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Dec 26, 2017

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2017

1. T-test

A t-test is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a normal distribution if

the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known. The t-test can be used to

determine if two sets of data are significantly different from each other.

A one-sample location test of whether the mean of a population has a value specified in

a null hypothesis.

A two-sample location test of the null hypothesis such that the means of two populations

are equal.

A test of the null hypothesis that the difference between two responses measured on the

same statistical unit has a mean value of zero. For example, suppose we measure the

size of a cancer patient's tumor before and after a treatment. If the treatment is effective,

we expect the tumor size for many of the patients to be smaller following the treatment.

A test of whether the slope of a regression line differs significantly from 0.

2. Mean test

The mean (or average) is the most popular measure of central tendency. It can be used with

both discrete and continuous data, although its use is most often with continuous data.

Mean implies average and it is the sum of a set of data divided by the number of data.

3. Anova

An ANOVA test is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant. In other

words, they help you to figure out if you need to reject the null hypothesis or accept the

alternate hypothesis. Basically, you’re testing groups to see if there’s a difference between

them. Examples of when you might want to test different groups:

medication and biofeedback. You want to see if one therapy is better than the others.

A manufacturer has two different processes to make light bulbs. They want to know if

one process is better than the other.

Analysis of Variance test.

A one way ANOVA is used to compare two means from two independent (unrelated) groups

using the F-distribution. With a One Way, you have one independent variable affecting a

dependent variable. The null hypothesis for the test is that the two means are equal.

Therefore, a significant result means that the two means are unequal.

Situation 1: You have a group of individuals randomly split into smaller groups and completing

different tasks. For example, you might be studying the effects of tea on weight loss and form

three groups: green tea, black tea, and no tea.

Situation 2: Similar to situation 1, but in this case the individuals are split into groups based on

an attribute they possess. For example, you might be studying leg strength of people

according to weight. You could split participants into weight categories (obese, overweight

and normal) and measure their leg strength on a weight machine.

LOH YU HAN PQB 170005 15.12.2017

A one way ANOVA will tell you that at least two groups were different from each other.

But it won’t tell you what groups were different. If your test returns a significant f-statistic, you

may need to run an ad hoc test (like the Least Significant Difference test) to tell you exactly

which groups had a difference in means.

A Two Way ANOVA is an extension of the One Way ANOVA. With a Two Way ANOVA, there

are two independents. Use a two way ANOVA when you have one measurement variable (i.e.

a quantitative variable) and two nominal variables. In other words, if your experiment has a

quantitative outcome and you have two categorical explanatory variables, a two way ANOVA

is appropriate.

For example, you might want to find out if there is an interaction between income and

gender for anxiety level at job interviews. The anxiety level is the outcome, or the variable that

can be measured. Gender and Income are the two categorical variables. These categorical

variables are also the independent variables, which are called factors in a Two Way ANOVA.

The factors can be split into levels. In the above example, income level could be split

into three levels: low, middle and high income. Gender could be split into three levels: male,

female, and transgender. Treatment groups and all possible combinations of the factors. In

this example there would be 3 x 3 = 9 treatment groups.

Samples must be independent.

Population variances must be equal.

Groups must have equal sample sizes.

Pearson correlation

The Pearson correlation evaluates the linear relationship between two continuous variables. It

is referred to as Pearson's correlation or simply as the correlation coefficient.

A Pearson's correlation is used when there are two quantitative variables. The

possible research hypotheses are that there is a postive linear relationship between the

variables, a negative linear relationship between the variables, or no linear relationship

between the variables.

between the two variables. The first step in studying the relationship between two continuous

variables is to draw a scatter plot of the variables to check for linearity.

The Pearson correlation coefficient, r, can take a range of values from +1 to -1. A

value of 0 indicates that there is no association between the two variables. A value greater

than 0 indicates a positive association; that is, as the value of one variable increases,

so does the value of the other variable.

Spearman correlation

The Pearson correlation evaluates the linear relationship between two continuous variables.

