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# References

## Wankat, chapter 13, p.424

Seader and Henley, chapter 8, pp. 308 - 315

## Dr. Hatem Alsyouri

Mass Transfer Operations
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Jordan
1
Introduction

2
Extraction Process

## Figure 13.1 Wankat

3
Industrial
Example

4
5
Extraction
Equipment
Figure 13.2 Wankat

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7
8
Dilute Immiscible
Systems
13.2 and 13.4

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## Solute (A) and

diluent (or carrier)

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Assumptions for Dilute Immiscible
Extraction

## 1) The system is isothermal

2) The system is isobaric
3) The heat of mixing is negligible
4) Diluent (carrier) and solvent are totally immiscible
 Diluent flow rate (FD) = constant and
 Solvent flow rate (FS) = constant
5) For dilute and immiscible diluent-solvent :
 Raffinate (R) flow rate = Diluent (FD) flow rate
 Extract (E) flow rate = Solvent (FS) flow rate
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Figure 13.3 Wankat

Operating line

R  R 
yi 1  xi   y1  xo 
E  E 

## Slope (R/E) is constant

12
Counter Current Extraction (2 feeds)

13
Equilibrium Data

yA
Kd 
xA
Kd = distribution coeff.
yA = Solute frac. in solvent
xA = Solute frac. in carrier

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13.3 Single Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction
Wankat Fig. 13.8 Cross flow

 R  R  
y j    x j    x j 1  y j ,in 
E  E  
 j  j 

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Example 13-2 on Cross flow Extraction
Wankat Fig. 13.8 Cross flow
 R  R  
y j    x j    x j 1  y j ,in 
E   E j  
 j 

Equilibrium
y = (1/0.12) x = 8.33 x

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Partially Miscible
Systems
To be studied from Seader & Henley (2nd Edition)
Chapter 8: pp. 305- 315

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Ternary Diagram

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19
f08_12

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Counter-current flow

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Ternary Diagram
with external
products

Extract

Feed

Raffinate 22
Feed solvent
Locating Product Points
Procedure:
1. From fractions of feed and
solvent. Locate F and S points.
2. Do Mass Balance to identify
flow rate and fraction of mixing
point (M). Point M lies on the
F-S line.
3. Do mass balance using fraction
of M and given data on either
RN or E1, to compute the other
component. Point M lies on E1-
RN line.

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Locating Operating Point

Procedure:
• Operating point (P)lies outside the diagram at the intersection of the E1-F and
S-RN lines.
• Product point should be located on the diagram prior to finding P. 24
Drawing Extra Tie Lines

Procedure:
1. You can do interpolation within
the given lines.

## 2. More accurate, but lengthy,

procedures involve drawing
conjugate curves.

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Determining Number of Eqm Stages
Procedure:
Draw sequential Lines: Operating
then Tie lines:

Stage 1:
Operating (P-F) gives E1
Tie E1 gives R1

Stage 2:
Operating (P-R1) gives E2
Tie E2 gives R2

## Repeat until reaching RN

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f08_19
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Determining Minimum Solvent

Procedure:
• Draw the tie line passing through the feed.
• End of this tie line represents E1 minimum (E1min).
• The intersection of the two lines: F-Smin and RN-E1min represents the
minimum mixing point (Mmin).
• Using these fractions, do mass balance to calculate Smin 28
f08_20

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30
A
Acetone

C
TCE
Water
A
Acetone

## Extract point Tie lines

10% A and 89%TCE Raffinate Extract
44% A 56% A
29% A 40% A
12% A 18% A

S C
TCE Water32
A
Acetone
Feed 45% A
RN 10% A
a) Minimum solvent
flowrate

C
TCE
Water33
Minimum Solvent

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Number of Stages (N) for S=
1.5Smin

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A
b) S= 1.5  Smin Acetone

New M
By mass balance
M= 1350 kg/h
XA M = 33.3%

C
TCE
Water36
Operating Point (P)

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Counting Stages

S
TCE

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Leaching
13.8 and 13.9

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