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146 / Heat Treater’s Guide

Chemical Composition. AISI and UNS: 0.15 to 0.20 C. 0.60 to Recommended Heat Treating Practice
0.90 hln. 0.040 P max. 0.050 S max
Similar Steels (U.S. and/or Foreign). UNS Gl0180; AMS Normalizing. Heat to 925 “C (I 695 “F). Air cool
5069; ASTM A 108. A5 IO. A5 13. AS 19, AS-U. A535. AS-N. A519. A576.
A659: MILSPEC MIL-S-11310 (CSlOl8); SAE J103. J-II?. J-II-l Annealing. Heat to 885 “C (I675 “F). Cool slowly, preferably in a
cooler or by furnace cooling
Characteristics. Excellent forgeability. reasonahly good cold form-
ability, and excellent vveldability. As carbon content increases. strength also
increases, accompanied by a small decrease in cold formability. Ma- Hardening. May be case hardened by liquid or gas carburizing, or by
chinability is relatively poor compared with the I100 and 1200 grades. The flame hardening. (See procedure for 1020.) Quenchants include aqueous
slightly higher manganese (compared with 1017) provides a slight increase polymers. hlore often. it is subjected to light case hardening by carbonitrid-
in strength in the nomralized or annealed condition. Higher manganese also ing or casing in a liquid bath. (See procedure for 1008 steel.) In many
provides for a mild increase of hardenability for case hardened parts instances. forgings of this grade are used in service either as forged or as
forged and normalized. Grade 1018 is used to a considerable extent for
Forging. Heat to 1275 “C (7375 “F). Do not forge below 910 “C (1670 OFJ carburizing to deep case depths

1018: Carburized, Oil Quenched, and Tempered. 12.7-mm

(0.5in.) diam bar, carburized at 925 “C (1695 “F) for 4 l/2 h. oil
quenched, and tempered at indicated temperatures
Nonresulfurized Carbon Steels / 147

1018: Carburizing Temperature vs Depth of Case. Treated 3 h 1018: Hardness vs Tempering Temperature. Decrease of sur-
at temperature. Endothermic gas atmosphere, enriched with face hardness with increasing tempering temperature. Rockwell
natural gas. Carbon potential automatically controlled by dew C converted from Rockwell 30-N. Carbonitrided 2 l/2 h
point method, producing 0.90 to 0.95% surface carbon.

Symbol NH,. ‘2
‘.:I, ......................... .1550 845
.......................... ..155 0 845 1;
Carburizing t .......................... .1450 790
Dew point A...........................145 0 790 1:
Symbol %pera%! “F “C
,3. 1950 1065 -7 to -5 -22 to -21
0.. 1900 1040 -2 to 0 -19 to -18
- 1850 1010 +2 to +14 -17 to -10
A 1800 980 +6 to +9 -14 to -13
8: : : : : : : :c% E
L +14
+11 to +15
+13 -10
-12 to -10

1018: Carbon, Nitrogen, and Hardness Gradients. Carbonitrided at 845 “C (1555 “F), 4 h. Oil quenched at 55 “C (130 “F). Hardness con-
verted from Tukon
148 / Heat Treater’s Guide

1018: Effect of Tempering Temperature on Hardness Gradients. Tempered 1 h at temperature. Rockwell C hardness converted from
dickers. (a) Carbonitrided at 790 “C (1455 “F) ,2 l/2 h; 5% NH,. (b) Carbonitrided at 790 “C (1450 “F), 2 l/2 h; 10% NH,. (c) Carbonitrided
at 845 “C (1555 “F), 2 l/2 h; 5% NH,. (d) Carbonitrided at 845 “C (1555 “F), 2 l/2 h; 10% NH,

1018: EfFect of Ammonia in Carbonitriding Gas on Hardness Gradient. (a) Carbonitrided at 790 “C (1450 OF), 2 l/2 h. (b) Carbonitrided
at 845 “C (1555 “F), 2 l/2 h. Hardness converted from Vickers
Nonresulfurized Carbon Steels / 149

1018: Hardness vs Tempering Temperature. Represents an av-

erage based on a fully quenched structure (no case hardening)

1018: Microstructures. (a) 1% nital, 500x. Carburized 8 h. Surface carbon content, 0.60 to 0.70%. Ferrite (light areas), outlining prior
austenite grain boundaries, and pearlite (dark areas). (b) 1% nital, 500x. Carburized 4 h. Surface carbon, 0.70 to 0.80%; wholly pearlitic.
Below surface, dark areas are pearlite. Areas of ferrite outline prior austenite grain boundaries. (c) 1% nital. 500x. Carburized 6 h. Surface
carbon, 0.90 to 1 .OO%. Thin film of carbide outlines pnor austenite grain boundaries in matrix of pearlite. (d) 1% nital. 500x. Carburized 16
h. Surfacecarbon, 1 .OOto 1 .lO%. Surface layer, carbide. Below surface, thin film of carbide outlines prioraustenite grain boundaries in pear-
lite matrix. (e) 1% nital. 500x. Carburized 18 h in continuous furnace. Cooled under atmosphere in furnace vestibule. Partly separated layer
of carbide (approximately 0.90% carbon) covers pearlite matrix. (f) 1% nital, 500x. Carburized 12 h. Surface carbon. approximately 1 .lO%.
Carbide surface layer. Film of carbide outlines prior austenite grain boundaries in pearlite matrix

150 / Heat Treater’s Guide

1018: Microstructures (continued). (g) 1% nital. 500x. Gas carburized, 5 h; 925 “C (1700 “F), pit-type furnace with air leak. Furnace
cooled to 540 “C (1000 “F) in 2 h 10 min. Air cooled to room temperature. Thin decarburized layer (ferrite), caused by furnace leak, covers
surface. Matrix is pearlite, with carbide at prior austenite grain boundaries. (h) 1% nital, 500x. Gas carburized, furnace cooled, and cooled
to room temperature under same conditions as (g), except furnace leak was more severe. Decarburized layer (ferrite) caused by leak is
thicker and covers matrix of pearlite. Carbon has diffused from grain boundaries. (j) 3% nital, 200x. Carbonitrided, 4h; 845 “C (1555 “F) in
3% ammonia. Propane, 6%; remainder, endothermic gas. Oil quenched. Cooled to -74 “C (-100 “F). Tempered 1 l/2 h at 150 “C (300 “F).
Tempered martensite: some bainite. (k) Nital, 100x. Carbonitrided 4 h; 845 “C (1555 “F). Oil quenched; not tempered. Stabilized by subzero
temperature. Normal case structure for carbon steel. Contains martensite, carbide particles, and small amount of retained austenite. (m)
Picral, 200x. Annealed by austenitizing at 885 “C (1625 “F), 2 h. Cooled in furnace. Fully annealed structure consists of patches of pearlite
(dark areas) in matrix of ferrite (light areas)
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