaming value, to assure the modification of testing tool will not
affece the accuracy of result.
If the condition of above equipments (including vehicles) are not in accord, the adjustment testing should
be added in the CNT1 and get the loss roaming value, to assure the modification of testing tool will not
affece the accuracy of result.

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1.6 Network Evaluation before Optimization


Before optimization, to estimate the situation of network has effect in two aspects: 1. to compare with the
network after optimization and know the optimizing effect; 2. to find out the problem in current network,
this will be the guidance for network optimization in future.
Tasks in this stage:
The flow of network estimation is show as figure 13.

Figure 13 Brief Flow for Network Evaluation


Tasks in this stage include:
1. Confirm whether OMC data can be provided, transitted network needs to be coordinated;
confirm whether the data estimation is needed.
2. Define the parameters which are confirmed by the contract and client. If no requirement is in
the contract, the parameters should be defined as universal values or sub-branch company

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confirmed; the parameters include test path of DT(drive test), test point of CQT(call qualty test),
test time, calling method; and confirm the test method for data operation, such as FTP or Iperf.
3. Confirm the estimating project and standard, if this is not provided, it should be given by
client; if client can not do this, and general standard should be involved for estimation.
4. Make a plan: including the requirement of time, staff and resource. Time should be
confirmed by client, DT、CQT and OMC can be operated in parallel or serial according to
the requirement of resource and time.
5. Data collection: DT test, CQT test, and OMC data collection should be operated according
to predefined parameters:
i. DT test consists of urban DT and main roads DT, record datas DL received, such as RSSI,
CINR, inverse emission power, connection times, successful connection times, lost
connection times, DL/UL data rate, handoff times, handoff delay, etc.
ii. CQT test is operated in dense urban area only, which is to test voice and data. Record datas
DL received, such as RSSI, CINR, inverse emission power, connection times, successful
connection times;
iii. OMC target is the entire network data, which generally includes successful calling rate, lost
rate, and adjust according to the client’s target.
6. Data process: obtain the result of estimated project according to the standard and data
clooected before, such as RSSI coverage, CINR coverage, maximum data rate, DT, CQT and
OMC should be treated respectively.
7. Marking: mark DT, CQT and OMC repectively and then get the total mark.
8. Problem analysis: analyze the problem area according to the estimated result, find out the
problem, such as handoff causes lost, block induces bad coverage.
9. Planning suggeation: the suggestion for network construction should be given according to
the current problems, to solve the network problem is first aim of network problem in this stage.
Write the report for network estimation, network estimation finish after client confirm.

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1.7 BS Cluster Optimization


The purpose of BS cluster optimization is to locate in sections and solve problems in the network, which
may have peoblems in network estimation, cluster testing and others. Frequent problems are: low quality
voice, high lost rate, and calling difficulty, low data rate, calling failure, long setup time and low successful
handoff rate.
Tasks of BS cluster optimization are introduced as below:
For a large network, especially an unfinished projest, or malfunction BS is in a network, it is necessary to
divide the whole network into small clusters, and optimize one by one. This method decreases the difficulty
of optimization, which is named as cluster optimization.
BS cluster optimization includes tasks below:
1. BS cluster division
i. The entire network should be divided into clusters before optimization, generally less than
19 BTS (BS amount in standard network topology), overlap should exist between
contiguous BSs.
ii. BS cluster is marked by the standards below: topography business requirement. The areas
have particularly needs in data or voice should be marked in the same cluster, so problems
can be solved easier. The areas which have same problems in networks should be marked in
the same cluster.
2. BS cluster optimization:
i. BS clusters can be optimized in serial or parallel according to the resource siyuation and
time requirement.
ii. Solve problems in different topics: such as coverage, business, handoff, etc.
iii. Base on the information about problems of network estimation and cluster test, engineers
analyze the problems and make the solution.
iv. After the adjustment is implemented (including the site adjustment and parameter
adjustment), engineers should test the area where problems exist; if problems have been
solved, go to next stage, otherwise it should be analyzed again.
v. After all problems have been solved, engineers should test the entire BS cluster and collect
information of acceptance checking; it meets the acceptance, go to optimize the next cluster,
otherwise the affecting elements should be analyzed and optimize furthermore.
vi. After every BS cluster meets the standard of acceptance checking, go to optimize the entire
network.

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1.8 Whole Network Optimization and Network Evaluation


After all BS clusters have been optimized, the entire network needs optimizing to solve the problem
between BS clusters. When the retire network meets the requirement, the network function can be known
by estimation.
Tasks in this stage:
After all BS clusters optimization has been finished, systems in most areas should work well, but in some
area, especially the clusters overlapped area, problems might exist. These parts should be adjusted
considering function guide to achieve the final target of network optimization. The working flow is as
below:
1. Understand the optimizing purpose which is the target should be achieved.
2. Confirm the testing route, including all important coverage area.
3. All around driving test.
4. Analyze testing data, find out problems in the network and make an adjusting scheme.
5. Implement the scheme and test to verify.
6. Analyze the testing data, comfirm whether it achieves the prospective target. If it achieves,
go to next problem, otherwise optimize further.
7. If all problems have been solved, go to the network estimation after optimization, test the
optimized area according to the acceptance checking standard.

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1.9 Project Acceptance Test and Report Hand in


Project acceptance checking is to test the project according to the contract or agreement. The inspecting
standard is in the contract or agreement. Tasks in this stage include items as below:
1. Make a plan, start testing after the person who is charge of this confirms.
2. Determine the testing route and set the parameters according to the contract or agreement; if no
regulation is in the contract, we should consult with client; the CQT test is probably needed based
on the contract.
3. Test and record the data in background, write <checking testing report> according to the data; if the
nerwork meets the standard, write <wireless network optimizing report>; if the network not meets
the standard, check after analyzing and solving problems; client’s staff should participate in the the
process of testing and analyzing to guarantee the the result and report can be admitted by client.
4. Report should be handed in to the client after checking, communicate and introduce the process,
problems, optimizing implements and result, according to the report, <checking and acceptance
report> and <acceptance and checking report>, client confirm the effect of optimization.

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Section2 Network Planning Issue


 Knowledge

 Optimization test tool introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Optimization test -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 RF optimization subject -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Access and paging ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level1

 Handover technology --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level2

 Power control optimization -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Level2

 Receive control and congest control--------------------------------------------------------------------- Level3

 MIMO technology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level4

 HARQ technology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level4

 FFR technology -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Level3

2.1 Optimization Test Tool Introduction


2.1.1 Optimization test tool CNT introduction
2.1.1.1 Overview
WiMAX network optimization tests were aimed at knowing the work status of the network through
signal test. Prepare to optimization and adjusting for the network, Optimization of the current
equipment is ZXPOS CNT1 software, GPS, GCT card.
This document will be introduced this system to install and use the CNT.

2.1.1.2 The use of ZXPOS CNT1


2.1.1.2.1 Test process

1. According to the test need to select hardware devices (hardware option for the GPS, GCT card
terminal).
2. Received computer equipment (please refer to equipment manuals, equipment, connectivity and
understanding of the operation parameter configuration).
3. Running ZXPOS CNT1, testing of the equipment on the computer port. Test software will
automatically identify the type of equipment and the completion of the configuration parameters
related to communications (equipment testing method of the parade, please refer to 2.1.1.2.2 of this

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chapter).

4. Click on Main Menu [File → Save ...] or click the toolbar to enter the test mode, save the
test data. At this point test software from a variety of devices to read the test parameters, and save

documents in the test. If the test does not save data, click the toolbar button , enter the test mode
LIVE.
5. Through the main menu on the [WiMAXView], the function of various window open to observe
the wireless parameters.

6. The test is completed, click the toolbar , you can stop recording the test data.
7. Exit the ZXPOS CNT1.

2.1.1.2.2 Hardware detection and configuration

Hardware detection and configuration is in the Explorer window of the Device Config page. ZXPOS
CNT1 hardware detection offers two ways: the attention of the G card WiMAX terminal CNT
software must be running before the insertion port, otherwise it is impossible to detect.
1. Manual detection: the need for the user to confirm the device connected to the port, as well as
types of test equipment. Realizing that the equipment connected to the port, as well as the type of
device, they can quickly complete the configuration of equipment.
Steps are as follows:
i. Click on Device Config page Explorer window, the window shows a tree of all the ports on your
computer.
ii. Click on the port connection of the equipment.
iii. Click the right mouse button, pop-up shortcut menu and select the type of equipment testing:
GPS device is connected click [Detect GPS];
iv. At this time the name of the port in the back, will show the current state of testing. If the
equipment successfully detected, the port will automatically mount the following device name. If
testing fails, what ports do not show the back (when the detection fails, the users need to refer to
equipment manuals, carefully testing equipment, as well as the connecting device parameter
settings).
2. Automatic detection: test software to scan all the ports, the port automatically detects the device.
Scan all the ports, often rather time-consuming.
3. Steps are as follows:
i. Click on Device Config page Explorer window, the window shows a tree of all the ports on your
computer.
ii. Click the right mouse button, pop-up shortcut menu, click on [Auto Detect All].
iii. At this time the name of the port in the back, will show the current state of testing. If the
equipment successfully detected, the port will automatically mount the following device name. If
testing fails, what ports do not show the back (when the detection fails, the users need to refer to

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equipment manuals, carefully testing equipment, as well as the connecting device parameter
settings).
4. Intelligent Detection: ZXPOS CNT1 will check and test equipment by previous hardware
configuration, if the device is detected the same with last time, it will enter automatically the Live
Testing mode. When the equipment and their connection mode are fixed, it is the fastest check and
test mode.
Flexibility uses the three testing methods that can enhance the work efficiency.

2.1.1.2.3 Hardware configuration interface introduced

Hardware configuration of the interface is located in the Explorer window Device Config page,
Figure 14 has been configured for the hardware after the completion of the Device Configure
window.

Figure 14 Hardware configuration windows


1. Build In:
i Sim Navigator: Simulation of GPS, when the computer does not have a GPS device and any
connected or not mandatory Indoor Navigator when selected, the system will automatically use the
simulation of internal GPS, the GPS will automatically generate random GPS positioning information.
ii Indoor Navigator: If the Indoor test, select this.
2. COM: hardware serial number is located.

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3. Right Menu:
i. Detect GPS: detected on the selected serial port GPS;
ii.Detect Phone: detected on the selected serial port terminal;
iii.Detect PNScanner: detected on the selected serial port PNScanner;
iv.Auto Detect Drv: serial port on the selected type of automatic hardware detection;
v. Auto Detect All: detected in all serial port hardware;
vi. Smart Detect Dev: according to the previous devices, the intelligent detection;
vii. Delete Device: delete the selected hardware device;
viii. Delete All Devices: remove all the hardware serial port;
viv. Live Rec Mode: access to real-time recording mode, so that the work equipment, and real-time
data display window (Note: At this time data is not recorded in the document);
vv. Advanced Config: hardware-driven pop of the Advanced Configuration window shown in Figure
15;

Figure 15 Advanced configuration window


1. Enable Advanced Settings: Advanced Settings parameter functions do not use the default high-level
parameters;
2. Phone DM Baud: Baud rate Terminal Diag Mode. If you specify a baud rate, can greatly enhance
the detection rate of terminal, but the wrong settings, will detect the failure terminal. The default setting
is Auto Band (Automatic baud rate);
3. Phone Model: number of terminals of the need to test the use of special software in order to allow
detection of success-to-end. If you use these terminals, you must use this feature. These terminal: LG
FWD, LG fixed Desk; HY FWD, HY fixed Taiwan; ZTE PTT, ZTE's PTT terminal; Custom, custom
high-level features, from technical support staff under the guidance of the use; General Qualcomm,
Qualcomm general chip terminals, this type by default.
4. GPS Detect Time: GPS to check the time, units of seconds, default is 5 seconds.

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5. Note: The appropriate use of advanced settings that can effectively reduce the testing time, but
inappropriate settings, this will result in detection of the failure of equipment, such as the baud rate is
set wrong.
6. View Drv Status: See the hardware type of status information.

2.1.1.2.4 Hardware configuration interface introduced

If you want the process of testing equipment, suspension equipment testing, you can right-click
Device Config page will pop up as shown in Figure 16 dialog box. Click <Yes>, the software will
be the suspension of the testing equipment.

Figure 16 Suspension of the dialog box testing equipment

2.1.1.3 Work interface


The main ZXPOS CNT1 standard WINDOWS interface style, through the main interface can be
easily out of the window functions. Main interface Main interface to provide the following elements:
1. Main menu: a variety of functions out of the window;
2. Article Tools: Quick out of the window function used;
3. Explorer window: responsible for equipment configuration and window management;
4. Title bar and status bar: shows the status of software and equipment.
Click [Start → Programs → ZTE Netscope Solution → ZXPOS CNT1] to start the main
program ZXPOS CNT1, the operation of the main screen shown in Figure 17.

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Figure 17 The main operation interface


There is a number of ZXPOS CNT1 state, each state corresponds to a specific function.
Operation is divided into three categories according to their functions, are as follows: device
configuration status, test status, replay status. Specific description of a variety of state in Table 4:

Table 4 Running the ZXPOS CNT1

Sub-state name Function description


System Init state system is
System Init activated
Device Configuration
Device configuration
Device Config Device Config
System Close the system
System Close is shut down
Live Testing to test the
state of real-time testing,
Test status software to read data from
the device, but does not
Live Testing save data
Logging records, and
software to read data from
the device and the data
stored in the APT
Logging document
Logging Pause to suspend
the data files stored in the
APT, but the software still
Logging Pause read data from the device

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Sub-state name Function description


Logging Stop the closure
of test files, return to the
Logging Stop status of Live Testing
Replay Init state replay
replay initialization in
Replay Init progress
Replay status Replaying Replaying are replay
Replay Pause replay of
Replay Pause the suspension
Replay Stop Replay Stop to stop replay

2.1.1.4 Window interface


2.1.1.4.1 Title bar

Figure 18 Main interface title bar


Title bar shows the version number ZXPOS CNT1 (see Figure 18).

2.1.1.4.2 Menu bar

Figure 19 Main interface menu bar


1. [File] menu, including documents and procedures on the operation of the option;
2. [View] menu, including custom testing program, TCP / IP data acquisition, mapping the way
show the window;
3. [WiMAXView] menu includes a variety of software pieces of WiMAX wireless parameters of
the chart;
4. [Tools] menu include a variety of software parameters setting and commonly used tools;
5. [Window] menu include the option to operatation for procedures window;
6. [Help] menu include versions instructions of procedures and help document the options.

2.1.1.4.3 Status bar

Figure 20 Main interface status bar


As shown in Figure 20:
1. The status bar of the first column shows the time to end the current test, are to be connected to

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display terminal;
2. The second column shows the terminal with the current test model;
3. The third column shows the current status of testing of the GPS;
4. The fourth column shows the Hint software information;
5. The fifth column shows the battery power of information: that the use of alternating current blue
and green that the use of battery;
6. The sixth column of four icons of the status information display system, as shown in table 5;
7. Seventh column shows the CPU usage information.

Table 5 State of the status icon function

Icon Functional Description


Equipment operating normally, without any warning
The existence of alarm. Click on the icon, you can pop-up warning dialog box
to view specific content Alert
Process equipment is state of the state or the replay
Live Testing procedures or in the Logging Pause state, test data is not saved to
the hard disk
Logging procedures, and test data saved to the hard disk
GPS did not lock the satellite
GPS satellite lock
Did not collect TCP / IP, PPP data, click on the adjustable DataMonitor
Acquisition is TCP / IP, PPP data, click on the adjustable DataMonitor

2.1.1.5 Toolbar

Figure 21 Main interface toolbar


Toolbar to place a commonly used shortcut menu button, the button on the toolbar of the function
refer to Figure21. The right side of the toolbar where shows the status of software running, the
meaning of running status in Table 6.

Table 6 Note the toolbar button

button description of function menu item

Road test data to open File→Open


Road test data preservation File→Save
Shortcut button for the F2, in the
Rapid deployment (when replay is device configuration window of the
not visible, see Chapter IV) shortcut menu, there is also the
corresponding function.
Test (when replay is not visible, in the device configuration window

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button description of function menu item

that there is no test of red, yellow, shortcut menu, there is also the
said Live Testing, green means corresponding function.
Logging, said purple Logging
Pause). Tip: When the software
Live Testing state, and then click
this button, you can revert to the
status of device configuration
Suspension of the test data record
File→Pause Logging
(save the test data can be seen)
To stop recording the test data,
return to a state of Live Testing File→Stop Logging
(save the test data can be seen)
Explorer window to show or hide
Cascade window Window→Cascade
Horizontal window Window→Tile Horizontally
Placed vertical window Window→Tile Vertically
Test data View→Data Test
Road Mapping View→Route Map
Basic Information Map WiMAX View→WiMAX Basic Info
WiMAX View → WiMAX
Base station information map
Communication Info
WiMAX View → WiMAX Data
WiMAX data throughput
Throughput
WiMAX air interface message WiMAX View→WiMAX Air Interface
browser Message

2.1.1.6 Replay toolbar


If the program in a replay state, the main interface will increase the replay toolbar is as follows:

Figure 22 Replay toolbar


Description of the function of the button, please refer to table 7.