The Spearman correlation coefficient is based on the ranked values for each variable rather

than the raw data. Spearman correlation is often used to evaluate relationships involving

ordinal variables.

LOH YU HAN PQB 170005 15.12.2017

product-moment correlation. Spearman's correlation coefficient, (ρ, also signified by r s)

measures the strength and direction of association between two ranked variables.

In summary, correlation coefficients are used to assess the strength and direction of

the linear relationships between pairs of variables. When both variables are normally

distributed use Pearson's correlation coefficient,otherwise use spearman's correlation

coefficient.

5. Chi square

A chi-square test is any statistical hypothesis test where in the sampling distribution of the test

statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Next, chi-square test for

independence. The test is applied when you have two categorical variables from a single

population.

The Chi Square statistic is also commonly used for testing relationships between

categorical variables. Chi-squared test can be used to attempt rejection of the null hypothesis

that the data are independent. The null hypothesis of the Chi-Square test is that no

relationship exists on the categorical variables in the population; they are independent.

test for testing goodness of fit is used to decide whether there is any difference between the

observed (experimental) value and the expected (theoretical) value.

The Chi-square test is intended to test how likely it is that an observed distribution is

due to chance. It is also called a "goodness of fit" statistic, because it measures how well the

observed distribution of data fits with the distribution that is expected if the variables are

independent.

6. Normality test

A normality test is used to determine whether sample data has been drawn from a normally

distributed population (within some tolerance). A number of statistical tests, such as the

Student's t-test and the one-way and two-way ANOVA require a normally distributed sample

population.

A normality test show for small sample sizes, normality tests have little power to reject

the null hypothesis and therefore small samples most often pass normality tests. Power is the

most frequent measure of the value of a test for normality—the ability to detect whether a

sample comes from a non-normal distribution.

More precisely, the tests are a form of model selection, and can be interpreted several

ways, depending on one's interpretations of probability:

In descriptive statistics terms, one measures a goodness of fit of a normal model to the

data – if the fit is poor then the data are not well modeled in that respect by a normal

distribution, without making a judgment on any underlying variable.

In frequentist statistics statistical hypothesis testing, data are tested against the null

hypothesis that it is normally distributed.

In Bayesian statistics, one does not "test normality" per se, but rather computes the

likelihood that the data come from a normal distribution with given parameters μ,σ (for

all μ,σ), and compares that with the likelihood that the data come from other distributions

under consideration, most simply using a Bayes factor (giving the relative likelihood of

seeing the data given different models), or more finely taking a prior distribution on

possible models and parameters and computing a posterior distribution given the

computed likelihoods.

LOH YU HAN PQB 170005 15.12.2017

7. Kurtosis

Kurtosis is a descriptor of the shape of a probability distribution and, just as for skewness,

there are different ways of quantifying it for a theoretical distribution and corresponding ways

of estimating it from a sample from a population. Depending on the particular measure of

kurtosis that is used, there are various interpretations of kurtosis, and of how particular

measures should be interpreted.

In statistics, kurtosis describes the shape of the probability distribution curve and

there are 3 main types, they are: leptokurtic - a “positive” or tall and thin distribution (fatter

tails); mesokurtic - a normal distribution ; platykurtic - a “negative” or flat and wide distribution

(thin tails).

kurtosis of a distribution to this value. Distributions with kurtosis less than 3 are said to

be platykurtic, although this does not imply the distribution is "flat-topped" as sometimes

reported. Rather, it means the distribution produces fewer and less extreme outliers than

does the normal distribution.

8. Skewness

or data set, is symmetric if it looks the same to the left and right of the center

point. Skewness can be quantified to define the extent to which a distribution differs from a

normal distribution. This situation is also called negative skewness.

In probability theory and statistics, skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the probability

distribution of a real-valued random variable about its mean. Theskewness value can be

positive or negative, or undefined. The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated

and unintuitive.

set of statistical data. Skewness can come in the form of negative skewness or positive

skewness, depending on whether data points are skewed to the left and negative, or to the

right and positive of the data average.

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