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References

Wankat, chapter 13, p.424


Seader and Henley, chapter 8, pp. 308 - 315

Dr. Hatem Alsyouri


Mass Transfer Operations
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Jordan
1
Introduction

2
Extraction Process

Figure 13.1 Wankat


3
Industrial
Example

4
5
Extraction
Equipment
Figure 13.2 Wankat

6
7
8
Dilute Immiscible
Systems
13.2 and 13.4

9
Counter Current Extraction Cascade

Solute (A) and


diluent (or carrier)

10
Assumptions for Dilute Immiscible
Extraction

1) The system is isothermal


2) The system is isobaric
3) The heat of mixing is negligible
4) Diluent (carrier) and solvent are totally immiscible
 Diluent flow rate (FD) = constant and
 Solvent flow rate (FS) = constant
5) For dilute and immiscible diluent-solvent :
 Raffinate (R) flow rate = Diluent (FD) flow rate
 Extract (E) flow rate = Solvent (FS) flow rate
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13.2 Counter Current Extraction Cascade
Figure 13.3 Wankat

Operating line

R  R 
yi 1  xi   y1  xo 
E  E 

Slope (R/E) is constant

12
Counter Current Extraction (2 feeds)

13
Equilibrium Data

yA
Kd 
xA
Kd = distribution coeff.
yA = Solute frac. in solvent
xA = Solute frac. in carrier

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13.3 Single Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction
Wankat Fig. 13.8 Cross flow

 R  R  
y j    x j    x j 1  y j ,in 
E  E  
 j  j 

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Example 13-2 on Cross flow Extraction
Wankat Fig. 13.8 Cross flow
 R  R  
y j    x j    x j 1  y j ,in 
E   E j  
 j 

Equilibrium
y = (1/0.12) x = 8.33 x

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Partially Miscible
Systems
To be studied from Seader & Henley (2nd Edition)
Chapter 8: pp. 305- 315

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Ternary Diagram

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19
f08_12

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Liquid-Liquid Extraction Cascade
Counter-current flow

21
Ternary Diagram
with external
products

Extract

Feed

Raffinate 22
Feed solvent
Locating Product Points
Procedure:
1. From fractions of feed and
solvent. Locate F and S points.
2. Do Mass Balance to identify
flow rate and fraction of mixing
point (M). Point M lies on the
F-S line.
3. Do mass balance using fraction
of M and given data on either
RN or E1, to compute the other
component. Point M lies on E1-
RN line.

23
Locating Operating Point

Procedure:
• Operating point (P)lies outside the diagram at the intersection of the E1-F and
S-RN lines.
• Product point should be located on the diagram prior to finding P. 24
Drawing Extra Tie Lines

Procedure:
1. You can do interpolation within
the given lines.

2. More accurate, but lengthy,


procedures involve drawing
conjugate curves.

25
Determining Number of Eqm Stages
Procedure:
Draw sequential Lines: Operating
then Tie lines:

Stage 1:
Operating (P-F) gives E1
Tie E1 gives R1

Stage 2:
Operating (P-R1) gives E2
Tie E2 gives R2

Repeat until reaching RN

26
f08_19
27
Determining Minimum Solvent

Procedure:
• Draw the tie line passing through the feed.
• End of this tie line represents E1 minimum (E1min).
• The intersection of the two lines: F-Smin and RN-E1min represents the
minimum mixing point (Mmin).
• Using these fractions, do mass balance to calculate Smin 28
f08_20

29
Extraction Exercise Seader 8-11

30
A
Acetone

C
TCE
Water
A
Acetone

Extract point Tie lines


10% A and 89%TCE Raffinate Extract
44% A 56% A
29% A 40% A
12% A 18% A

S C
TCE Water32
A
Acetone
Feed 45% A
RN 10% A
a) Minimum solvent
flowrate

C
TCE
Water33
Minimum Solvent

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Number of Stages (N) for S=
1.5Smin

35
A
b) S= 1.5  Smin Acetone

New M
By mass balance
M= 1350 kg/h
XA M = 33.3%

C
TCE
Water36
Operating Point (P)

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Counting Stages

S
TCE

38
Leaching
13.8 and 13.9

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