Table 7 Toolbar help replay function

Button Description of function


To replay the first file
Suspend replay
Mobile players back Article
To stop replay

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The beginning of replay


Article players move
Document to the end of replay
Speed up the replay speed manual

Replay speed of the current paper is the number of times the normal speed, 1x, said normal speed,
2X speed that is twice the normal, 1/2X that half of normal speed, followed by analogy.

: Rolling block shows


the current replay position, at both ends of scroll bar documents show that the test starting time,
most of the time the right side shows the current replay time point.

2.1.1.7 Right key menu toolbar


In replay mode, the menu label to provide replay time, this feature can be precisely set the current
replay position, and automatically record the location of the recent set of replay.

Figure 23 Set replay position


1. Auto Fill: Auto Fill settings are data replay. Article replay when the drag, the program
automatically to the current replay before the data to fill some time to read and fill. Propose to open
this function.
2. Set Replay Positon: set the replay point to the location, see Figure24.
The lower half of the menu, indicating that the user has recently set the replay position:
1. C said that this time of CPU time (CPU Time);
2. S said that the time to end this time (Time Stamp).

Figure 24 Set replay position


1. CPU Time said that the time set for the CPU time;
2. TimeStamp that time set up time for the terminal.

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2.1.1.8 Menu and function analysis


ZXPOS CNT1 software features a simple menu description.

Table 8 The main interface toolbar

menu
menu options Function
drop-down
New File New to open the device
File
configuration window
Open Open to open the road test data
Save Save to preserve the road test
data
Close Close to close the road test or
the closure of a state document
Export … Export to the road test data into
a CSV file Introduction
Recent APT File a recent road test data list
Quick Config Rapid deployment of Quick
Config
Live Testing Live Testing stagnant document
Save As Default Project save the current project settings
to the default settings of the
project
Load WinPos From Default Project item from the default
Project settings in the location of the
window loading
Load Cell Site base station loading
information file
Unload Cell Site uninstall the base station
information file
Recent Cell Site Files document the most recent list of
base station information
Open Project File… Open the project file
Save Project File Save project files
Recent Project File project documents have
recently
Save Window Position preserve the location of
documents saved as POS
Open Win Position Files open the window position
Recent Win Position Files the location of the recent file
list
Close All Windows close all windows (except for
device drivers window)

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menu
menu options Function
drop-down
Exit Exit from the main program
Data Test View Data Test Data Test
View Data Monitor TCP / IP data collection
Route Map Road Mapping
WiMAX WiMAX network landing
Logon Tool

WiMAX Basic Info display


WiMAX Basic Info RSSI, CINR, TxPower, Per and
other information
WiMAXView
WiMAX Communication Info base station information
WiMAX Air Interface Message Air Interface Message

WiMAX Modulation Statistics modulation coding


The throughput of uplink and
WiMAX Date Throughput
downlink
Replay Bookmark Replay Bookmark
General Options System Parameters
System Mode Configuration
System Mode Configuration
option settings
Alarm List Alarm List List
Parameters alarm system
Tools Device Alarm Configuration
hardware configuration
Measurement Alert configuration of alarm
Configuration parameters
Cellsite Color Settings area
Cellsite Color Settings
custom color
Cellsite Information Cellsite Information Browser
Cascade Cascade window
Tile Horizontally horizontal window
Window
Tile Vertically placed vertical window
Minimize All minimize all windows
Content Help Content
Help
About … Version Information

2.1.1.9 Explorer window


When ZXPOS CNT1 started, Explorer window automatically follow the start, used for equipment
configuration window management. Explorer window has two TAB pages, which respectively are
Device Config and Windows Windows.

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2.1.1.9.1 Device Config

TAB this page as shown in Figure 25, the main equipment used for the configuration.

Figure 25 Device Config page

2.1.1.9.2 Windows

TAB pages of this as follow Figure 26; it is used for window management.

Figure 26 Window management page

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Window management page, as well as by the type of equipment, business classification, classify
various windows. Selection box which in front of window name expresent that it has been opened.
Users can click the name of the pre-selection window frames, corresponding to open or close the
window.

2.1.1.10 Refresh rate to adjust the window style and the curve
In the main menu of the [View] and [WiMAXView] the most out of wireless parameters in the
chart window has the following functions: to change the refresh rate window, and modify the style
curve. These two functions can be right from the window out menu, right menu, as shown in
Figure 27.

Figure 27 Wireless Parameters window menu chart

2.1.1.10.1 Adjust wireless parameters window refresh rate chart

Test software will be updated from time to time the chart window, the frequency of updates can be
a window through which the right settings menu. High update frequency, data display will be more
timely, but a little waste of the computer's CPU resources. Window refresh rate can be based on
your computer's performance, as well as the number of access equipment to carry out the
necessary adjustments. Test software has a window to the default refresh rate of the optimized
parameters of good, in the absence of special circumstances, do not propose to adjust. Refresh rate
to adjust the function of the window at right-menu:
Update 250ms: update rate of 250ms in the window;
Update 500ms: update rate of 500ms in the window;
Update 1000ms: to 1000ms window update rate;
Update 1500ms: Update to the rate of 1000ms window.

2.1.1.10.2 Style curve adjustment

Wireless parameters of the chart window menu [Series Options], adjustable to adjust the curve
style window, as shown in Figure 28:

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Figure 28 Chart Option dialog box


In the left side of the Chart Options window is a list, the list shows the name of the curve, right
curve shows the currently selected style information, the meaning of each parameter as follows:
1. Series: curve style
i. Color: box on the left shows the color curve, and size, click on this box may pop-up color
settings dialog box, modify the color of curve;
ii. Width: the width of curves.
2. Axis Range: The range of axis
i. X Max: X-axis end position (starting at 0);
ii. Y Min: Y-axis location of the starting point;
iii. Y Max: Y-axis end position;
iv. Y Axis Automatic: Y-axis by the value for the automatically adjust the size.
3. Dialog box button function
i. Ok: Save parameters, and close the dialog box;
ii. Default: the use of test software default parameters;
iii. Cancel: cancel settings, close the dialog box.
Note: The set of parameters will be stored in the settings file, the next time you start testing the
software automatically loads.

2.1.1.11 Test software projects


When replay or turn off the test paper test, the test software will automatically position the window,
set the parameters of the base station to open information file, the map is loaded automatically
saved in a project file. In the name of the project document and test the same extension RPJ. Next
time open the test document, the software will automatically load the project file and restore
information.

Test software in the start time, will automatically load a default project file, commonly used to
automatically open a window to load the map and the base station information. Through the main

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menu of the [File → Save As Default Project] to set the default item.
In the General Options window, you can modify the project to load test software settings.

2.1.1.12 Export of test data


ZXPOS CNT1 test data to provide rich functionality to export, open the test document, through the
main menu of the [File → Export ...], could be released Export Manager window, the window has
two pages in Figure 4, respectively, 12, Figure 4 13 show.

2.1.1.12.1 Export pages

Export page of Export Manger, which shows a variety of export-related parameters settings, as
shown in Figure 29.

Figure 29 Export Manager—Export page


1. File Format: the exported file format types; the current version only supports export CSV data
types.
2. Export Type: the type of export: the current version only supports export of the Map Data.
i. TA Data: search engine of the multi-path information;
ii. Map Data: display geographic data, including time, latitude and longitude, as well as in the
Map window to show the wireless parameters (such as power);
iii. Layer 3 Message: WiMAX empty message can be exported to worry too much about
LogMask parameters;
iv. Phone Debug Message: Terminal Debug information;
v. Diag Packet Message: test message packets can be exported to worry too much about LogMask
parameters;
3. Export L3/Diag Packet Message Option: Export empty message news as well as test additional

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option package
i. Precise Time Stamp: the use of precise time information;
ii. Export Raw Data: Export news source flow;
iii. Export Decode Tree: Export tree decoding messages;
iv. Export Page Channel With IMSI: No. by IMSI paging channel information is derived;
v. Export Debug Message Content As Message Name: When the Diag Packet Message when
exporting to Debug messages were a direct hit on the news.
4. Export: Export of state information
i. File Name: store export data file name;
ii. Phone: Select export terminal;
iii. Progress: Export of progress.
5. Function button
i. Export: Export test data;
ii. Close: Close the test window.
iii. LogMask page
Export Manger of LogMask page, showing the LogMask and export-related parameters, as shown
in Figure 30.

Figure 30 Export Manager—LogMask page


Export news when empty test packet or message, can LogMask settings, export the contents of
the filter. Message in front of each name has a check box, only selected information will be
derived.

2.1.1.13 Subsection of test data


Analysis based on actual need, and sometimes we need to specify the test data for analysis to a
specific time, specific steps are as follows:
1, open the installation directory ZXPOS CNT6.2 under the implementation of the APT Extractor

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documents, such as C: \ Program Files \ ZTE ZXPOS Solution \ Shared Tools \ APT Extractor;
2, double-click the file, import test data, as follows:

3, in accordance with the regression testing time for the specified time period, click the Execute button,
the sub-started, and save documents in the appropriate directory, as follows:

4, the implementation is complete, that is, to preserve the successful, click Exit from the button, in
preserving the directory to generate the test file
Specified period of time is the test data, and then will be able to import the relevant software for
analysis.

2.1.1.14 Route map


Through the use of geographic-based display can be measured in the way of clear understanding of
when the current position and test the geographical distribution of the parameters.
Through the main menu [View → Route Map] or click the toolbar to open the Route Map window,
as shown in Figure 31.

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Figure 31 Geographical display windows


Mapping on the road showing where the current location, and real-time on the importance of
WiMAX test display geographic data. If load the base station information, it also shows that the
base station location.
Figure 31 shows a window divided into three parts:
1. The top section as a tool;
2. The left for information display list and data switch;
3. The right mapping for the path.

2.1.1.14.1 Toolbar introduction

Figure 32 Route Map window toolbar


Please refer to the function table 9, mapping the road Right-click on the shortcut menu that pops
up also has the same function, the function refer to the basis of this table.

Table 9 Toolbar button functions instructions

Button Description of function corresponding shortcut


button menu item
Enable the mouse to the
arrow, the current does not
Arrow
have the mandate Mouse
features
drag the map Hand
Reduce the map Zoom Out

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Button Description of function corresponding shortcut


button menu item
Zoom map Zoom In
Center Map Center
Measuring the distance
between two points
Road test shows a
complete line of Show Show Bounds
Bounds
Road test shows a
complete line of base
stations, as well as a
complete map
At present the road show
more than the scope of the
measuring point, the
automatic stay
Base layers show
The text messages show
the base station (PN, base
station name) (Need to
load the base station
information)
Find a station
Layer control (see 6.1.2)
Shows the current location
Set display to activate the
connection (the need for
information into the base
station)
Candidate Itemsets
shows connection (need to
load the base station
information)
Marker display
User-defined label settings
Open the base station
information file (*. ZRC)
Documents into layers (*.
Open Map File…
Tab)
Map parameter settings
(see 6.1.4)
Legend set up (see 6.1.3) Map Theme
PN custom colors (see 8.2)

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Button Description of function corresponding shortcut


button menu item
Marker option

When you click on the toolbar of the "Layer Control", "Legend Set", "PN custom color", "map
parameters", such as button, the dialog box will pop up; see the use of the specific introduction of
the following.

2.1.1.14.2 Control Layer

Map to show the way in addition to mapping, but also can display the map. Map layer is displayed
superimposed on the Map, through the control layer can be managed on the layer. Click on the
toolbar, the Layer Control dialog box will pop up, as shown in Figure 33.

Figure 33 Control layer dialog box

Box with the buttons and fields are as follows:

1. Layers: that the current layers in the map, their order on behalf of the layers in the map of the
order of Z-axis. IndicateUserDrawLayer, RouteTestUserDraw Layer, CellSiteLayer layers for the
system, can not they "delete", "indicate that" the operation.
2. Up: up to move the selected layer.
3. Down: to move the selected layer down.
4. Add: add a layer. In the pop-up dialog box, choose the one or more of the TAB file layer to
join the list.
5. Remove: delete the selected layer, layers can not be on the system for this operation.

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6. Properties: the properties of modified layer options:


i. Visible: it can be seen that the system can not make this layer;
ii. Selectable: whether to allow the contents of the layer to select the operation;
iii. Automatic Lables: automatic labeling of the layers, showing label information, such as
display names, place names, such as the need to map file support;
iv. Display: adjustment layer display options, under normal circumstances, is not recommended
to do this;
v. Labels: adjustment layers tab options. Tags can adjust the font, size, location and so on.

2.1.1.14.3 Theme setting

When the time set for the Legend, click on the toolbar, and at this time Custom Theme dialog
box will pop up, as shown in Figure 34.

Figure 34 Themes Settings dialog box


The top left of an edit box that is currently editor of the Legend was the name of the bottom of
the left has set out that the current name of a good legend.
Current Template: Legend displays the current settings for each band of the situation, by clicking
the color box and modify the value of edit box, you can modify the legend;
1. Ranges: modify the current order of legend;
2. New: create a new legend;
3. Delete: delete the current legend;
4. Save: Save current settings;
5. Save As: save the current name with another legend;
6. Check: Detection of the current Legend if there is any illegal settings;
7. OK: the application of the current mapping legend on the road;
8. Cancel: Cancel to close the window;

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9. Set Symbol: Legend of the current symbol set. Can choose to show in the path map symbol
font, modify the size of symbols. As shown in Figure 35;

Figure 35 Themes setting dialog box――SetSymbol


10. Auto Generate Values: by setting the initial value (Initial) and the incremental value of (Delta),
the procedure automatically generates a series of order value. The value of the first n-order size:
Initial + n * Delta. As shown in Figure 36.

Figure 36 Themes setting dialog box――Auto Generate Values

2.1.1.14.4 Map parameters setting

Click on the toolbar, and Map Options dialog box will pop up, as shown in Figure 37.

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Figure 37 Map parameters setting

1. Set line color and adjacent areas of the label area

i. ActSet: Set the connection settings to activate the color;

ii. CadSet: Set the connection settings the color of the candidate;

iii. Label PN Text: Tags for small districts to fight when the PN values showed that Area;

iv. Label Name Text: to play on the label area, indicating the name of district;

v. Draw Cell Site Transparent: transparent painting area, or by the district allowed the district to
fill the color PN.

2. Area map style settings


i. CellRadius: Area occupied by the pixel value of the radius;
ii. RepeaterRadius: Repeater occupied by the pixel value of the radius;
iii. TextRadiusOffset: Cell value tag of the PN from the edge of the pixel cell value;
iv. NB Line Width: the width of the connection area of the pixel value;
v. CellSite Color: set the base color of the map, you can choose the type: PN, BTSID, BTS Type,
and Transparent.

3. Map Display Settings


There are two types of MAP Map: Vector Map (vector map), Bitmap Map (bitmap maps, map
data source is a picture, can be passed in the MapInfo location three ways to create). Bitmap types
when loading a map, the map will be times when the GPS location of the position and is biased,
can now display settings by modifying the map be amended.

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i. Auto Select Map Type: whether the MAP automatically selects the type of map;
ii. MidLon Adj: bitmap map center longitude and latitude to ad just the local map and GPS
position location is biased, the regulation of this parameter.

2.1.1.14.5 Custom label settings

When measured in the way, you can add mapping road marking in order to note the need to pay
attention to some information, such as dropped calls, the switch problem areas. Click the toolbar, a
pop-up dialog box User Note, as shown in Figure 38.

Figure 38 Custom label settings


The button in the dialog box as follows:
1. Add: Mapping the way to the edit box to add user-defined label;
2. Cancel: Cancel.

2.1.1.14.6 Marker parameters

When you click on the toolbar and Marker Option dialog box will poped up, as shown in Figure 39.

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Figure 39 Marking Options settings window


1. CallEvent
Call each event corresponds to an icon, if the selected mapping in the way shown in the
corresponding event icon.
2. User Note Font
Set user-defined label fonts.
3. User Note Option
i. OffsetX: mark the shift in the X-axis, in pixels;
ii. OffsetY: tagging in the Y-axis offset, in pixels;
iii. Show Note Icon: Mapping in the way shown on user-defined icon marked;
iv. Show Note Text: Mapping in the way shown on user-defined label text;
v. Marker Layer on Top: Marker layer at the top of all layers;
vi. Show Map Scale: show scale.

2.1.1.14.7 Find the base station

When you need to find a base station in that location, click the toolbar, the Find Cell will pop-up
dialog box, as shown in Figure40.

