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1. Simple Sentence
(An Independent Sentence)
Subject + Verb + (Object / Adverb)

Ex: Ice melts.

The ice melts quickly

Subject + be Verb + Adverb / Adjective

Ex: I am here

2. Compound Sentence
(Two or More Independent Clauses)
1. With a Coordinator (but, yet, or, and, so, etc)
2. With Conjunctive Adverbs.
3. With a Semicolon
1. With a Coordinator (but, yet, or, and, so, etc)
 Use comma if consists of two/more sentences or more than two items.
 I want to swim, and my sister wants to stay at home.
 I want to eat meatball, noodles, and fruit
 For some coordinators, they must be parallel. There are two types:
a. Coordinators (but, or, and)
b. Correlative Conjunctions
(both…and…; either…or…; neither…nor…; not only…but also…)

a. Coordinators (but, or, and)

My English conversation class is made up of Chinese, Spaniards, and some are from Bosnia.
My English conversation class is made up of Chinese, Spaniards, and Bosnians

The students who do well attend class, they do their homework, and practice speaking English.
The students who do well attend class, do their homework, and practice speaking English.

Before you write a paper or before you take a test, you must organize your thoughts.

Before you write a paper or take a test, you must organize your thoughts.

 A new law provides the means for both regulating pesticides and ordering their removal if they are dangerous.

 Air pollutants may come either from the oceans as natural contaminants given off by sea life or from the internal
combustion engines of automobiles.

 Many people are neither concerned about pollutants nor worried about their future impact.

 Air pollution is controlled through laws passed not only to reduce the pollutants at their sources but also to set up
acceptable standards of air quality.


1. The disadvantage of using a credit card are overspending and you pay high interest rates.

2. Credit cards are accepted by department stores, airlines, and they can be used in some gas stations.
3. You do not need to risk carrying cash or to risk to pass up a sale.

4. You can charge both at restaurants and when you stay at home.

5. Many people carry not only credit cards but they also carry cash.

6. The criminal neither admitted guilt nor ask for forgiveness before he was executed

2. With a Conjunctive Adverb

Coordinator Conjunctive Example
and Furthermore I go to school,
moreover, I study.
but However I am sick. However,
However, I go
to school.
yet Nevertheless
so Consequently I am sick; thus,
thus, I can’t
go to school.


1. Community colleges offer preparation for many occupation. They prepare students to transfer to a university.

2. Many community colleges do not have dormitories. They provide housing referral services.

3. Students must take final exams. They will receive a grade of incomplete.

4. The college campus is located in the center of the city. It is very easy to do my shopping.

3. With a Semicolon (;)

I enjoy tennis; I hate golf.
1. My older brother studies law my younger brother studies medicine.
2. Three hundred guests attended his wedding two attended his funeral.
3. Motherhood causes some women to quit their jobs others continue working.
4. Complex Sentence
One Independent Clause and One/More dependent clause(s)
Noun Clauses
Adverbial Clauses
Relative Clauses
Noun Clause

1. That Clauses ( that + Subject + Verb)

2. Question Word Clauses
3. If/Whether Clauses
That Clauses ( that + Subject + Verb)

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group4

No object To + Object Need Object Object (Optional)


Agree admit assure promise

conclude explain convince show
know mention inform teach
notice point out remind warn
realize prove tell write
state reply


 We know that women higher verbal IQs than men.

 The teacher explains (to the students) that English writing is important.

 The doctor assured the worried parents that their child would recover.

 He promised (them) that they could see their child immediately after the operation.

Verbs Adjectives (that + Subject + V1/Be or Be V3)
advise insist advisable
propose essential
suggest necessary
demand urge

 The company president urged that the marketing department be more aggressive.

 She insisted that the company not lose any more customers to its competitors.

 It is necessary that each salesperson work longer hours.


1. What did the government demand?

Each family must reduce its water use by 40%.

2. What was suggested?

People must not use water to wash cars, sidewalks, or streets.

3. What is advisable?

People should converse water whenever possible.

Question Word Clauses

WH Questions WH Word Clauses

Who started the band? …who started the band.
Which vocalists have sung …which vocalists have sung with
with the group? the group.
How often does the group …how often the group performs.
Who is the lead singer? …who the lead singer is.

1. Where will their next concert be held?

They will announce tomorrow …

2. When did they last perform in Europe?

I remember very clearly …

3. Who writes their songs?

The group never says …

4. Which of their songs do you like best?

I can’t really say …


Yes/No If/Whether Clause

Does Dr. … if/whether Dr. Chen practices
Chen acupuncture.
Is … if/whether acupuncture is an
acupunct effective treatment.
ure an

1. Is acupuncture a risky medical procedure?

Westerners would like to know…

2. Do acupuncture needles relieve pain after dental surgery?

Please tell me …

3. Can acupuncture strengthen your immune system?

It is not certain…

Adverbial Clauses

Time when whenever

as soon as after
before untilTime
Place where anywhere
Reaso because as
n since
Resul so…(adjectives/adverb)…
t that
such...(a/an/the) noun
Purpo so that in
se order that

1. Try to stay calm. The earthquake is happening.
2. Don’t move. The floor stops shaking.
3. You are sure the earthquake is over. You may begin to move around.
4. Most people prefer to shop. They can be sure of quality.
5. You cannot use credit cards. You shop.
6. There are a few places of business. A credit card is not accepted.
7. European nations are trying to reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere causes global warming.
8. In the United States, in contrast, 56% of the nation’s electricity is generated by burning coal. Coal is cheap and
9. The Ancient Peru exhibit was popular. It was held over for two weeks.
10. The exhibits was precious. A museum guard was posted in every room.
11. There were many exhibits. We couldn’t see all of them
12. 12. Chemical are used in many food products. They will stay fresh longer.
13. 13. They can increase food crops. Most farmers use chemical fertilizers.
14. 14. Global warming is a real problem. Governments have been slow to take action.
15. 15. Korea is becoming an economic superpower. It is a small country with few natural sources.