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INTRODUCTION

 TO  ENERGY  BALANCE  


ENERGY  
1st  Law  of  Thermodynamics  –  energy  can  neither  be  created  nor  
destroyed  
 
                                                                     accumulaBon  =  input  -­‐  output  
 
Kine2c  energy    (Ek)  –  energy  stored  in  moving  objects  (due  to  
mo2on  of  system)    
E = 1 mu2
  k 2
 
Poten2al  energy  (Ep)  –energy  stored  in  objects  due  to  their  
rela2ve  posi2on  (due  posi2on  of  system)    
  E p =mgz
 
Internal  energy  (U)-­‐  energy  stored  within  molecules  (due  to  
mo2on  of  internal  molecules)  
WORK  AND  HEAT  
Heat  (Q)  -­‐  due  to  a  temperature  difference  between  the  system  &  
surrounding  
   +Q    when  it  is  transferred  into  the  system  from  the  
surroundings  
 
Work  (W)  –  energy  that  flows  in  response  to  any  driving  force  
other  than  a  temperature  difference    
   +W    when  it  is  done  by  the  system  on  the  surroundings  
 
Energy  balance:  System  
ENERGY  BALANCE:  CLOSED  SYSTEM  
   accumulaBon  =  input  -­‐  output  
 
no  mass  crosses  the  boundary,  hence    the  input  &  output  terms  are  eliminated  
energy  can  be  transferred  across  the  boundary  as  heat  &  work,  hence  the  
accumula2on  term  may  be  defined  as  the  change  in  total  energy  in  the  system,  i.e.  

! Final total Energy $ ! Initial Total Energy $ ! Change in the total $


# &−# &=# &
" in the System % " in the System % " system energy %

Ef - Ei Q-W
s

ΔEk + ΔEP + ΔU = Q − W
ENERGY  BALANCE:  CLOSED  SYSTEM  

ΔEk + ΔEP + ΔU = Q − W
Energy  stored  in  the  system   Energy  transfer  to  and  from  the  
system  from  and  to  the  
surrounding  

No  accelera2on:    ΔEk  =  0  
No  change  in  height:  ΔEP  =  0  
TSystem  =  Tsurrounding  or  system  is  insulated:  Q  =  0  (adiaba2c)  
No  moving  parts  or  electric  currents  or  radia2on  at  boundary:  W  =  0  
No  temperature,  phase,  chemical  composi2on  change,  or  pressure  
change  less  than  a  few  atmospheres  :  ΔU  =  0  
U  –  nearly  independent  of  pressure  for  ideal  gases,  liquids,  solids  
 
   
EXAMPLE  OF  CLOSED  SYSTEM  

ΔEk + ΔEP + ΔU = Q − W

ΔU  =  Q  
Change  in  internal  energy  due  to  heat  added  to   ΔU = W
system   Change in
internal energy due to
work added to system
EXAMPLE  
5 kg of steam contained within a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes
an expansion from state 1, where the specific internal energy is
u1=2709.9 kJ/kg, to state 2, where u2=2659.6 kJ/kg. During the
process, there is heat transfer to the steam with a magnitude of 80
kJ. Also, a paddle wheel transfers energy to the steam by work in the
amount of 18.5 kJ. There is no significant change in the kinetic or
potential energy of the steam. Determine the energy transfer by
work from the steam to the piston during the process, in kJ.

1 2
Wpw = -18.5 kJ
m= 5 kg
steam
Wpiston
Q = 80 kJ
ENERGY  BALANCE:  OPEN  SYSTEM  

ΔH + ΔE k + ΔE P = Q − W S


Δ  means  “change”  and  is  always  calculated  as  “final  value  minus  ini2al  value”  eg.    

ΔH = H f − H i
" 2 2
%

$• •
uout − uin
Q− Ws = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + + g ( zout − zin )'
$ 2 '
# &

Q,W  –  depends  on  across  the  boundary  between  the  system  and  the  surrounding    
FLOW  WORK  AND  SHAFT  WORK  
 
•  Flow  work    (Wf)  –work  must  be  done  on  a  fluid  mass  to  
push  it  into  the  system  and  work  is  done  by  the  fluid  
mass  exi2ng  the  system.eg.  internal,  kine2c  &  
poten2al  energy  
 
•  ShaX  work  (Ws)  –  work  done  by  a  fluid  mass  on  moving  
parts  of  the  system  (eg.  steam  driving  a  turbine,  
mechanical  work  due  to  a  piston,  pump  or  compressor  
W = Ws + W f

Vin (m3 / s) Process   Vout (m3 / s)


Unit  
Pin ( N / m 2 ) Pout ( N / m 2 )

W f = PinVin − PoutVout
SPECIFIC  PROPERTIES:  ENTHALPY  

 
•  Extensive  property  –  depends  on  system  size  (propor2onal  to  
the  quan2ty  of  the  material)  eg.  Volume,  energy  
         
•  Intensive  property–  independent  of  system  size  eg.  Specific  
volume,  specific  energy    

•  Enthalpy     H ≡ U + PV

•  Specific  Enthalpy   Hˆ ≡ Uˆ + PVˆ


STATE  PROPERTY  AND  REFERENCE  STATES    

•  State property – a property of a system component whose value


depends only on the state of the system (i.e. temperature, pressure,
phase and composition)… e.g. internal energy (U) and hence, enthalpy
(H)