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Figure 40 Find cell windows

1. Cell Name / BTS ID / Cell PN: To find the information input;


2. Find Type: Select type of search, according to BTS ID, sector of the PN, the names of three
types of sectors;
3. Direction: Select to find a way (forward or backward);
4. Find Next: Find the next meet of the base station;
5. Cancel: Close this dialog box.

2.1.1.15 Information display and switch


Information displayed and switched, as shown in Figure 41.

Figure 41 Information display


This is a collapsible list, the list there are three, namely: Values (WiMAX), Information, Legend.
The right of people to show that there is, and then folding up the current item was not carried out,
through the click of the Mouse, that is, the right will become, at the same time, this will be carried
out.

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2.1.1.15.1 Values (WiMAX)

Values (WiMAX) are available for WiMAX geographical display of the number of parameters
selected in the road on the geographical mapping display. Both tests and replay, the switch can be
arbitrary. Values (WiMAX) were launched, as shown in Figure 42.

Figure 42 Information display――Values (WiMAX)

2.1.1.15.2 Information

Infomation shows the current value of the parameter point of the test. Information was launched, as
shown in Figure 43.

Figure 43 Information display――Information

2.1.1.15.3 Legend

Legend shows the mapping of the current Road Legend, Legend was launched, as shown in
Figure44.

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Figure 44 Information display――Legend


The top of the "Legend: WiMAX RSSI", said the name of the current Legend is the RSSI, and the
following legend of the bands that set.

2.1.1.16 Drive test map


Drive test map can show the geographical parameters of the distribution, maps, current location, as
shown in Figure 45.

Figure 45 Drive test map


Mapping the road will be based on user settings for dynamic rendering of the legend, the map with
different colors that belong to different order of value. Red circle on the map that the current position.
If load the base station information, it also can be displayed on the map of base sation position.
In replay mode, double-click a test point, replay position to the click-position auto-position.
At any time, double-click of a base station, Map window with the Cell Site Info window displayed
synchronized.

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2.1.1.17 Data test


Data Test window used for testing data services. By choosing [View] menu under the Data Test,
can turn Data Test window, Figure47, 48, as shown in Figure49. Data Test has three pages,
respectively, corresponding to the following three functions: program customization, testing, and
test statistics.

2.1.1.17.1 Plans setting page automatic test plan

Plans Settings page was used for the customed test plan, as shown in Figure 46.

Figure 46 Data Test windows - Test Plan Settings page


Plans Settings page of the meaning of various parameters are as follows:
1. General Settings column shows the current testing program to select items of public property:
i. Service Type: Set the type of test items, including the PPP, FTP, HTTP, Ping and the
establishment of network connectivity Connect;
Note: Connect-item test is not an independent type, but for the follow-up testing of automatically
establishing a dial-up network connection, enabling users do not need to manually dial-up before
testing in order to facilitate the implementation of the test. When to FTP, HTTP, Ping test, the
proposed plan as the first test.
ii. Continuous: settings are for testing;
iii. Count: the number of repeat test set (only available non-continuous test);
iv. Duration: the duration of the test set (only available non-continuous test);
v. Idle Time: Set the interval between two tests of time.

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2. Service Settings column shows the current testing program to select attributes of the business:
Different types of testing operations, the business property is different, the following were
introduced.
i. Connect the operational attributes:
  Entry: set up a dial-up connection network name, the right button to set the connection attribute,
the button for new dial-up connection;
  User Name: set up a dial-up connection user name, by the ISP service providers;
  Password: set up a dial-up connection user name corresponds to the password;
  Redial if Drop: chain automatically redial settings, select this if, in connection will be
automatically dropped even.
ii. PPP business attributes:
PPP testing of the business the same attributes and connect.
iii. FTP operational attributes:
  Host: set up FTP server host address;
  Port: set the data access port;
  PASV: set whether or not to use passive mode to establish a connection;
  User Name: set up FTP server login user name;
  Password: set up FTP server login password;
  Anonymous: registry settings are anonymous FTP servers;
  Timeout (s): set timeout;
  Direction: set download or upload transfer;
  Restore: HTTP settings are;
  Local File: Set the local file path and file name, the right button to select the file path through
the dialog box;
  Remote File: Set the remote FTP server file path and file name.
iv. HTTP operational attributes:
  URL: set up data access to the uniform resource address;
  Direction: setting is to download or upload;
  Timeout (s): set timeout;
  Local File: Set the local file path and file name for the right button to select the file path through
the dialog box.
v. Ping operational attributes:
  Host: set target host address;
  Packet Size (bytes): Set the size of packets;
  Timeout (ms): set the timeout (unit: ms);
  Ping Times: set up for each test the number of packets sent;
  Delay (ms): Send Ping command set up between two of the delay (unit: milliseconds).
3. Application attributes:

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i. Apply: parameters were revised effective button, click to confirm the parameters of the modified
parameters to the test plan update;
ii. Ignore: parameters were revised effective button, click to give up the parameter changes.
4. Plans to list the right:
List in the plan to show the current test plan document, all tests, the current testing of the selected
parameters will be displayed in the left and allow them to amend. Before each test item has a check
box, only the selected item will be to take these tests. Drag can be adjusted test of the order of
testing. List the meaning of each field please refer to the General Settings page on the description
column.
Toolbar button:
 : a new test plan;
 : Open the test plan;
 : Save test plans;
 : Export test plans;
 : the addition of a test plan;
 : Delete the currently selected test program.
5. Test
i. Start Test button: only-to-end testing and the procedures to enter the record mode when
effective. Click Start Test, Call Monitor will be set up by the Program for testing.
ii. End Test button: only the beginning of the test before it becomes binding, click End Test, to
stop the ongoing test.

2.1.1.17.2 Message Test page news shows

Message log messages, including a list of test and test the progress of the two parts of the list, as
shown in Figure47.

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Figure 47 Data Test window - Test page news


1. News List
Data services in the state of the testing process to the form of log messages displayed in the
message list. Log messages of different operations in different colors, in which PPP is green, FTP
and HTTP message to blue, Ping message to dark blue, dropped calls; connection failure error
message is red.
i. ID: said information sequence;
ii. Date Time: Time that the information generated;
iii. Message: message specific.
2. List progress
Table shows the progress of the plan to participate in the current test item and test progress.
i. ID: the number of test plan, test plan and a list of selected items of the corresponding plans;
ii. Service Type: the service type of test items;
iii. Count (Current / Assigned): tests (the first number of the current / plan to designate the number
of repeat);
iv. Duration (Current / Assigned): the test duration (the duration of the current testing / plans to
designate the duration of each test);
v. Status: the current state of the test items, including the waiting, running, error, cancel, the
completion of five possible state.
3. Right menu list message:
i. Pause: news updates suspended;
ii. Clear All Messages: Clear all messages;
iii. To Replay Position: replay when effective, will select the corresponding point in time

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information added to the replay tab, and from this point in time to start replay.

2.1.1.17.3 Throughput shows the throughput of the page

Throughput page can shows graphics of the throughput, and data transmission status, statistical
information, as shown in Figure 48.

Figure 48 Data Test window-data throughput of the page

1. Graphics throughput
Curves of different colors to show the FWD PPP (the downlink PPP throughput), REV PPP (the
uplink PPP throughput), FWD FTP (the downlink FTP throughput), REV FTP (the uplink FTP
throughput), FWD HTTP (the downlink HTTP throughput), REV HTTP (the uplink HTTP
throughput).
2. Right menu graphics throughput
i. Update 500ms: graphics refresh rate to 500ms;
ii. Update 1000ms: graphics refresh rate to 1000ms;
iii. Update 1500ms: graphics refresh rate to 1500ms;
iv. Show In Kbytes: that the throughput in Kbytes selected for display, or to be displayed in units
of Kbps;
v. Option: color and line throughput curve settings.
3. Transmit information tables:
i. Service: the current transmission, FTP or HTTP;
ii. State: the current state of transmission;
iii. Total Size: the current test to the total data transfer size;

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iv. Completed: the size of the current has been completed;


v. Direction: From the current transmission to or download;
vi. Progress: The progress is expressed as a percentage;
vii. Load Time: transmission time;
viii. Avg Throughput: average transfer rate, units of Kbps (equivalent to the value of the total data
transfer size / transfer of the total time, while the curve shown for the instantaneous transmission
throughput).
4. PPP calls and transfer tables:
i. Sent: The number of bytes sent to connect;
ii. Received: Received bytes in one time connection;
iii. Band Width: The current bandwidth connections;
iv. Duration: The time of connection has been going on;
v. Call Count: The numbers of the current test call;
vi. Success Count: the success of the current number of test calls;
vii. Fail Count: the failure of the current number of test calls;
viii. Drop Count: The number of the current test dropped.

2.1.1.17.4 Statistics show page

Figure 49 Data Test window-statistic page


1. Ping packets statistic
i. ID:sequence number;
ii. Host: target host address;
iii. Sent: sent data packets;

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iv. Received: receive data packets;


v. Lost: lost data packets;
vi. MinimumRTT: mimimum receive and send time;
vii. MaximumRTT: maximum receive and send time;
viii. AverageRTT: averages receive and send time.
2. PPP connect statistic
i. ID:sequence number;
ii. Dial Begin Time: dial begin Time;
iii. Dial End Time: dial end Time;
iv. Setup Time: setup time.

2.1.1.18 Data Monitor


Data Monitor to monitor IP, TCP, UDP traffic, as well as the acquisition PPP signaling, ICMP
packets. Apart from Data Monitor and Data Service Test can be used, but also can be arbitrary based
on the TCP / IP protocol software or network of commercial streaming media player software, such
as IPERF, Flash Get, Net Ant, Cute FTP, Internet Explorer, Bitcomet, Real Player, Media Player,
eMule, etc..
By choosing [View] menu under the Data Monitor, can activate the Data Monitor window, as
shown in Figure 50.

Figure 50 Data Monitor windows


Window on the meaning of each parameter is as follows:
i. FWD IP: prior to the IP total number of bytes to receive;
ii. REV IP: Reverse IP total number of bytes sent;
iii. FWD TCP: prior to the TCP receive a total number of bytes;
iv. REV TCP: Reverse TCP total number of bytes sent;
v. FWD UDP: Forward UDP total number of bytes to receive;
vi. REV UDP: Reverse UDP total number of bytes sent;

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Data Monitor window provides two control buttons below:


i. Monitor Start: Start Monitor Driver, now can begin to monitor the TCP, UDP, IP layer, and the
acquisition PPP signaling, ICMP packet;
ii. Monitor Stop: stop the Monitor Driver.
Data Monitor to start moving, the status bar icon (gray) will be reduced to a (blue), click on the
icon could be released also Data Monitor window. Configure Logging Mask through the Logging
Mask settings, can be more convenient to start the Data Monitor.
Data Monitor collected PPP signaling and ICMP packets, you can Diag Packet Message, as well
as in Diag Packet Message Summary observation. Flow information can be in the Data Throughput
or WiMAXView → Data Throughput in the observation.

2.1.1.19 WiMAX Logon Tool


WiMAX Logon Tool window shows the landing interface WiMAX terminal
Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX Logon Too] can open WiMAX Logon
tool window, as shown in Figure51.

Figure 51 WiMAX system landing interface

2.1.1.20 WiMAX Logon Tool


WiMAX basic information display RSSI, CINR, TxPower, personnel and other information.
Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX basic information] can open the
window WiMAX basic information, as shown in Figure 52.

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Figure 52 WiMAX basic information


Specific meaning of each field is as follows:

field description
RSSI received signal strength index
CINR carrier / interference and noise ratio
TxPower Transmitting power
Per packet error rate

2.1.1.21 WiMAX Communication Info


WiMAX Communication Info display BS Mac Adress,UL Perm Base, DL Perm Base ,Current
Preamble Index,Previous Preamble Index, Hand Over Cout,Hand Over Fail Cout,Resynchronize
Cout, PER Receive Cout, PER Error Cout etc.
Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX Communication Info] can open
WiMAX Basic Info window, as shown in Figure53.

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Figure 53 WiMAX basic information


Specific meaning of each field is as follows:

Table 10 WiMAX basic information

field description
BS Mac Address Base Station Mac Address
UL Perm Base Perm Base uplink
DL Perm Base Perm Base downlink
Current Preamble
Preamble sequence current
Index
Previous Preamble
Preamble previous sequence
Index
Hand Over Count Hand over times
Hand Over Fail
Hand over fail times
Count
Resynchronize
The number of re-synchronization
Count
PER Receive Count The number of error packets received
PER Error Count The number of error packets

2.1.1.22 WiMAX Air Interface Message


Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX Air Interface Message] can open
WiMAX Air Interface Message window. As shown in Figure54.

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Figure 54 WiMAX air interface message

2.1.1.23 WiMAX Modulation Statistics


Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX Modulation Statistics] can open the
window WiMAX Modulation Statistics. As shown in Figure55.

Figure 55 WiMAX various adjustments of the data encoding

2.1.1.24 WiMAX Date Throughput


WiMAX Date Throughput received MS window to line up and down the TCP / IP and UDP data
throughput.
Through the main menu of the [WiMAXView → WiMAX Date Throughput] can open the
window WiMAX Date Throughput. Horizontal axis is time; vertical axis is the throughput, unit
Kbps / Kbytes, different colors representing different data types, as shown in Figure 56.

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Figure 56 WiMAXView window-data throughput page


1. Graphics throughput
Curves of different colors to show the FWD IP (Downlink IP throughput), REV IP (uplink IP
throughput), FWD TCP (downlink TCP throughput), REV TCP (uplink TCP throughput), FWD
UDP (Downlink UDP throughput), REV UDP (uplink UDP throughput).
2. Right menu graphics throughput
i. Update 500ms: graphics refresh rate to 500ms;
ii. Update 1000ms: graphics refresh rate to 1000ms;
iii. Update 1500ms: graphics refresh rate to 1500ms;
iv. Show In Kbytes: that the throughput in Kbytes selected for display, or to be displayed in units of
Kbps;
v. Option: color and line throughput curve settings.

2.1.2 Optimization analysis tool CNA introduction


2.1.2.1 Introduction
CNA 7.5 is targeted at WiMAX standard way to measure the development of analysis software, this
version supports the CAN in addition to the basic analysis, the new WiMAX high-level of analysis,
and this article is for WiMAX to provide detailed analysis of the new features and operating
instructions, aspects of the user's operation.

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2.1.2.2 Terms, definitions and abbreviations


Abbreviations used in this article dedicated table 11. Abbreviations have been the first one
according to their alphabetical order.

Table 11 Specific abbreviations


abbreviations original text meaning
CNA Communication Network Analyzer Network Analyzer tool
CNT Communication Network Test Network Test tool

2.1.2.3 Comprehensive description


2.1.2.3.1 Background

ZXPOS CNA1 is 2G/3G wireless network optimization software for professional analysis. It is
based on future test data, performance data background, base stations, GIS and other information,
using charts, geography, and replay, such as intelligence analysis of wireless network performance,
network optimization guidance.

2.1.2.3.2 Product Overview

CNA1 not previously support the WiMAX standard, CNA1 for WiMAX is a new version, the
version with the most basic functions of CNA at the same time add WiMAX analysis. This version
supports the CNT V6.3 and V6.5 versions of the APT test data in support of GCT, Beceem, and
Sequence of three-chip data acquisition.
This version features support the following sub -
1, CNA basic analysis functions;
2, physical layer, IP layer, application layer bandwidth analysis;
3, interference analysis;
4, delay, jitter, packet loss rate analysis

2.1.2.4 Specific functions description


2.1.2.4.1 Basic function analysis

CNA has the light version of the basic functions, including:


1. Data file management (load, Consolidation)
2. Site information documents management
3. The basic analysis functions
i. Geographical analysis (including statistical BIN)
ii. Spreadsheet analysis

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iii. Chart Analysis


iv. Message Analysis
v. Data delete functions (internal function)
4. Data broadcast
5. Data query and filtering.

2.1.2.4.2 Segment'RSSI and Segment'CINR functions

Base stations based on the RSSI and CINR functions displayed on the map in the Map of the
designated base station RSSI and CINR, the concrete operation is as follows:
1. Open the Map form

2. Map map Preamble and input Frequency (KHZ) value and click on GO, the map will show the
corresponding base station RSSI, CINR value.

3. Map by right-clicking directly on the base map can also show that the corresponding base
station RSSI, CINR value (click on the following map is 0_2515000).

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2.1.2.4.3 Call event analysis and delay statistics

Open the Analysis-> WiMAX Call Analysis .......


Analysis of interface, including a summary description of the specific circumstances of each call.

2.1.2.4.4 Analysis of handover events

Open the Analysis-> WiMAX Handoff Analysis .......,


Analysis of the interface is as follows:

Through using right key menu can locate the corresponding handover event.

2.1.2.4.5 Interference Analysis

Interference algorithm is as follows:

Interfere with the results of the analysis corresponds to the NI field WorkSpace.

2.1.2.4.6 Analysis of dropped calls

Open the Analysis-> WiMAX Dropped Analysis.......

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2.1.2.4.7 Calls, handover of the incident shows the geographical

Open Map; select the Marker Setting, configuration WiMAX events have shown that:

2.1.2.4.8 Jitter Analysis of packet loss rate

This version of the new data services in an increase of TCP / UDP support, TCP / UDP is used to
test TCP or UDP layer jitter, packet loss rate, bandwidth parameters.
The two new add table of CAN (TCP UDP Transfer Staics and Jitter Lost Rate) support for TCP /
UDP test results indicate as following:

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2.1.2.4.9 Table part of the meaning of Item Value

1. WiMAX Table Table


i.Link Status
That the current link state:
value significance
1 LINKUP_ACHIEVED
2 PHY_SYNC_ERROR
3 MAC_SYNC_ERROR
4 RNGING_FAILURE
5 SBC_FAILURE
6 PKM_FAILURE
7 REGISTRATION_FAILURE
8 DREG_RECEIVED
9 RESET_RECEIVE
10 IN_IDLE_MODE
11 IN_SLEEP_MODE
12 NETWORK_ENTRY_IN_PROGRESS
13 WAIT_FOR_NETWORK_ENTRY_CMD
14 WAIT_FOR_PHY_SYNC_CMD
15 CARD_MOVED
16 CARD_INSERT
17 SHUT_DOWN_RECEIVED

ii.UpLink Througput and DownLink Througput


Uplink and downlink throughput, unit Kpbs.

2. TCP / UDP Transfer Static Table


i. TCP / UDP
Agreement test, 1: TCP 2: UDP

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ii. Direction
Operational direction of the test, 0: Download 1: From
iii. State
The current state of business connections, 0: Unknown Status 1: Connect 2: off 3: Transmission.

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2.2 Optimize Test


2.2.1 Test Content
Network optimizing include test and parameter optimizing, test can provide basic data and validate for
optimizing.
The primary testing item includes coverage and system pointer principle, ect.
Test should use the way which was recommend, and it also can change the operation type and test
environment by following business and locale’s required.
About loading explanation:
WiMAX adopt AMC techniques, so come to speak from rate of flow single station’s flow is not the
fixed value, but interpose certain slot numerical value is fixed, WiMAX air-interface resource can be
unified quantum with SLOT numerical value. If loading, we can make use of fixed position to force to
carry out the high order code way to do simulate loading.

2.2.1.1 Cover Test


Describe the index covering include: DL RSSI, DL CINR and UL RSSI, UL CINR.
Think about DL RSSI and CINR is preamble value, it only be effected by rated power, and UL RSSI
and CINR were effected by power control deploy and operation, so generally we can know about
the network’s cover condition through DL RSSI and CINR test. Collecting UL Tx, UL and DL
throughout and other data at the same time can describe network’s cover condition.
Make use of BE business stream to do test.
Suggesting do test by carry idler.
Make use of moving test as testing method.

2.2.1.2 Throughout Test


Testing include single user test and single segment.
Working Ping, Iperf, FTP, be in progress counting.
Think about make use of BE to do test; adopting method continuing testing way.

2.2.1.3 Cut-over Test


Describe the index that cut-over in test include cut-over in success rate, cut-over time ( the time
from initiate cut-over to gain IP).
Think about UGS’s high preferential step, adopting UGS business stream to do test.

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Suggesting make half carry test.


Making use of cyclicity test method.
Making moving and fixed position test.

2.2.1.4 Calling Test


Describe the index that calling in test include calling in success rate, calling time ( the time from
initiate calling to gain IP).
Think about UGS’s high preferential step, adopting UGS business stream to do test.
Suggesting make half carry test.
Making use of cyclicity testing method.
Making moving and fixed position test.

2.2.1.5 Operation Test


Describe the index that operation in test includes time delay and jitter.
Working PING is in progress counting.
Think about UGS user in testing.
Suggesting do test by carry idler.
Making use of continuing test way.
Do moving and fixed test.
When doing moving test, paying attention with the throughout of whole covered area, and the rate
at area’s edge.
When doing fixed test, paying attention with different signal intensity, cover rate of MCS should
correspondence.

2.2.1.6 Handoff
Success rate/handoff time
Think about UGS testing. We make use of continuing testing method.
Moving test

2.2.1.7 Lose Words Rate


Active ( IP ) connecting link is rupture.Active(IP)take off net check function open.
Because the lose words rate test generally beginning with cover test, think about making use of BE
to do test.
Making use of continuing test way.
Do moving test.

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In generally, making use of testing by carry idler is OK, if customer order to do loading test, we
usually make use of fifty percent, closing loading way to load or other ways to load.

2.2.2 Testing Method


2.2.2.1 DT Testing
The detail of testing method should refer to DT testing guides book.

2.2.2.2 CQT Testing


The detail of testing method should refer to CQT testing guide book.

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2.3 RF Optimizing Subject


2.3.1 RF Optimizing Goal
RF optimization goal is making the cover signal be optimization, considering the balance of the uplink
and downlink broadcast path, the test parameter of cover optimization primary is DL RSSI and DL CINR.
Do optimization can through modulate antenna and transmit power.
RSSI this parameter is the most important index for test covering, through the transmit power we can
work out actual link loss. RSSI is the important reference for regulate rated power. Because of the
segment’s RSSI increasing maybe cause jamming with other neighbor segment, logical RSSI should be
whole general considered with cover to select.RSSI.
CINR this parameter can combine with RSSI, and then we can evaluate DL jamming and yawp. It is
the most important reference parameter for jamming optimization. If the CINR value is bigger, the system’s
cover will be better.

2.3.2 Antenna Optimization


Antenna optimization, it generally following the locale’s terrain and things, through regulating
antenna’s direction and down obliquity to reach optimize RF cover goal. The specific method is primary
follow the testing cover chart regulating antenn. If necessary, we can change the antenna height or building
position, making use of the electricity down obliquity and other ways.

2.3.3 Calibration Power Optimizing


Calibration power set up preamble power, Calibration power optimizing ensure the system could
working in credible working area; in the same time, under the antenna cover was affirmed situation, the
Calibration power’s value, is the first factor which can effect cover.
If Calibration power is great, this area will have good cover situation, but it maybe disturb neighbor area, so
Calibration power should be reasonable installed, default situation will install power by programming
power, and then according to the test situation do regulating.
Calibration power’s installing refer to <Calibration Power Guide>

2.3.4 Interference’s Searching and Frequency Scanning


In actual network, there may being several kinds of disturbing, so must remove outside jamming first,
and then doing system parameter optimizing.
The direct method of finding out interference is frequency scanning.
The specific method refers to 3.3 frequencies scanning.

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2.4 Access and Paging


In order to optimize net, it is mandatory to know the basic net connection and page procedure, the
rough introduction is below.

2.4.1 Basic connection flow


2.4.1.1 Connection flow chart

Figure 57 Connection flow chart

2.4.1.2 Small area option and downlink synchronization


At the initial phase or after signal lost, the terminal will get the downlink signal channel. If the
terminal stores the last operational parameter, then it should try to regain the recorded downlink
signal channel firstly. If failed, then it starts to scan the possible downlink signal channel
continuously within downlink until it finds an effective downlink signal. As long as physicalal level
gets synchronization (), MAC level manages to get the control parameter of downlink signal
channel and then the control parameter of uplink signal channel.
The downlink physicalal synchronization for WiMAX system depends on Preamble.

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MAC level will search for DL-MAP MAC management information. As long as terminal receives
at least one DL-MAP information, it will get MAC synchronization.
After downlink synchronization, the terminal waits for UCD information from base station, in
order to get the parameter group from uplink signal channel.
Main information: DCD and UCD

2.4.1.2.1 OMC parameters chart below

Table 12 OMC Physicalal Layer Parameter


SN Parameter Meaning Instruction
PHY_MODE PHY Layer 802.16 Protocol dedines kinds of PHY layer working
Mode mode: SC、OFDM、OFDMA,ZTE-WiMAX system
uses OFDMA.
DL_FREQUENCY Downlink Unit: kHz
Frequency
ChannelBW Physicalal Values: 5M, 10M, etc
Channel
Bandwidth
FFT_SIZE Points of Scalable FFT is used for PHY layer of OFDMA,
Fast Fourier FFT is adding when PHY channel bandwidth is
Transform increasing. PHY channel bandwidth can be
1.25MHz 、 5MHz 、 10MHz 、 20MHz, which
corresponding to 128、512、1024、2048 in FFT.
CYCLE_PREFIX Cyclic Prefix Time domain waveform of OFDMA symbol is
generated by IFFT. Time structure of each symbol
consists of two parts: usefull symbol time Tb and
Cyclic Prefix(CP)。
FRAME_DUR_CODE Frame It represents the length of a frame, which is defined
Length as the interval time between beginnings of
preambles.
DUPLEX_MODE Duplex Including two methods: Time Division Duplex
(TDD) and Frequency Division Duplex (FDD).
TTG Emmission It represents the transforming interval between
Transform downlink subframe and uplink subframe when
Time OFDMA works in TDD mode. The BS change into
receiving from emitting.
UL_INIT_TX_TIMING Uplink Initial It represents how long the uplink initial emission
Emmision before UL_Allocation_Start_Time.
Deviation

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2.4.1.2.2 Physicalal Layer Parameter OMC Configuration

Figure 58 Physicalal Layer Parameter OMC Configurations

Remark: the conversion between PS and us, PS=4/Fs in OFDMA, for example as 10M
bandwidth (sampling frequency=11.2M ), PS=4/Fs=4/11.2M, approximate at 0.357us.

2.4.1.3 Ranging
The main purpose of Ranging is for uplink synchronization and uplink power control.
As for uplink synchronization, it requires the uplink signal from different distance and different
customers’ terminal can reach base station at the same time.
The main reasons of uplink nonsynchronization of mobile telecommunication are due to multiple
customers’ interference and multi-channel transmission.
In addition, Ranging is also divided into period Ranging, BW requesting Ranging, handover
Ranging.
Main information: Ranging-REQ and Ranging-REQ.

2.4.1.3.1 Ranging parameters

Ranging parameter table is as below.

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Table 13 Ranging parameter introduction


Parameter Meaning Instruction
RNG_CO The initial In same frequency organized network, if the channel configuration of BS in a
DES_ST number of cell is same as the channel configuration of BS in another cell (including the
ART Ranging sameness of channel and UL_PermBase), the Ranging code transmitted by
MS will be received by BS in adjacent cell, these BSs would feedback
RNG-RSP to the MS, this causes interference and affect access. In this
circumstance, different Ranging code number is necessary to be configured
for BSs in adjacent cell.
INIT_RN The quantity of Base on the initial number of Ranging code and the initial quantity of
G_CODE initial Ranging Ranging code, the interval of Ranging code can be obtained as S ~ (S + O)
S code mod 256, where ‘S’ stands for the number of Ranging code
(RNG_CODES_START); ‘O’ stands for the quantity of Ranging code
(INIT_RNG_CODES).
PRDC_R The quantity of Cycle Ranging code is located behind initial Ranging code. Its interval can
NG_CO Cycle Ranging be obtained according to the initial number of Ranging, the quantity of initial
DES code Ranging code and the quantity of Cycle Ranging code.
BW_RE The quantity of The bandwidth request Ranging code is located behind the cycle Ranging
Q_CODE bandwidth code. Its interval can be obtained according to the initial number of Ranging,
S request Ranging the quantity of initial Ranging code, the quantity of cycle Ranging code and
code the quantity of bandwidth request Ranging code.
HO_RN The quantity of The handoff Ranging code is located behind the bandwidth request Ranging
G_CODE handoff code. Its interval can be obtained according to the initial number of Ranging,
S Ranging code the quantity of initial Ranging code, the quantity of cycle Ranging code, the
quantity of bandwidth request Ranging code and the quantity of handoff
Ranging code.`
INIT_RN Ther size of For the initial Ranging, if MS does not receive RNG-RSP within the time of
G_BKO_ initial Ranging T3, it means the competition is failed, MS will enlarge the backhaul window
START backhaul doubled and compete again.
window

2.4.1.3.2 Ranging OMC parameter configuration

Ranging parameter configuration is as below.

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Figure 59 Ranging OMC parameter configurations

2.4.1.4 SBC negotiation ability


SBC ability contain a few physicalal layer parameters, duplex mode, security ability, such as
modulation code ability,CINR measure ablity, power control support,PKM version, authorization
policy support.
Main message: SBC-REQ and SBC-REP

2.4.1.4.1 SBC parameters

SBC parameters table is as below.

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Table 14 SBC parameters introduction


SN Parameter Meaning Instruction
OFDMA_MS FFT supporting ability 2048
_FFT_SIZES 128
512
1024
OFDMA_MS_MO Supporting ability of 64-QAM
D uplink modulation BTC
CTC (√ default)
STC
HARQ chase
CTC_IR
CC_IR
LDPC
OFDMA_MS_DE Supporting ability of STC
MOD downlink modulation CC with optional interleaver
HARQ Chase
HARQ CTC_IR
Reserved 0
HARQ CC IR
LDPC
Dedicated pilots
OFDMA_PERM_ Permutation Optional PUSC
SUPP supporting ability Optional FUSC
AMC 1x6
AMC 2x3
AMC 3x2
AMC with HARQ map
TUSC1
TUSC2
OFDMA_MA OFDMA MAP HARQ MAP
P_CAPA supporting ability Extended HARQ IE
Sub MAP for first zone
Sub MAP for other zones
DL region definition
PACKING_SUPP Packing supporting
ability
EXTENSION_CA Support extension title
PA or not
MAC_HEAD_SH Which types of MAC
EAD_SUPP title and extension is
supported

2.4.1.4.2 SBC OMC parameters configuration

SBC parameters configuration is as below.

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Figure 60 SBC parameters configuration-1

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Figure 61 SBC parameters configuration-2

2.4.1.5 Coding and authorization


Exam the terminals legality, including equipment authorization and customers authorization
The options of coding data methods
Main message: -REQ and -REP

2.4.1.5.1 OMC parameters configuration

Parameters configuration of Coding and authorization is as below.

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Figure 62 Parameters configuration of Coding and authorization

2.4.1.6 REG ability negotiation


Registration is process that terminal is allowed to get access to web and the terminal receives the
second CID.
In order to register in base station, terminals send REG-REQ information to base station and base
station responds based on this information. The terminal in REG-REQ information includes IP
version parameters indicating that it supports IP version in the second CID. Registration is mainly
the negotiation process of MAC level ability, negotiation including: sorting ability, CID&SAID
updating, PHS ability, ARQ ability, switching support.

2.4.1.7 Service flow setup


Service flow function is to guarantee Qos, a service flow represents a set of Qos parameters.
Service flow mechanism offers the support of signal flow control, including setup, delete and
modify.
Service data is composed of two physicalal connections from MS to AGW transmission channel:
MS and BS transport connection, BS and AGW data path.
Every service flow corresponds with 32 digits SFID.

The chart of service flow setup as below.

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MS BS ASN-GW AAA

Access Accept

CS能力协商(空口登记)完成

RR-Request

DSA-REQ
DSA-RSP

RR-Response

Data Path Registration Request

Data Path Registration Response

DSA-Ack Data Path Registration Ack

重复RR和DP步骤,完成所有预备业务流通道建立

Figure 63 Chart of service flow setup

2.4.1.8 Obtaining IP
After setting up the service flow signal channel, AAA will allocate IP address by DHCP.

2.4.2 Idle Idle model and paging flow


2.4.2.1 The function of idle model
MS is allowed to receive DL public service information in cycle in the case that MS doesn’t
register to BS.
For MS, it is exempt from the requirement of immediate HO and normal execution.
The restriction of Ms scanning in certain distance makes MS save power and resource.
For web and BS, it provides a simply way to remind MS about the arrival of downlink service and
meanwhile reduces the services of air connection and web switch in the case of non-active MS,
simply speaking, it helps to save electricity.
Terminal acts as the main flow of web and setup new service connection
Date is sent to terminal by the new connection.

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2.4.2.2 Paging chart

Figure 64 Paging chart

2.4.2.3 Entering idle flow chart


When no data transmit on MS, BS get in idle state triggered by DREG-CMD, or MS lanch through
DREG-REQ. BS extract the resource distributed to terminals, and the connections are extracted as
well.

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MS BS AGW

DREG_REQ

IMEntry MS State Change Request

IMEntry_MS State Change Rsponse

DREG_CMD
Data Path De-Reg Req

Data Path De-Reg Rsp


Data Path De-Reg Ack

MS发起的进入IDLE模式

Figure 65 Entering idle flow chart

2.4.2.4 Location update


MS need to update the location when paging between groups in idle mode.