•  It is impossible to measure the absolute value of state property … but


can estimate the change in specific value of U (i.e ΔÛ) or H (i.e ΔĤ)
corresponding to a specified change of state (i.e. temperature,
pressure, phase and composition)

•  Reference state - specified state (i.e. temperature, pressure or state


of aggregation) assigned to measure relative changes in Û or Ĥ… thus,
the value of Û or Ĥ of a certain material at a specified state (T,P or
phase) is relative to the value of Û or Ĥ of the same material at other
specified state (T,P or phase)
EXAMPLE  
Air at 300oC and 130 kPa flows through a horizontal 7 cm ID pipe at
a velocity of 42 cm/sec

7 cm ID
Air
1 Q 2  
T1 =300oC T2 =400oC
P1=130 kPa P2=130 kPa
V1 = 42 m/s V2 = ? m/s

a)  Write and simplify the energy balance


b)  Calculate the rate of kinetic energy (W), if the air is heated to 400oC at
constant pressure, assuming ideal gas behaviour
SINGLE  STREAM  STEADY  FLOW  SYSTEM  
" 2 2
%
• •
$ •
uout − uin
Q− Ws = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + + g ( zout − zin )'
$ 2 '
# &
NOZZLES  AND  DIFFUSERS  

A nozzle is a device that


increases the velocity of a
nozzle
fluid at the expense of
pressure …. What happen
to pressure ? … ↑ or ↓ ?

A diffuser is a device that


diffuser
slows down the velocity of
a fluid causing an increase
in its pressure
ρ1 A1
u2 = u1 ρ1 = ρ 2 for liquids
ρ2 A2 ρ1 ≈ ρ 2 for low speed gas
NOZZLES  AND  DIFFUSERS  
" 2 2
%
• •
$ •
uout − uin
Q− Ws = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + + g ( zout − zin )'
$ 2 '
# &
Is there work in this system? No

Is there heat transfer? Let say : No. In fact it depends on the problem!

Does the fluid change elevation? No

" %
$• 2 2
uout − uin ' enthalpy is converted
0 = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + into kinetic energy
$ 2 '
# &
TURBINES  AND  COMPRESSORS  
high p Inlet

Compressor

Win

low p
Exit
turbine
compressor
A turbine is a device that
produces work at the A compressor is a device
expense of temperature and that increases the pressure
pressure. of a fluid by adding work
to the system
TURBINES  AND  COMPRESSORS  
" 2 2
%

$• •
uout − uin
Q− Ws = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + + g ( zout − zin )'
$ 2 '
# &
Is there work in this system? Yes!

Is there heat transfer? Negligible because of insulation. Exception: Internal


cooling in some compressors.
Does the fluid change elevation? No
Does  the  kine2c  energy  change?   Usually it can be ignored

" 2 2
%

u −u
0 = m $ Ĥ out − Ĥ in + out in '
$ 2 '
# &
THROTTLING  VALVE  

A throttling valve reduces


the fluid pressure
P1>P2

It is small device and thus


the flow through it may be
assumed adiabatic (q=0)
since there is neither
sufficient time nor large
enough area for any
effective heat transfer to
occur.
THROTTLING  VALVE  
" 2 2
%

$ • •
uout − uin
Q− Ws = m Ĥ out − Ĥ in + + g ( zout − zin )'
$ 2 '
# &
Is there work in this system? No

Is there heat transfer? Usually can be ignored

Does the fluid change elevation? No


Does  the  fluid  change  velocity?   Usually it can be ignored

" 2 2
%

u −u
0 = m $ Ĥ out − Ĥ in + out in '
$ 2 '
# &
MIXING  CHAMBER  
Mixing two or more fluids
is a common engineering
process

Is  there  any  work  done?   No

Is  there  any  heat  transferred?   No

Is  there  a  velocity  change?   No

Is  there  an  eleva2on  change?  


No
HEAT  EXCHANGER  

A heat exchanger is a
device where two moving
fluids exchange heat
without mixing
MECHANICAL  ENERGY  BALANCES  

ΔH + ΔEk + ΔEP = Q − WS

•  Chemical equipment (Reactor, Distillation column, Evaporator, Heat


exchanger,…)
–  Heat flow, internal energy changes (enthalpy change) are most important
–  Shaft work, kinetic energy, potential energy changes are negligible

ΔH ≈ Q

•  Mechanical equipment (Pump, Reservoir, Pipes, Wells, Tanks, Waste


Discharge,…)
–  Heat flow, internal energy changes are negligible
–  Shaft work, kinetic energy, potential energy changes are most important

ΔE p + ΔE k = W
MECHANICAL  ENERGY  BALANCES  

ΔU + ΔE p + ΔEk = Q − W

Vˆin = Vˆout = 1 / ρ
ΔP Δv 2 g
+ + Δz + (ΔUˆ − Q / m) = Ws / m
ρ 2 gc gc

F = ΔUˆ − Q / m ( friction loss )


ΔP Δv 2 g
+ + Δz + F = Ws / m
ρ 2 gc gc
F = 0,Ws = 0

ΔP Δv 2 g Bernoulli  Equa2on  
+ + Δz = 0
ρ 2gc gc
ENERGY  BALANCE  PROCEDURE  

1.  Solve  material  balance  –  get  flowrates  of  all  stream  


2.  Determine  the  specific  enthalpies  of  each  stream  components  
1.  Using  tabulated  data  
2.  calcula2on  
3.  Solve  energy  balance