MSS BS ASN-GW(Anchor PC/LR)

(a) RNG-REQ

(b) LU Request

(c) LU Response

(d) RNG_RSP
(e) LU Confirm

Figure 66 Location update flow chart

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2.4.2.5 Paging flow


When the net side need to send out data, paging control unit send paging broadcast which paging
terminal.

MSS BS AGW(Anchor PC) AGW(Anchor DPF/FA)

(a) DownLink Data From HA

(b) Initate Paging Request


(c) Initate Paging Response

(d) MS Paging Announce

(e) BS Broadcast Page Messages

Figure 67 Paging flow chart

2.4.2.6 Exit idel state flow


Flow of Terminal re-accesses net, setup new service connection. Data send to terminal using the
new connection.

MS BS AGW

RNG-REQ

PCID HMAC/CMAC IMExit MS State Change Request

IMExit MS State Change Response

Data Path Registration Request

Data Path Registration Response

RNG-RSP

重入网络,可能协商鉴权能力,可能鉴权,可能重登记

Data Path Registration Ack

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Figure 68 Exit Idle flow chart

2.4.2.6.1 OMC parameters configuration

Figure 69 Pagegroup OMC parameters configuration

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2.5 Handover Technology


2.5.1 Handover types
Handover includes 3 types: HHO (Hard Handover), FBSS (Fast BS Swtiching), MDHO (Macro
Diversity Handover).

2.5.1.1 Hard Handover (HHO)


The process in which an MS migrates from the air-interface provided by the Serving BS to a
target BS.Under this type, MS only keep communicating with Serving BS. Between Serving
BS and Target BS, they can have the same frequency or different, but can’t share the MAC
information.

2.5.1.2 Fast BS Switching (FBSS)


The process in which an MS migrates from the air-interface provided by the Serving BS to
an active BS. Under this type, MS can only communicate with Serving BS, but can keep
synchronization and setting up link resource, so it can be switch to another Active BS very
quickly, between different Active BS, they must have the same frequency and share some MAC
information.

2.5.1.3 Macro Diversity Handover(MDHO)


The process in which an MS migrates from the air-interface provided by one or more BSs to the
air-interface provided by other one or more BSs. Under this type, MS keep communicating
with one or more BSs, every BS is MS’s serving BS. This process is accomplished by BSs
transmitting the same MAC/PHY message to MS such that diversity combining can be
performed by the mobile station (MS)

2.5.2 HHO workflow


At present, our system support HHO, the workflow chart as follows:

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AGW (Auth
MS SBS TBSn AGW(HO+DP) enticator)

1 MOB_NBR_ADV

2 Association with neighbor BS

3 MOB_M SHO_REQ
(M SID,target BS list)

4 R6_HO_Req(M SInfo)

5 R6_HO_Req

6 R6_AK_Context_Req

7 R6_AK_Transfer(AK,AKID,AKLifetime,AKSN)

8 R6_Path_Pre_RegReq

9 R6_Path_Pre_RegRsp

10 R6_HO_Response
12 MOB_BSHO_RS P
(recommended 11 R6_HO_Response
BS=BTSx,newCI D)
13 Externed_SN_Subheader

14 MOB_HO_IND
(HO_IND_TYPE)
15 R6_HO_Confirm

16 R6_HO_Confirm
17 RNG_REQ

18 RNG_RSP

19 SBC_REQ

20 SBC_RSP

21 REG_REQ

22 REG_RSP
23 SN_Report

24)R6_Path_Reg_Req

25)R6_Path_Reg_Rsp

26)R6_HO_Complete

27)R6_HO_Complete

28)R6_Path_DReg_Req

29)R6_Path_DReg_RSP

Figure 70 Workflow chart of HHO

2.5.3 The related parameters configure of HO


The three related HO parameters configure pages in OMC: HO, Neighbor, Trigger

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2.5.3.1 HO configure page

Figure 71 HO page configure

2.5.3.2 HO parameter instruction


HO Type Support: choose HO
Handoff supported by BS and MSS: choose 0
HO trigger metric support: CINR
At present, these three items can be chosed as above.
System resource retain time:used to describe the time length of resource retain timer.
HO process optimization MS timer: mainly used as the timer when MS is
waiting the next MAC message during the new access in optimizated HO.
MS handover retransmissions timer: if MS still doesn’t receive HORSP after the time lenth of
timer since it has sent HOREQ to BS, it will retransmit HOREQ.

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Handover indication readiness timer: used to allocate a time for MS to have an opportunity to
transmitting uplink HOIND forwardly.
MS HO connections parameters processing timer: define the max time for MS to deal the
connecting information carried by RNGRSP and REG_RSP, need to debug and confirm with all
terminials.
MS HO TEK processing time: define the max time for MS to delal the related information of TEK,
need to debug and confirm with all terminals.
Threshold used by the MS to add a neighbor BS: under FBSS/MDHO types, when neighbor BS
CINR bigger than this threshold, it can be added to available diversity.
Threshold used by the MS to drop a BS: under FBSS/MDHO types, when neighbour BS CINR less
than this threshold, it will be deleted from available diversity.
The slot length of anchor switch report: under MDHO/FBSS types, ASR is a long measure for time,
its unit is frame number.
The switch period of anchor switch report: under MDHO/FBSS types, its unit is ASR.
Hysteresis margin: when target BS CINR 3db bigger than serving BS, permit MS handover.
Time-to-trigger duration: it needs to keep a long time for MS send HO request since BS satisfies
above Hysteresis margin, the length of this time is the value of Hysteresis margin, unit is ms.
FBSS weight: no need to modify
SSHO weight: no need to modify
HHO weight: no need to modify
Inter-frequency scan threshold: used for BS to trigger scan, when BS detects MS uplink CINR
lower than this value, MS begins to Inter-frequency scan.
Scan duration: one scan lasts time, unit: frame.
Scan interval: the time between two scans, during this time, it communicates normally.
Scan report period: configure MS scan report period, it’s configured in trigger page whether it
needs scan report period.
Scan report metric: decide its report is CINR or RSSI, 1 means CINR.
Association type support: BS support association type, 1 means scan without association, at
present our suggestion is 1.

2.5.3.3 Neighbor configure page

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Figure 72 OMC Neighbor configure

2.5.3.4 Neighbor parameters explan


Neighbor configure is based on the actual WiMAX plan result.
When it’s 1/3 , FA configuration indictor is Same,different frequency network is not same.
If connect to GPS, the frequency synchronization should be configured as synchronizing, this is
always used in synchronizing handoff.
Else it should be configured as asynchronizing. This is always used in asynchronizing handoff.
When the serving BS and neighbor neither have the same time source nor time is synchronized,
you need to configure no synchronization.

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2.5.3.5 Trigger configure


First, trigger is usally used in different frequency HO, when it’s same frequency, needn’t to
configure trigger.

Figure 73 OMC Trigger configure

2.5.3.6 Trigger parameter instruction


Trigger metric type:CINR or RSSI
Trigger function: trigger condition
Trigger action: when it satify trigger function, what’s MS action.
Trigger value:trigger value’s unit is 0.5db
Trigger averaging duration:MS start trigger action after it lasts trigger averaging during.
In Figure 73, when the serving BS’s CINR is lower than 10db, MS will send MOB_SCN_REQ.
Usally different frequency HO, configure a trigger to trigger MS send HO-REQ when serving BS’s
CINR is 3db lower than target BS.

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2.6 Power Control optimization


2.6.1 PC and AMC principle
2.6.1.1 The purpose of PC
The purpose of PC is to decrease the influence of slow fading of wireless channels and slow
changes in interference on singnals, conquer quick fading and exquisite changes in interference by
complect coding.

Preventing competitive power increase and decreasing the overall interference level of system.
Everychannel’s transmitting power can bring in interfence to other channels, when system is on the
point of stable power, any power increase can bring in competitive power increase to other
subscribers, so increase overall interference rapidly. By the control of channel transmitting power,
overall transmitting power can be the smallest available value, so decreasing the overall interference
level of system, increasing the system capability.

Trying to reduce the Tx power in the precondition of meeting communication quality requirements,
PC technology is an optimization technology, the purpose is to reduce the TX power in the
precondition of meeting communication quality requirements (bandwidth, BER,FER).

2.6.1.2 The principles of PC


Abiding by the following 3 principles

Powe balance: ensure equal power of the wanted signals at the receive end. For example, ensure
equal RSSI for the uplink.

SNR balance:ensure equal C/I(carrier/Interference) at the receive end.

BER/FER balance:ensure equal BER/FER at the receive end, for example for the uplink, ensure
equal BER/FER at BS from MS.

2.6.1.3 Power Control Classification


Power Control includes uplink PC and downlink PC, uplink Power Control is the main content.

Uplink PC includes 3 types: closed loop, open loop, external loop.

Closed loop: comparing with the object value(CINR,RSSI), BS measures the channel
quality(CINR,RSSI), then confirm the adaptation.

External loop: BS gets uplink BER or PER, then adjusts CINR by comparing with the enactment
value to insure communication quality.

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Open loop is mainly carried out by MS. By calculating path loss and modulation coding modules,
interference of BS, MS adjusts Tx power properly. The advantage of open loop is higher adjusting
frequency, lower delay, no need bandwidth spending, because of no close loop, the adjustment maybe
not accurate.

Downlink PC: when MS migrates to the edge of cells, path loss increases rapidly, the quality of
signal channel turns worse, if increasing the downlink Power, you can improve communication
quality. Otherwise when MS is next to BS, the quality of channel is very good, so in the precondition
of keeping bandwidth, we can decrease power properly, decrease interference level, also save Tx
power for remote subscribers. WiMAX carries out downlink power control by adjusting Booting
value.

2.6.1.4 AMC
WiMAX adopts AMC technology, according the intension of sinals, automatic adjust modulation
and coding modes, so it’s very close between AMC and Power Control.
Uplink encodings in common use:

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Table 15 UL FEC

Downlink encodings in common use:

Table 16 DL FEC

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2.6.1.5 PC and AMC arithmetic


Uplink AMC and PC methods:
First, confirm UIUC, according to current UIUC and CINRrcv, judge whether current CINRrcv is
in min entry threshold or mand exit threshold of current UIUC.
If so, keep UIUC, otherwise reconfirm UIUC and judge power by congestion.
Downlink AMC and PC methods:
First confirm boosting and then confirm DIUC according to CINR, the adjusting method of DIUC
is similar to UIUC.

2.6.2 Power Control and AMC configure


PC parameters are mainly: DL Burst Profile, UL Burst Profile, AMC and PC.

2.6.2.1 DL Burst Profile configure


DL Burst Profile configure page in OMC as follows:

Figure 74 OMC DL Burst Profile configure

2.6.2.2 DL Burst Profile parameters instruction


This page describes all types of FEC threshold when downlink adopts AMC. According to
different terminials and service scene, the configure needs to be optimized. At present,
recommended DIUC value of GCT card as follows:

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Table 17 DIUC recommended value


FEC Code type FEC UIUC UIUC Minimum e
and modulation type number Mandatory ntry threshold
exit threshold
QPSK(CC) 1/2 0 24 30
QPSK(CTC)1/2 13 24 30
16QAM(CTC)1/2 16 30 36
16QAM(CTC)3/4 17 36 44
64QAM(CTC)3/4 20 44 48

DL Burst Profile
In Figure 74, DL Burst Profile expresses the configurations of downlink burst modulation and
coding, this configure is the MC type used to divide downlink burst to terminals by LDS. At most
12 items, be corresponding to DIUC1~DIUC12.

Mand exit threshold and Min entry threshold are the same as uplink, the choice of DIUC is
decided by the downlink AMC method when downlink AMC enable.
The step of threshold value is 0.5db, and the step of backgroup NPT demonstrate is 1db, so you
need to use the threshold value divide 2 and then be corresponding to DL CINR of NPT. When
compare the threshold with the DL CINR of NPT, you need to notice: when downlink AMC enable,
check the mand exit threshold and min entry threshold of this DIUC, if it’s between these two values,
there’s no modulate of downlink MC.
To DL Burst Profile, the first item is DIUC1, the followings are DIUC2, DIUC3…, 12 items at
most.DIUC0 is used by DL_MAP, it’s configured in DL-MAP Coding indication in figure 74. up to
now, 0 means QPSK CC 1/2, the other is 2 shows QPSK CTC 1/2. If it was configured QPSK CC
1/2,DIUC0 is QPSK CC 1/2;if it’s QPSK CTC 1/2,DIUC0 is QPSK CC 1/2.
When configure the thresholds in these burst profile, generally we use default values. Up to now,
there’s no expert items testing, so they will be chosed after testing.

2.6.2.3 UL Burst Profile configure


OMC configure figure as follows:

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Figure 75 OMC UL Burst Profile configure

2.6.2.4 UL Burst Profile parameter instruction


This page describes all types of FEC threshold when downlink adopts AMC. According to
different terminials and service scene, the configure needs to be optimized. At present,
recommended UIUC value as follows:

Table 18 UIUC recommended configure


FEC Code type FEC UIUC UIUC PCCI
and modulation number Mandatory Minimum entry
type exit threshold
threshold
QPSK(CC) 1/2 0 52 60 60
QPSK(CTC)1/2 13 52 60 60
16QAM(CTC)1/2 16 60 68 68
16QAM(CTC)3/4 17 68 76 76

UL Burst Profile
In Figure 75 UL Burst Profile is the configure of uplink burst MC, which is mainly used to assign
MC of uplink burst by LDS, at most 10 items, from UIUCUIUC9.
Mand exit threshold: uplink AMC enable, when UL CINR is lower than the value of Mand exit
threshold, system will choose a lower step MC according to uplink AMC method.

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Min entry threshold: uplink AMC enable, when UL CINR is higher than the value of Min enry
threshold, system will choose this MC type, if still higher than higher stup MC, system will choose
higher MC according to uplink AMC method.
Up to now, the configure is CC and CTC, the threshold is stepped by 0.25db, but NPT is stepped
by 1db, so you need to use the threshold divide 4 and then be relative to UL CINR of NPT. When
compare the threshold with the UL CINR of NPT, you need to notice: when uplink AMC enable,
check the mand exit threshold and min entry threshold of this UIUC, if it’s between these two
values, there’s no modulate of downlink MC.
The third parameter PCCI reference is the reference value of uplink PC, detail solution is based on
UL power controls enable.
The following two parameters RSSI reference,Ranging data ratio are no useful up to now, but we
will deploy correlative job.

2.6.2.5 AMC configure


AMC configure as follows:

Figure 76 AMC configure 1

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Figure 77 AMC configure 2

2.6.2.6 AMC frequent parameters instructions


1. DL AMC enable

Choose Enable, downlink AMC.


Choose Disable, downlink AMC disable, use mandatory Modulation and coding.
As following figure:

Figure 78 DL AMC enable

2. DL mandatory FEC
When DL AMC is disable, parameter DL mandatory FEC is in effect, can choose QPSK(CTC)1/2,
and other downlink FEC;
When DL AMC is enabling, this parameter is invalid.
As follwing figure:

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Figure 79 DL FEC

3. UL AMC enable

When it’s Enable,uplink adopts AMC;


When it’s disabling, uplink AMC is disabling, using mandatory modulation and coding, as
following figure:

Figure 80 UL AMC enables

4. UL mandatory FEC
When UL AMC is disable, parameter UL mandatory FEC is in effect, can choose QPSK(CTC)1/2
and other uplink FEC;
When UL AMC is enable, this parameter is invalid.

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Figure 81 UL FEC

5. Downlink AMC method

Figure 82 DL AMC method

6 Uplink AMC method

Figure 83 UL AMC methods

The AMC method of the upper UIUC/DIUC:


MUMD switch
1-SUSD switch
2-MUSD switch
3-Instant switch: adjust uplink/downlink AMC if CINR of every frame allows, in that case, wave
CINR brings FEC change, may make system unsteadily, ping delay, even loss.

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Up situation:
For uplink judicative arithmetic, adopts fixed winodws to store CINR. After statistic of fixed array
is full, adopts different disposals according to different arithmetic:
To fixed windows, use a member variable to count, when it’s full, make a statistic, clean array,
couner equal 0.
Down situation:
Downlink judicative arithmetic: adpots slip window to count, if the CINR in slip windows meets
terms,it will deal according to different arithmetic.
To slip window: CINRrvc of every frame is stored in array, when if’s full, the oldest will be
deleted, and store new one, and make statistic. Only when the statistic of CINR meets some
threshold ratio, there will be MC modify, save a counter member variable to indicate the oldest
CINR. When next frame coming, use it to replace the old one.
Special situation:
When it meets both up and down situation, for a unitive dealing flow, still adopt first up and then
down, we need to up it to a middle value not the final one, only when it’s no way to down, we
will up it. So when it meets both up and down situations, the final solution is to fall modulate step.
The following figure is the parameters of AMC.

Figure 84 AMC parameter

.DL_AMC_RiseStatNum
The rise Statistic of downlink AMC, the object is smooth
DL_AMC_drop StatNum
The drop statistic of downlink AMC,the object is smooth
.UL_AMC_RiseStatNum
The rise statistic of uplink AMC,the object is smooth.

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UL_AMC_drop StatNum
The drop statistic of uplink AMC,the object is smooth.
DL_AMC_RiseTrigNum
The rise trigger number of downlink AMC, the object is smooth.
DL_AMC_DropTrigNum
The drop trigger number of downlink AMC, the object is smooth.
UL_AMC_RiseTrigNum
The rise trigger number of uplink AMC, the object is smooth
UL_AMC_DropTrigNum
The drop trigger number of uplink AMC,the object is smooth.

PC_WatchBurstNum
The number of burst watched for the adjustment of CINR threshold.
Different AMC entry and exit threshold according to different channels, also the channels are
changing at any moment.
At present, the CINR threshold of AMC is decided according to experience, we add AMC
adjustable mechanism to prevent improper threshold of AMC making AMC performance falling.
The principle adjusting the threshold of AMC according Burst error ratio. The threshold of AMC is
to high when the error ratio is much hign, you need to reduce porperly; the threshold need to be
increased when the burst error ratio is too low.
This parameter is used to control the period of statistic of burst error ratio.

2.6.2.7 PC configure parameters


PC configures parameters as follows:

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Figure 85 PC configure page 1

Figure 86 PC configure page2

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Figure 87 PC configure page3

Figure 88 PC configure page4

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Figure 89 PC configure page5

2.6.2.8 PC parameters explanation


1. DL power control enable
In the following figure 90, if DL power control enable choose Enable,it means enable downlink
PC.

Figure 90 DL PC enables
When it chooses Disable, it means downlink PC is disable. At this time, DL PC uses the gain
which fits the appointed boosting, the appointed boosting is configured to Appoint to DL boosting
as the following figure 91.
It can be choosed as 0~7,which is corresponding to 0 dB (default),6 dB,-6 dB,9 dB,3 dB,-3 dB,-9
dB,-12 dB. The corresponding gain of boosting is configured in DL gain of plus value in Figure
4-50.when downlink PC enables, the value of boosting is decided by the D-value between the min
entry threshold of the highest multiplicity configured in DL Burst Profile plus 2db and the value of
DL CINR reported by FFB or REP-RSP. This D-value will be compared to boostiong values of 7,
and then confirm the boosting value. Then compare the boosting to the Upper bound of DL

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boosting and Lower bound of DL boosting in figure 92 , if it’s in the bound you can use it; if it’s
higher than Upper bound of DL boosting,then it adpots the boosting value of upper bound(3db in
figure 92), if it’s lower than Lower bound of DL boosting, then it adopts the value of lower
boosting(-3db in fiugre 92).

Figure 91 Boosting

Figure 92 PC paramters

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UL power controls enable


The following figure 93, UL power control enable chooses Enable, enable uplink PC, and
otherwise disable uplink PC.

Figure 93 UL PC enables

UL PC is adjusted according to the third paramter PCC reference in UL burst profile, when the
measured CINR of data burst aveage is higher than PCCI, then the UL signal quality can meet
communication, you can reduce power properly; if UL CINR is lower than the reference value, the
UL signal qualtiy can not meet communication, you need to upgrade power. The method of
average:in figure 94, average method for UL CINR measurements=0 means Alpha average,1
means slipped windows average; Alpha average:new CINR=Alpha * reported CINR+(1- Alpha)
* old average CINR,Alpha is configured in Alpha for UL CINR average in figure 95,ennerally
configured 1/16~15/16; windows average is slipped windows average, the size of windows if
configured in Window for UL CINR average in figure 95, the scope of upgrade or reduce is
decided by warp of CINR, in figure 94big warp chooses big step, small warp choosed small step,
correspongding parameters as figure 97, considering the parameter exlanation in 1.2.2 uplink
parameter control of “ZTE-WiMAX configure parameter handbook”. By this adjusting, you can
make UL CINR is nearby PCCI. So you can modify uplink power and UL CINR by changing
PCCI. This is avaiable when UL PC enable, otherwise it’s no use. Generally, PCCI reference is a
little higher or equal min entry thrshold.

Figure 94 UL CINR average1

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Figure 95 UL CINR average 2

Figure 96 UL power adjust

Figure 97 UL PC enables

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UL pc mode
Differences between close loop PC and open loop PC:
Close loop is BS measure the CINR, RSSI of data sent by MS, then compare to the target value,
confirm the power adjusting. At present, our system supports adjust according to UL CINR, in
future considering RSSI;
Open loop is mainly completed by MS. MS confirms Tx power according to the path loss, MC, the
interfere of BS. The advantage of this type is high adjusting frequency, small time delay, no extra
bandwidth; disadvantage is no close loop, the adjusting maybe not exact.
In future our system will be added external PC: BS calculates the uplink BER or PER, by
comparing to the threshold, adjust CINR dynamically to ensure the communication quality.

Figure 98 UL PC methods

PC adjust method
The following figure99 the feedback method of unlink Tx power adjust in PC adjust method.
• 0: No adjust
• 1: Power control IE (default)
Power control IE is sent in UL-MAP,which MS is decided by the CID in UL-MAP IE.
• 2: Fast power control message
FPC message is used to adjust several MSs’ power at one time, which was sent by CID
broadcast.FPC also can be chosed to support BS.
Otherwise, when there is time and frequency bias in current system,uplink Tx power adjustment
message will be sent to MS by RNG-RSP, otherwise use PC adjust method over here.

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Figure 99 UL PC message

Drop off enable


Generally, set Drop off enable as enable(default),or drop off will not take effect.

Figure 100 Drop off

Drop off detection is realized by checking uplink burst of MS, when uplink channel is very bad,the
PER is very high, the statistic reaches the threshold, BS will release MS forcibly. But in some
situation, there is none uplink burst, just only burst springed by T27 at intervals. Due to the long
period, it’s a long time to achieve the number of error packages. For example, the period of T27 is
500ms; the statistic of 1000 burst needs 500s. No natural uplink burst situations include:
• no uplink bandwidth requirement of MS;
• uplink channel of MS is very bad, BS can’t receive MS bandwith request, so BS will not assign
bandwidth to MS(except UGS);
• MS power off.
So we need to import the detection of uplink CINR, when it’s a long time, there is no good CINR,
also system judges MS drop off. This method also can judge whether MS drop off when there is no
normal uplink burst. The relatived parameters showed in figure101, considering detailed
explanation 1.2.5 drop off parateters in “ZTE-WiMAX configure parameter handbook”.

Figure 101 Drop off 2

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If microcode doesn’t report MS’s data burst message, the detection of drop off in PC can not be
executed, it happens that BS can’t drop off, but MS dropped off. How to chech whether microcode
report MS’s data burst?
In serial, input“g_dwULChStatSwitch=1”,and then input“g_dwUlChInfo”, it shows the memory
address of this varible, copy it, input “d g_dwUlChInfo memory address, 1000,4”, the content of
every 4th 32bits addresses is:
0: BasicCID(0~15),current frame NO.(16~23),RSSI(24~31);
1: CINR measured by baseband (0~7), average CINR (8~15), CRC (16~23), HCS (24~31);
2: time bias measured by baseband (0~31)
3: frequency bias measured by baseband (0~31).
Notcie:
Maybe the location of every 4 32bits address is not the same, maybe the 0 32bit address is time
bias measured by baseband. CINR can easily recognize locations according increasing frame NO.
and invariable BasicCID.
If the print information is unvariable (especially frame NO.), so you can deduce there is no
microcode report. There is no MS bandwidth assigned by LDS, or MS sent no data in this assigned
bandwidth.
At the same time, input”g_dwULChStatSwitch=1”, also input”g_dwULPowerAdjInfo” to check
the PC adjustment, time and frequency bias after disposal of PC module. Input “g_
dwULPowerAdjInfo”to show the memeory address of variable, copy the memory addrss, input “d
g_ dwULPowerAdjInfo memory address, 1000, 4”, the detail information of every 4 32bits
address:
0: average CINR (0~7), unlink PC scope(8~15), unlink Tx power(16~31);(unlink Tx power is
reported by MS through BR and UL Tx power report header,PHY channel report header,UL Tx
power report,extended subheader, also attached in SBC-REQ,PMC-REQ,REP-RSP)
1: time bias needed to be adjusted (0~31), when it’s 0, there’s no need to adjust.
2: frequency bias needed to be adjusted (0~31), when it’s 0, there’s no need to adjust.
The method of adjustmet for time and frequency bias is average the time and frequency bias
reported by baseband, up to now it’s average 30 reported values. When the average time/frequency
bias is bigger than the threshold of timing/frequency bias(in figure 102 Timing adjustment
threshold/Frequency adjustment threshold),you can adjust through RNG-RSP.
3: current frame NO.(0~15), BasicCID(16~31)
Also maybe the location of every 4 32bits address is not the same, maybe the 0 32bit address is
time bias measured by baseband. CINR can easily recognize locations according increasing frame
NO. and invariable BasicCID.

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Figure 102 PC adjustment

UL limit channel num enabled


When “UL limit channel num enabled” is enabled in figure 103, that means whether uplink limit
channel number is enabled. In transmitting process, if the uplink assiged channel is nore steady, MS
will keep Tx power spectral density. For example, when BS change assigned channel number from 1to
2, MS Tx power will be twice to keep Tx power spectral density. But when MS Tx power is max,
adding subchannel will decude power spectral density, uplink CINR also reduces, if there’s no timely
falling AMC, the result is higher PER. When it’s enable, BS will keep MS current power spectral
density, calculate the max subchannel assigned to MS according to the current MS Tx power and the
max power. BS will assign subchannels no more than the max number. Up to now it works not well, so
the default value is disabling.

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Figure 103 Subchannel limit

ZONE boosting enable


Zone boosting enable is the of-off of downlink Zone Boosting, protocol regulates preamble
subcarrier boosting is 9dB, it’s suitable for FUSC type of all subcarriers, but after importing PUSC,
to 1/3 PUSC, the power of PUSC Zone is much less than preamble, which makes BS
power-amplitier is stricted by preamble. So later protocol provides Zone Boosting solution, when
downlink zone is not all the subchannels, the used subchannels (including data sub-carrier and
pilot sub-carrier) will be boosting, the boosting value is all the available subcarrier
number/subcarrier used by zone.
When Zone Boosting enable, the boosting of Burst won’t exceed 9dB - zone boosting, to 1/3
PUSC, zone boosting is about 4.7db, so the boosting of burst is less than 3db, the parameter of DL
Max Boosting(Upper bound of DL boosting)is less than 3dB.
Zone Boosting is relative to the subchannels used by zone, all the parameters of subchannels used
by zone is decided by the following parameters: USED_SUBCHN_BMP,
AMC_DL_SUBCHN_BMP, TUSC1_DL_SUBCHN_BMP, and TUSC2_DL_SUBCHN_BMP.
Zone Boosting enable is also relative to reference source, when Zone Boosting enable, the number
of data subcarrier of reference source will be boosting 3db no matter how many PUSC subchannels
configured.
The number of subcarrier used by Segment is configured in DL PUSC used subchannel bitmap in
figure 104, 63 equal use all subcarries.

Figure 104 Subchannel limit 2

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Figure 105 DL-MAP


The meaning of the other parameters in OMC is described in 1.2- power control configure in
“ZTE-WiMAX configure parameter handbook”.
The other matters need attention
You can see MS BasicCID through command DisplayActvieMS in serial, and then input
GetPCInfo(segmentid,basiccid) to see the content of NPT, including uplin CINR,UIUC/DIUC and
so on, parameter segmentid is the segmentid accessed by M, generally it’s 0, and basicid
is some BasicCID obtained by command DisplayActiveMS.
Up to now, when MS accessed, you input g_dwSuppFFB=0 to close FFB forcibly, there is no
downlink CINR report, so there is no PC and AMC adjustment. It will report DL CINR by REP-RSP
after new MS access.
Now, there are some problems of uplink PC, especailly many subscribers access, UL PC enable will
lead
to quick UL CINR frequency changes even to 0, the detail reason need to confirm. Maybe its reason
includes PC types(close or open), often time and frequency bias,the interference of RSSI,NI,MS
power and so on.Also some terminals have different disposal to ours, thinking about the infulence of
RSSI,NI, all these need to be PC optimizated in future. In order to prevent excessive frequency
adjustment, PC have an average disposal of time and frequency bias reported by baseband. Uplink Tx
power is mainly adjusted by RNG-RSP, PCIE, FPC, when time and frequency bias also need to be
adjusted, uplink Tx power adjustment is noticed by RNG-RSP together with time and frequency
adjustment. If there’s no time and frequency bias, the uplink Tx power adjustment is adjusted
according the configure in PCIE or FPC.
During the access of MS, there’s time-delay disposal to AMC in order to deal admission control, now
You can choose delay or not, default is no delay. Higher MC of Delayed AMC PC is calucated by
CINR and not reported to LDS, after 2500 frames, it will be reported to LDS, so before this LDS

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sue the default low UIUC1/DIUC0, otherwise the higher MC will be reported to LDS at once, and
higer MC will take effect at once.

2.7 Admission and congestion control


2.7.1 QOS of the air-interface resource of WiMAX
2.7.1.1 Air-interface resource
The air-interface resource of WiMAX is calculated unitely as SLOT number.

By physicalal structure, one air-interface SLOT is composed of a special time length lasted by
several sub-carriers. LDS also use SLOT as operation unit, translate MAC message to PHY layer.

If the time length of an air-interface physicalal FRAME is T, the usable number of subcarriers is N,
a SLOT lasts t is composed of n subcarriers, so the total SLOT of air-interface is (T/t)*(N/n). Most
of these SLOT is used to transport service data, little part is used to control channel (DL_MAP,
UL_MAP, UCD, DCD and so on).

2.7.1.2 Flux of subscribers’ service-flow


The air-interface bandwidth occupied by subscribers’ service flow is also calculated by SLOT.

An important point of WIMAX air-interface is that the service flow of terminals can adopt lots of
Modeling and Coding types, the number of SLOTs occupied by high level MC is much less than
low level MC type, but higher quality requirements to air-interface signal.

Also WIMAX provides Automatic Modeling & Coding, it can automatic MC according to the
signal quality of terminals access.

Flexible access types make sufficient use of WIMAX air-interface resource, but bring forward
higher requirement to air-interface QOS management.

2.7.1.3 Types of service-flow


To make sufficient use of air-interface, at the same time adapt to all types service requirements,
WiMAX system design several types for service flow.

UGS

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The character of UGS is fixed service flow bandwidth, once access, the air-interface will hold
fixed SLOT for the service all the time, no matter whether there’s data to send. The bandwidth can
not be occupied by other services, and the time delay of data message is very strict.
UGS is the highest priority service, mainly used as VOIP and such high real-time services.

VR
VR service has no fixed bandwidth guarantee, but a bound of bandwidth. once accessed, the
air-interface should hold enough SLOT for the floor level bandwidth. When the air-interface
resources is loose, you can add bandwidth dynamically, but it can’t exceed the upper limit; when
the air-interface resource is tense, you can reduce SLOT and assign them to other services, but
need to keep the floor level of the bandwidth bound.
The upper limit of bandwidth bound is named the max last speed, the floor level of bandwidth is
named the min saved speed.
VR services are classified into NRT-VR, RT-VR and ERT-VR

NRT-VR
The time delay of data message transport is loose, every frame can adjust the assignment of SLOT
automatically. Mainly be used in FTP transport services.

RT-VR
The time delay of data message transport is strict, every frame can adjust the assignment of SLOT
automatically. Mainly be used in on-line audio video stream services.

ERT-VR
The time delay of data message transport is strict, every frame cann’t adjust the assignment of
SLOT.Automatically, but adjust at intervals. The performance of ERT-VR is near to UGS, but the
use of bandwidth is more flexible than UGS. The application scope is similar to UGS.

Among the three VR services, the priority from high to low is ERT-VR, UGS, RT-VR and
NRT-VR.
BE-best effort
BE has no bandwidth guarantee, will be assigned when there is spare SLOT; at one time has
the max persisting speed restrict. From the point of view of resource management, BE can be
regarded as NRT-VR whose the minimal bandwidth guarantee is 0. BE service is the lowest
priority, mostly used as WEB browse services.

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2.7.1.4 Admission and congestion control


Admission and congestion control is two important part of QOS system, the together object of
them is to avoid overload of air-interface, ensure the quality of service flow transport.

The function of WIMAX admission control is to restrict the acess ot subscribers’ service flow,
prevent BS air-interface overload.
The function of WIMAX congestion control is to unchain overload when the BS congestion is
caused by reducing quality of signal channel, replacing low phase MC to the accessed terminals.

2.7.2 Admission Control


2.7.2.1 Basic principle
If the spare air-interface SLOT is exhausted after the applying service entered, the service will be
refused.

2.7.2.2 Realization method


Admission control is realized together by SPS, DBS and LDS.
SPS: put in service access request to DBS, report the type, direction, bandwidth and so on, after
receiving admission judgement, go on executing service flow access, or backout the established
service flow.
LDS: take charge of the usage statistic of SLOT, including total SLOT, used SLOT and so on, also
report them to DBS at intervals.

DBS: answer for the final admission judgement, according to the bandwidth requirement and MC
type reported by SPS, calacute the required SLOT, compare to the usage report by LDS, judge
whether admission or not.

2.7.2.3 The application scene of admission control

Original access
The subscriber setup a new workflow, admission control judge it by uplink or downlink..

Bandwidth variation for accessed subscribers

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The subscribers want to add or reduce the bandwidth of an accessed service flow. Thereinto, the
apply of adding bandwidth is restricted by admission control, admission control judges it by uplink
or downlink service flow.

HO of terminals
When terminals handover to other BS, all the accessed services in serving BS will be applied to
target BS.
In this scene, all the service flow of terminals should be admitted to the target BS, the HO can
be completed, or any service flow is not admitted, BS will refuse the HO of terminals.

2.7.2.4 Serveral terms considering by admission control


1. MAC overhead
SPS requests to DBS for service admission, the filled parameters of bandwidth is the payload of
Service flow, not including MAC overhead; when DBS judges by SLOT, it needs to add suitable
requirement, and then judge.

2. Reserved air-interface abundant quantity


The object of reserved air-interface abundant quantity is to have spare resource when MC types
Changed or the bandwidth of service flow alters, not as far as the property of service flow changed,
the air-interface is overload.

3. the priority of admission for different scenes


The priority of admission is that different scenes have different admission results when the
resource of spare SLOT is very tense. Among the three before-mentioned scenes, the priority from
high to low is HO, bandwidth variation and original access.
The priority is realized by reserving each air-interface resource abundance, higer priority, less
reserved abundance.

4. Disposal to different service flow


To UGS, judge by the SLOT calculated by fixed bandwidth and MC of terminals.
To VR services (ERT-VR, RT-VR, NRT-VR), judged by the SLOT calculated by the minimal
reserved bandwidth and MC of terminals.
To BE, no reserved bandwidth, so no reserved SLOT, admitted unconditionally.

2.7.2.5 Admission control parameters explanation


Table 19 Table of admission control parameter explanation

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Parameter Meaning Explanation


T_NEW the usage ratio [0,100] unit is %, It means the discount of SLOT resource
of SLOT for adjustment in the original access scene. 100% - T_NEW% is the
original reserved value. The default configuration of T_NEW is 80(%)
access
judgement
T_CHG SLOT usage The unit of [0,100] is %. It means the discount of SLOT
ratio of stream resource adjustment in the scene of stream bandwidth changing.
changing 100% - T_CHG% is the reserved value. The default
judgment configuration of T_CHG is 85(%).
T_HO HO The unit of [0,100] is %. It means the discount of SLOT
adminssion resource adjustment in the scene of stream initial operating.
threshold 100% - T_HO% is the reserved value. The default
configuration of T_HO is 90(%).
MAC_RATIO MAC The unit is %, It means the ratio between the SLOT amount of
overhead ratio MAC overhead and the SLOT for operating stream load, the
default value is 5(%).
LDS_RPTINTV The interval The unit is FRAME, which is that FRAME counts the average
of LDS report SLOT data as LDS manage and report to DBS. The default
SLOT usage configuration is 400(FRAME), which is 2 seconds. It can be
configured as integer multiple of 200.
Remark: If the reporting cycle is configured too long, it may
cause the reduction of the admitting percent of pass, and
influence the function of port.

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2.7.2.6 Admission configure page

Figure 106 Admission configure page

2.7.3 Congestion control


2.7.3.1 Basic principle
The main reason to congestion is too much data folw, LDS cann’t arrange all the data in limited
slots. So the kernel of congestion control is to reduce the occupied quantity of SLOT. It can be
realized by restricting access, upgrading the air-interface power, forcible terminals handover,
releasing low priority service flow forcibly.

2.7.3.2 Realized mode


It’s realized together by subsystem SPS, DBS and LDS.

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LDS: it answers for the Statistic of air-interface slot in time, mainly includes whether produce
attemper violation, and the rate of violation, also report to DBS cycly.

DBS: it takes charge of two jobs: first, according to the report of SLOT attemper sent by LDS,
judge whether the air-interface is in congestion, and the degree of congestion, and then sends the
report to SPS; second, when it needs to upgrade power, forcible handover or release forcibly to exit
congestion, choose the service flow and terminals according the information, and then send the
report to SPS.

SPS: SPS is the main part of congestion control, after receiving DBS congestion control report,
chooses the method of relieving congestion, and then choose the object to execute, at last relieve
congestion to the choosed object.

2.7.3.3 The scene of congestion control


According to the procreant situation of congestion, congestions are divided into no congestion,
light congestion, middle congestion, high congestion.

No congestion
No congestion: there is no air-interface slot resoutce overload, normal LDS attemper.
Light congestion
When the LDS attemper interval for BE is more than the threshold, the air-interface enters light
congestion, there’s no influence on UGS and VR.

Solutions:
It needs to increase power of terminals to exit light congestion. Among all the terminals which
accessed the air-interface, choose one or more terminals to upgrade the power, in order to upgrade
the quality of signal and increase the MC type, so reduce the mount of air-interface slots this
terminal occupied.
The principle of terminals who was increased power forcibly: the number of slots occupied
all the service is the most, you need to upgrade the power.
Middle congestion
When LDS stops the attemper of BE, there’s still a mass of attemper violation for NRT-VR.
The load of air-interface enters middle congestion. There is no influence on UGS, ERT-VR and
ER-VR.

Soultions:
It needs to adopt the following two methods at the same time to exit middle congestion:

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Restrict access: in the air-interface, it’s not permitted to new service access, terminal handover,
apply for more bandwidth. It’s automatically realized by DBS admission control.
Compulsive handover: among all the terminals accessed the air-interface, choose one or more to
handover to another air-interface, so reduce the amount of service. The principle of choosing
terminals:
----no handover to the terminals which has UGS or BE service
----first handover to the terminals which has low MC
High congestion
When the attemper violation rate reaches the threshold to all the realtime services(including
UGS, ERTVR,RTVR), the air-interface enter high congestion.

Solutions:

It needs to backout service flow forcibly. Among all the services accessed in the air-interface,
choose on or more to backout forcibly, so that we can reduce the quantity of service flow quickly.
In high congestion, it’s obligatory to break service flow.

The principle of backout to service flow:


----no release to BE
----first release to low priority service flow
----the same priority, first release the one took more slots.

2.7.3.4 Congestion control parameter


Table 20 Congestion control parameters explanation
paramter meanings explanation
CongestionCtrlIntv congestion Unit is FRAME, calculate flux of
control interval air-interface and judge interval of
congestion, default setting is 1000(frames)
Entry_L_SchIntv The threshold Unit is FRAME, for BE service,when the
of entry light interval of receiving service message
congestion for arrives above the threshold, there’s still no
BE service free slot to send data, then air-interface
entry light congestion.
Exit_L_SchIntv The threshold Unit is FRAME, for BE service,
of exit light under light congestion, when the interval
congestion for of receiving service message arrives lower
BE service than the threshold, there’s enough free slot

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to send data, then the air-interface exit light


congestion.
Entry_M_Violat The threshold [0,100] unit is %, in a congestion
of violation control interval, if the quantity of failed
rate to enter frames is more than the threshold when it
middle satifies the deadline BW of NRT-VR,, the
congestion for air-interface is judged as middle
NRT-VR congestion.
Exit_M_Violat The [0,100] unit is%, if the quantity of
threshold of failed frames is less than the threshold
violation rate to when it satifies the deadline BW of
exit middle NRT-VR, the aire-interface is judged as
congestion for exit middle congestion.
NRT-VR
Entry_H_Violat The [0,100] unit is %, in a congestion
threshold of control interval, if the quantity of failed
violation rate to frames is more than the threshold when it
enter high satifies the deadline BW, the air-interface
congestion is judged as high congestion.
Exit_H_Violat The [0,100] unit is%, if the quantity of
threshold of failed frames is less than the threshold
violation rate to when it satifies the deadline BW the
exit middle aire-interface is judged as exit high
congestion congestion.

2.7.3.5 Congestion control configure page

Figure 107 Congestion control configure

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Section3 WiMAX Terminal Introduction


 Knowledge

 Summary of frequent terminal sort summary -------------------------------------------------------------Level1

 Detail configuration instruction of frequent terminal---------------------------------------------------- Level1

3.1 Summary of frequent terminal sort summary


3.1.1 Sort according to the shape and interface
Usually sort according to the shape and interface as following:
USB card
Express card
PCMCIA card
Outdoor CPE
Indoor CPE(Modem)

Figure 108 Indoor CPE

Figure 109 USB Card

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Figure 110 Express CPE

Figure 111 Outdoor CPE

3.1.2 Sort according to the chip vendor


Sort according to the chip vendor as following:
GCT
Beceem(ZTE Beccem USB Card、ZTE Express Card、Beceem PCMCIA Card)
Sequans(USI CPE、USI Express Card)
Intel(ZTE Intel USB Card)
Fujitsu
Runcom

3.2 Detail configuration instruction of frequent terminal

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3.2.1 USI CPE terminal


3.2.1.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction
When need to modify frequency point or update version for terminal, please land appointed web
page to operate;
Appoint IP address as 192.168.0.168; then input web address http://192.168.0.10 in IE, and input
user name and password as “admin”, it will appear following page:

Figure 112 USI CPE IE Configure Page


Select and login channel&frequency web page, modify physical layer parameters;

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Figure 113 USI CPE Physical layer parameters configuration


Select and login security web page, set authtication parameters;

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Figure 114 USI CPE authtication IE configurations


Select and login firmware upgrade of tools web page, and start to upgrade and update;

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Figure 115 USI software upgrade

3.2.1.2 Use command


Remote telnet 192.168.0.10, and input user name and password as “admin”, then use related
command to Check that RSSI and CINR values at MS.
Command:
cmd "showssphystatsdl"
Should use the CINR reuse 1 value to judge the quality of downlink, 27dB is good;
cmd "showssphystats"
To display all phy status, included different RFs;
cmd "showssphy"
To display the phy status in detail.
Finally change the IP address as automatic gain mode after all the parameters configuration
finished, then the terminal will connect to network normally.

3.2.2 ZTE terminal (base on Beceem chip)


3.2.2.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction
1. Install WCM
WCM is a tool of wireless connection and management, Firstly must have installed three software
patches before install WCM. They patches as following:
dotnetfx-2.0.Exe,
WinPcap_4_0_1.Exe,
WindowsInstaller-KB893803-x86.Exe。
2. Modify terminal configuration parameters
If finished the installation, it will create a map mark of Beceem Config File Editor in desktop,

click , and then select File - >Open->Macxvi.Cfg, start to modify some


parameters.

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Figure 116 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 1

Figure 117 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 2

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2.1 Modify frequency point


Center Frequency:inputed frequency point need to convert.For example set Center Frequency as
2545(MHz)
,so use calculator to compute formula is 2545*4,and then convert into 16 hex result
is 27C4,finally input the result in red box.

Figure 118 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 3


The other items can fill directly.
2.2 Manually physical synchronization change as automatically physical synchronization(notice:
this parameter needs to modify, or the terminal will don’t have signal).
After finish the driver installation, the default mode of terminal is manually physical
synchronization, need to change into automatically physical synchronization. In the following red
box, change the“PhyParameter2”into 0.
0——automatically synchronize (don’t need to click connect for getting signal)
1——manually synchronize (need to click connect for getting signal)

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Figure 119 ZTE Beeccem chip parameters changed 4


2.3 Shutdown timer value
If the terminal is idle for some time, not access, the terminal will enter shutdown state (as shown in
Figure a red box).
If after entering the shutdown state, connet button (as shown in Figure A purple box) is shaded,
then the parameters need to be "ShutDown Time Value" was revised to FFFFFFFF, disable this
feature follows the red box shown in Figure B.
If the same key connet ash, as long as you connect key points, terminal will begin to synchronize,
and then click connect button, they start to access.

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Figure 120 ZTE Beeccem chip parameter A

Figure 121 ZTE Beeccem chip parameter B

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2.4 The other frequent parameters instructions


i.PKMv2 Enable = 0/1 ---0 shows close authentication,1shows open authentication
ii.HostDrvrConfig6 = 0x0301 --- 301 shows manually connect,303 shows automatically
connect.
iii.MIMO Enable 101 ——both enable uplink and downlink MIMO
100—— uplink MIMO enable
1—— downlink MIMO enable
0——both enable uplink and downlink MIMO
iv..HARQ 0——HARQ ban
1——transport HARQ enable
101——both enable transport HARQ and management HARQ
v. PUSC 0——support PUSC all of subchannels
1——support PUSC part of subchannels(1/3 subchannels)

3.2.2.2 TTIS authentication configuration


1. Open Beceem Config File Editor

2. Open configuration file, change PKMv2 Enable into 1, and save it,then pull out and insert card
again.

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Figure 122 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 1


3. Open Beceem Wireless Connection

4. Click Option

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Figure 123 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 2


Click option, and then appear following dialog box
i.Select Authentication page, Enable authentication
In the second red box set user name and password:Default Identity——TTLS user name,Default
password——TTLS password.

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Figure 124 ZTE Beeccem chip authentication configuration 3


ii.Select EAP page
In the first red box EAP methord select EAP-TTLS/MSCHAPv2
In the second red box import certificate, it provided by basetation side, and can save it in the hard
disk beforehand.
In the third red and green box import MAC address of the terminal, and the purple box import the
postfix of AAA configuration user name,such as“@agwzte.com.cn”.
Finally click ok.
Connect
Manually connect and authentication, the need to use tools Beceem Wireless Connection Mgr.
WCM installation is complete, will be generated on the desktop icon Beceem Wireless Connection

Mgr.

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Specific settings and detailed information please refer to WCM installation directory under the
built-in Wireless Connection Manager User Manual.Pdf document.

Figure 125 ZTE Beeccem Chip authentication configuration 4


Note: All installation and Beceem tools to choose a place relating to the path, the path is best not to include
Chinese, otherwise it will create such anomalies can not be installed.
5 Firmare version upgrade description
Firmware version from old to new version, first in the control panel - Add or Remove Programs,there
will be the old firware (software name: ZTE_WiMAX_Modem "version number") to delete, and then in
accordance with the new version of the firmware. Tools generally do not need to re-install.

3.2.3 GCT terminal


3.2.3.1 Configuration parameters operation instruction
When finished the driver program installation, need to open WCM and configure user information,
set frequency point parameters.
User information set: click setting button and input user information (include user type, password,
EAP type, server’s CA Cert and so on);

Frequency point set: use “sf” command configures system frequency point;

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Figure 126 GCT Card Configure page


Clinck “Connect”button after finished configuration, the terinal will start to access network.

3.2.3.2 Common command instruction


3.2.3.2.1 Set frequency

Usage: sf RF1_ID RF2_ID Channel_ID (for FPGA board)


sf Channel_ID [Frequency_kHz] (for GDM7201 EBK)
Remarks:
The ‘sf’ command sets RF frequency to the value given by ‘FA’. Available value of FA is
as shown below.
Channel_ID Action
0 2336MHz (KT-Band)
1 2345MHz (KT-Band)
2 2354MHz (KT-Band)
3 2367.5MHz
4 2376.5MHz
5 2385.5MHz
6 2304.5MHz
7 2313.5MHz

3.2.3.2.2 Print packet command

Usage: p [um|dm|ucd|dcd|mna|f]
Remarks:

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The ‘p’ command prints out a recently received packet specified by the command
parameter. The command parameter may be one of f, um, dm, ucd, dcd and mna. The meaning of
each parameter is as shown below.

Parameter Action
Name
f Display FCH
um Display UL-MAP
dm Display DL-MAP
ucd Display UCD
dcd Display DCD
mna Display MOB_NBR-ADV
cm Display Compressed-MAP

Example:
p um ==> Display recent UL-MAP packet
p dm ==> Display recent DL-MAP packet
p mna ==> Display recent MOB_NBR-ADV packet

3.2.3.2.3 Dump command

Usage: dump option


Remarks:
The ‘dump’ command shows internal firmware information such as firmware-version,
connections status and internal data structures. The first parameter ‘option’ indicates the type of
internal information to be dumped out. Available set of ‘option’ parameters is described in the
following table.

Dump option Action


ver Display firmware version information.
conn Display internal data structure for connection
buf Display internal buffer status.
tim Display internal timer information.
arq Display ARQ(or Non-ARQ) service flow information
nbr Display neighbor information
burst Display number of UL/DL bursts for each modulation &
coding type. This statistics can be reset by ‘test reset stat’
command.

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queue Display internal queue status


crc Display statistics on CRC packet error.
cid Display registered CID table
ho Display internal handover structure

Example:
dump ver ==> dump firmware version
dump arq ==> dump ARQ information

3.2.3.2.4 Configuration command

Usage: cfg [type] [options]


Remarks:
The ‘cfg’ command changes internal configuration for the category given by the ‘type’
parameter. The ‘options’ parameter indicates option for each category where the categories are
described in the following sections. We have two different ways of entering each parameter value
– (1) entering each option parameter value in order, (2) entering option name and value in pair as
shown in the following example.

cfg cqi 1 6 // CQI enable=1, CQI nbits=6


cfg cqi nbits 6 // CQI nbits=6
1. CQI configuration
Configuration options:
Optio Action
n
enable 0 ==> CQI disable, 1==> CQI enable
nbits Number of bits used for CQI encoding
(4 ==> Fast Feedback, 6 ==> Enhanced fast feedback)
offset CQI report offset
min Minimum CQI value
max Maximum CQI value

Example:
cfg cqi 1 6 0 0 31 // enable=1, nbits=6, offset=0, min=0, max=31
cfg cqi offset 4 // offset=4
cfg cqi min 10 31 // min=10, max=31
2. DBG configuration
Usage: cfg dbg [dbg_type] [dbg_mask] [ON/OFF]
Cfg dbg dl 0xf

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Parameters:
DBG_ DBG_Mask
Type
UPPE bit#0: Basic upper-MAP message
R bit#1: Set/Get information related message
bit#2: UP traffic message
bit#3: Down traffic message
bit#4: Status message
HARQ bit#0: HARQ DL-burst debugging
bit#1: HARQ UL-Burst debugging
bit#2: HARQ DL-Ack debugging
bit#3: HARQ UL-Ack debugging
UL bit#0: Display data-grant information
bit#1: Display bandwidth request
bit#2: Display UL PDU size
PKM PKM message
DL bit#0: DL burst debugging (DL-MAP IE)
bit#1: DL burst loss
bit#2: Rx burst queue
bit#3: Rx PDU
ARQ bit#0: Display tx ARQ information (BSN)
bit#1: Display rx ARQ information (BSN)
bit#2: Display rx ARQ Feedback information
bit#3: Display tx ARQ Feedback information
bit#4: Display rx ARQ Feedback with missing blocks
bit#5: Display tx ARQ Feedback with missing blocks
bit#6: ARQ Rx retry
bit#7: ARQ Tx retry
PM bit#0: Tx PM information
bit#1: RF PM information (ON/OFF timing)
bit#2: RF PM information (activation timing)
bit#3: System PM
MIMO Bit#0: Display ZONE_STC_IE
Bit#1: Display MIMO DL-MAP
Bit#2: Display MIMO UL-MAP
Bit#3: Display MIMO Compressed MAP

The other common commands please refer to document of <GCT_Text_DM_Quick_Refrence>.

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Section4 WiMAX Network KPI Introduction


 Knowledge

 WiMAX network performance KPI introduction --------------------------------------------------------Level3

 KPI statistic tool CNO2 introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------- Level3

4.1 WiMAX network performance KPI introduction


4.1.1 KPI concept
KPI (Key Performance Indication): key performance index, through setting, sampling, calculation,
analysis for the key parameters of a process input and output ends of the inner organization;it is a
targeted quantitative management index for measurement of process performance management.
It is a tool that can make the strategic objectives of the enterprise be decomposed into long-term
objectives for the operation, and it is also the basis of performance management system for enterprise.
KPI is a modern enterprise in the universal importance of performance appraisal methods.
KPI application is widely used for products assessment; it has become widely accepted measure
of product performance evaluation methods.

4.1.2 WiMAX KPI introduce


4.1.2.1 Coverage KPI
4.1.2.1.1 DL/UL RSSI

Name: Received Signal Strength Indication

Meaning: measure the received signal strength of RF front-end, including the noise, interference
and channel losses, so a high RSSI index does not necessarily mean good quality channel. It is a
reference index to measure of the level of network planning and optimization.

Measurement method: UL RSSI through by the performance statistical tools for statistics at the
base station side; DL RSSI statistics through by CNT tools at the terminal side.

Unit: dBm

4.1.2.1.2 DL/UL CINR

Name: Carrier-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio

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Meaning: CINR defines the ratio between a useful carrier frequency signal level and noise level; it
is an important index to measure the level of network coverage.

Measurement method: UL CINR statistics collect by the base station performance management,
DL CINR through by CNT network optimization test tools at the terminal side.

Unit: dB

4.1.2.1.2 DL/UL Tx Power

Name: Transmit Power

Meaning: main inclue system base station transmits power and terminal transmits power; it is also
an important index to measure the level of network coverage.

Measurement method: UL Tx Power through by CNT network optimization test tools for statistic,
and DL Tx Power through by the base station performance management.

Unit: dBm

4.1.2.2 System Performance KPI


4.1.2.2.1 Initial Access

1.Initial Access Success Rate:


Name: Initial access success rate

Meaning: It is an important index to measure the ability of establishing call connection.

Formula: the initial access success rate * 100 = the number of success initial access / (the number
of success initial access + the number of failure initial access).

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Unit: %

2. Average Time Latency of Initial Access:


Name: Initial access delay

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Meaning: It is also an important index to measure the ability of establishing call connection.

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Units: ms

Signaling flow and statistical points

Figure 127 Initial access flow

4.1.2.2.2 Service Flow Setup

1. Service Flow Setup Success Rate


Name: service flow setup success rate

Meaning: Initial network access is completed; the network side should launch the setup of
preparatory service flow. This index is one of the important indexs for measure the ability of
system calls setup.

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Formula: service flow setup success rate = the number of success service flow setup * 100 / (the
number of success service flow setup + the number of failure service flow setup)

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Unit: %

2. Average Time Latency of Service Connection Setup


Name: the average delay of service flow setup

Meanning: It is also an important index for measure the ability of system calls setup.

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Units: ms

3. Signaling flow and statistical points

Figure 128 Service setup flow

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4.1.2.2.3 System Connection Drop Rate

1. Name: system connection drop rate

Meaning: it is due to the system caused by abnormal dropped calls during the service transmission
phase, and it is an important index to reflect the ability of system call and maintain, it can also be
used to measure the operation state and QoS processing capabilities. Including MS / BS / AGW /
IDLE abnormaly caused by dropped calls.

Formula: system connection drop rate = abnormal release num* 100 / (abnormal release num +
normal release num)

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Unit: %

2. Signaling flow and statistical points

Figure 129 System connection drop flow

4.1.2.2.4 Hard Handover

1. Name: Hard handover success rate

Meaning: including the same frequency and different frequency handover of inter_BS, handover
of intra_BS, it is difference between the inter_BS and intra_BS for handover process. The higher
the index, the probability of dropped calls for mobile users to the smaller, and it is an important
index to measure the mobile ability of wireless systems.

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Formula: Hard Handover Success Rate = Hard Handover Success num * 100 / (Hard Handover
Success num + Hard Handover Fail num)

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Unit: %
2. Signaling flow and statistical points

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AGW(Auth
MS SBS TBSn AGW(HO+DP) enticator)

1 MOB_NDR_ADV

2 Association with neighbor BS

3 MOB_MSHO_REQ
(MSID,target BS list)

4 R6_HO_Req(MSInfo)

5 R6_HO_Req

6 R6_AK_Context_Req

7 R6_AK_Transfer(AK,AKID,AKLifetime,AKSN)

8 R6_Path_Pre_RegReq

9 R6_Path_Pre_RegRsp

10 R6_HO_Response
12 MOB_BSHO_RSP
(recommended 11 R6_HO_Response
BS=BTSx,newCID)
13 Externed_SN_Subheader

14 MOB_HO_IND
(HO_IND_TYPE)
15 R6_HO_Confirm

16 R6_HO_Confirm
17 RNG_REQ

18 RNG_RSP

19 SBC_REQ

20 SBC_RSP

21 REG_REQ

22 REG_RSP
23 SN_Report

24)R6_Path_Reg_Req

25)R6_Path_Reg_Rsp

26)R6_HO_Complete

27)R6_HO_Complete

28)R6_Path_DReg_Req

29)R6_Path_DReg_RSP

Figure 130 Hard handover flow

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3. Average Interrupted Time Latency of Hard Handover


Name: Average interrupt latency of Hard Handover
Meaning: the duration of call interruption time when MS make handover, the index may affect the
provision of service continuity capabilities, and it is an important index to measure the mobile
ability of wireless systems, the smaller the index value, the user's experience not more obvious
when the handover occur.

Formula: see flowchart

Statistical methods: the base station performance statistics

Units: ms

4. Signaling flow and statistical points

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AGW(Auth
MS SBS TBSn AGW(HO+DP) enticator)

1 MOB_NDR_ADV

2 Association with neighbor BS

3 MOB_MSHO_REQ
(MSID,target BS list)

4 R6_HO_Req(MSInfo)

5 R6_HO_Req

6 R6_AK_Context_Req

7 R6_AK_Transfer(AK,AKID,AKLifetime,AKSN)

8 R6_Path_Pre_RegReq

9 R6_Path_Pre_RegRsp

10 R6_HO_Response
12 MOB_BSHO_RSP
(recommended 11 R6_HO_Response
BS=BTSx,newCID)
13 Externed_SN_Subheader

14 MOB_HO_IND
(HO_IND_TYPE)
15 R6_HO_Confirm

16 R6_HO_Confirm
17 RNG_REQ

18 RNG_RSP

19 SBC_REQ

20 SBC_RSP

21 REG_REQ

22 REG_RSP
23 SN_Report

24)R6_Path_Reg_Req

25)R6_Path_Reg_Rsp

26)R6_HO_Complete

27)R6_HO_Complete

28)R6_Path_DReg_Req

29)R6_Path_DReg_RSP

Figure 131 Hard handover duration flow

4.1.2.2.5 Delay

Name: Delay for UGS Ping Service

Meaning: This index through ping packets to measure end-to-end delay of UGS service, the ping
packet bytes corresponding with the length of commonly UGS service, package used long. It is an

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important index to measure the ability of system ensures UGS service. The smaller the value
means that the delay of system transfer UGS packe is shorter.

Calculation formula: Through the ping command to obtain delay, and then make the average of N
times the delays.

Statistical methods: In the terminal-side or server-side through the ping command.

Units: ms

Peer-to-peer KPI: similar indexs include ErtPS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE services ping packet delay,
and measure respectively the levels of several services delay. The following table is the simulated
packet length for all kinds of services type ping packets.

Service Type UGS ErtPS rtPS nrtPS BE

Packets length 200 200 1400 1400 or 1400 or


(Byte) 1500 1500

4.1.2.2.6 Jitter

Name: Jitter for UGS Ping Service

Meaning: Jitter indicate that from the terminal sent a UGS service packet to the core network has
been received (or sent from the core network to the terminal has been received) changes in the
value of the delay.
This is an important index to measure the ability of system ensures UGS service. The smaller the
value means that system transimit more stable for UGS packets.

Formula: jitter = Delay (max)-Delay (all_packet_in_stream)

Statistical methods: Through ping command to get delay at the terminal side or core network side,
and then calculated jitter according to the formula.

Units: ms

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Peer-to-peer KPI: similar indexs include ErtPS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE services ping packet jitter, and
measure respectively the levels of several services jitter.

Service Type UGS ErtPS rtPS nrtPS BE

Packets length 200 200 1400 1400 or 1400 or


(Byte) 1500 1500

4.1.2.2.7 Packet Loss

Name: Packet loss for UGS Service

Meaning: This index defines the proportion of lost packets with the total transmission packets of
the IP layer. This is an important index to measure the ability of system ensure UGS service. The
smaller the value means that the correction ability of system transimission is stronger for UGS
service packets.

Formula: packet loss = 100 * Number-of-lost-packets/Total-number-of-sent-packets

Statistical methods: Use Iperf tool transmit the corresponding with UGS service the same length
packets to abttain this index value at terminal side or core network server.

Unit: %

Peer-to-peer KPI: similar indexs include ErtPS, rtPS, nrtPS and BE services packet loss rate, and
measure respectively the levels of several services packet loss.

4.1.2.3 KPI recommend value


According to reference project test experience, we provide the recommend value for these KPI as
follow:

Table 21 KPI reference value

REFERENCE
KPI VALUE
DL CINR >10dB
DL RSSI >-85dBm
Initial Access Success Rate >95%
Average Access Duration <5s
System connection drop rate <2%

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Optimized Hard Handover Success Rate intra Sector >90%


Optimized Hard Handover Success Rate inter Sector >90%
Intra-BBU Hard Handoff Interrupt Average Duration <120ms
Inter-BBU Hard Handoff Interrupt Average Duration <120ms
Delay for Ping Service <160ms
Jitter for UGS iperf Service <80ms
Packet Loss <1%
PER <1%

4.2 KPI statistic tool CNO2 introduction


4.2.1 Introduction of CNO2
ZXPOS CNO2 (Mobile Communication Network Integrated Expert Office II) is a network
optimization & analysis software belonging to ZTE ZXPOS network plan and optimization solution. Based
on OMC data (CM、FM、PM、CDT etc.) CNO2 cooperates with other ZXPOS software to give
customer a comprehensive and powerful solution for network planning, constructing, running and
maintenance.
As a powerful optimization & analysis platform, it is accomplished in depth presentation, analysis,
drill of the network performance data and network running status. Robust nature and flexible deployment
together with user friendly nature ensures proper analysis and as a result the optimization of the network
becomes easier and faster.
The functions of CNO2 is classified to basic functions provided with ZTE OMC software and advanced
functions optional for meeting the needs of customers flexibly.

4.2.2 Benefit of using CNO2


 Reduce a great deal of artificial labor in the process of network maintenance everyday and
make the customers manpower cost lower.
 Cut the period from discovering a problem to solving the problem.
 Let customers better understand and evaluate network performance all-sided and exactly to
raise the devotion produces a ratio.

4.2.3 Data Characteristic of CNO2


 CM data and PM data of OMC are collected real-timely into CNO2 as secondary data storage
each hour for post-statistics and post-analysis. CNO2 PM data collection from OMC has the
40(min) delay relative to OMC PM data collection.

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 CNO2 data (CM/PM) are transmitted from CNO2-OMM to CNO2-NMC each hour, which
makes many CNO2-OMMs, can be managed centrally by CNO2-NMC. Each CNO2-NMC can
manage 20 CNO2-OMMs.
 CNO2 PM data have hourly granularity and day granularity. The PM hour data and day data
storage scales in CNO2-OMM are 40 days and 90 days, and in CNO2-NMC they are 7 days and
180 days.
 History data (CM/PM) will be maintained automatically in CNO2-NMC and CNO2-OMMs.

4.2.4 Advantage of CNO2


 CNO2 is a web based enterprise application. It is constructed by browser/server three tiers
structure and makes customs access ease and quick. Customs are dismissed any agony for client
software’s installing and updating.
 CNO2 is module structure designed, safe and reliable, with powerful fault-tolerant & 7*24
hours running capability.
 CNO2 offers many basic functions and optional advanced functions to meet the needs of
customers with different administrative levels.
 CNO2 offered a powerful WiMAX network performance KPI index system to make customers
evaluate network status from many angles multi-layer stereoscopic.
 Based on the powerful index system and other kinds of running data, CNO2 offered powerful
analysis tools such as basic statistics, TopN analysis, Failure Reason analysis, CDT analysis etc.
to speed the procedure of discovering a problem and solving the problem.
 CNO2 can be deployed flexibly in ZTE OMM, LOMC, and POMC or be deployed
independently. This flexibility will make the customer have more choices to combine
economical their hardware investment.
 CNO2 have good stability, scalability and expansibility.

4.2.5 Main Operation Statistic steps of CNO2 for WiMAX


CNO2 supports WiMAX network performance KPI. It provides ample indexes’ and statistics template
by default.

1. Sign in the CNO2 (both username and password is cno2);

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Figure 132 Land interface


2. Open system management, enter into template management create statistic indexes template;

Figure 133 Template management interface

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Figure 134 Create indexes template


3. Open analysis tools, set statistic time, select the created template ,click ”search” button, start to
statistic;

Figure 135 Analysis tool interface

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Figure 136 Choose statistic indexes interface


4. Read and record the statistic result;

Figure 137 Statistic result interface


The more CNO2 functions and specific operations please refer to document of <ZXPOS CNO2 User
Manual>.

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