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PRESENTATION ON

TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY

Presented By
Twinkle Thukral
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PREVIE
W
Ø INTRODUCTION TO TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

Ø TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

Ø FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DIVERSITY.

Ø IMPORTANCE OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.

Ø CAUSES OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY LOSSES.

Ø TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA.

Ø IMPACT OF LOSS OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY.


INTRODUCTION TO
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
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WHAT IS
BIODIVERSITY
Refers to the ?
numbers, variety and variability
of living organisms and ecosystem.

Includes all terrestrial, marine and other


aquatic organisms.

Covers diversity within species, between


species as well as variations among
ecosystems.
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY ?

v It is virtually synonymous with “Life on


earth”.
v Biologists most often define "biological
diversity" or "biodiversity" as the "totality of
genes, species, and ecosystems of a region".
v The biodiversity found on Earth today consists
of many millions of distinct biological species,
which is the product of nearly 3.5 billion years
of evolution.
TYPES OF
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY

Genetic diversity

Species diversity

Ecosystem diversity
GENETIC DIVERSITY

v It is a level of biodiversity that refers to the total


number of genetic characteristics in the genetic
makeup of a species.
v It is distinguished from genetic variability, which
describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to
vary.
SPECIES DIVERSITY

v It refers to the variety of species within a region.


v Species diversity is an index that incorporates the
number of species in an area and also their relative
abundance.
ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY

Ecosystem diversity refers to the diversity of a place


v

at the level of ecosystems. This has 3 perspective:

vAlpha Diversity: Within community diversity. Alpha


diversity refers to the diversity of organisms sharing
the same Community/Habitat.

vBeta Diversity: Between community diversity. It


refers to the diversity of organisms sharing two
habitat.

vGamma Diversity : Diversity of the habitat over the


total landscape or geographical area is called gamma
diversity
FACTORS DETERMINING
DEGREE OF
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE
OF TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

Habitat stress
Geographical isolation
Dominance by one species
Availability of ecological niches
Edge effect
Geological history
DESERTS
- Is an area where evaporation exceeds precipitation.
- Cover about 30% of the earth’s surface.
- Found about 30° north and 30 ° south of the equator .

1. Tropical desert
a) Temperatures are high year round
b) Little precipitation concentrated on 1-2 months.

Sahara desert
2. Temperate deserts

a) Daytime temperatures high in summer and low in winter.


b) More rain than tropical desert.

Mojave desert, CA
Grand canyon
Nevada and Utah deserts.
3. Cold desert

a) Summers are hot, winters are cold

b) Precipitation is low

Gobi desert, China


GRASSLANDS
- Regions with enough precipitation to allow grasses to prosper, but
precipitation is erratic and periods of drought and fires prevent large
stands of trees to grow.

1. Tropical grasslands and savanna


a) High average temperatures.
b) Low to moderate precipitation
c) Prolonged dry season.
2. Temperate grasslands

a) Winters are extremely cold.


b) Summers are hot and dry.
c) Annual precipitation is sparse and falls unevenly through out
the year.

- Found in: a) plain and rolling hills of interior North and South
America ( pampas), b) Steppes of central Europe and Asia.
3. Polar grasslands or arctic tundra

a) Treeless plains.
b) Extremely cold.
c) Swept by frigid winds.
d) Covered with ice and snow.
FORESTS
- Areas with moderate to high precipitation with no disturbances.
- A large area of land covered in trees and plants growing close together.

1. Tropical rain forest


a) Warm annual mean annual temperature.
b) High humidity.
c) Heavy rainfall almost daily.
2. Tropical deciduous forests

a) Warm year round.


b) Clear dry and rainy seasons.
c) Trees loose their leaves during the dry season.
d) Trees are shorter than the Tropical rain forest.
3. Temperate deciduous forests.
a) Long warm summers.
b) Cold winters.
c) Abundant precipitation spread evenly throughout the year.

- Broadleaf deciduous trees such as oak, hickory, maple, poplar and


Sycamore.
4. Evergreen coniferous forests or boreal forests or taigas
a) Found just south of the arctic tundra in America, Europe and
Asia.

5. Temperate rain forest (coastal coniferous forests).


a) Found in scattered coastal temperate areas with ample rainfall and
dense ocean fogs. Mostly coast of USA and Canada.
b) Typical species include: Douglas fir,
redwoods.
MOUNTAINS
-
They cover 20% of the land surface.
- Many mountains or group of mountains are islands of
biodiversity .
- The majority of forest in the world are in mountains.
- Antarctica is the most mountainous of all continents.
IMPORTANCE OF
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
IMPORTANCE OF
TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity has contributed in many


ways to the development of human
culture, and, in turn, human communities
have played a major role in shaping the
diversity of nature at the genetic, species,
and ecological levels.
IMPORTANT ROLE OF TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY

Ecological Role.

Economic Role.

Scientific Role.
ECOLOGICAL ROLE

All species provide at least one function in


an ecosystem. Each function is an integral
part of regulating the species balance,
species diversity and species health: all
aspects which are intrinsic for the
ecosystem as a whole to survive and
prosper .
ECONOMIC ROLE

Food: Crop Biodiversity or agro


biodiversity.

Goods: Various things like timber, paper ,


medicines etc.

Recreation: Wildlife tourism, trekking


nature photography,birdwatching.
SCIENTIFIC ROLE

Genetic resources: Biotechnology


and genetic engineering use the genes
of organisms to make new crops and
medicines.
Each species can give scientist some
clue as to how life evolved and will
continue to evolve.
CAUSES OF TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY LOSSES
CAUSES OF TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY LOSSES
Destruction of biodiversity rich areas like
tropical forests.
Destruction of coral reefs and Wetlands.
Ploughing of grasslands.
Destruction of Ecosystem.
Pollution of freshwater streams, lakes, and
marine habitats.
OTHER CAUSES OF DECLINE

Over-exploitation of resources.

Construction of large dams.

Commercial hunting and


poaching.
THREATS TO TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
v In last century, human impact has been so severe
that thousands of species and varieties are becoming
extinct annually. Some of the main causes are:
v Habitat loss, degradation, fragmentation:
v Habitat loss & degradation are major causes of
species extinction, affecting 89% of all threatened
birds, 83% of mammals & 91% of all threatened
plants assessed globally (IUCN, 2000)
v The main causes of habitat are agriculture activities,
Mining, development of human settlement, industry
etc.
v According to ICUN,UNEP report, more than 50%
of wildlife habitat has been destroyed in 49 out
of 61 old world tropical countries.
v POACHING OF WILDLIFE:
v Poaching is another threat that has emerged in recent
decades as one of the primary reason for decline in
number of species.
v Wildlife is sold and traded in many countries for live
specimens, folk medicines, furs, Skin, and other
products such as Ivory, horns etc amounting to millions
of dollars.

v MAN – WILDLIFE CONFLICTS:


v The conflict between man and wildlife started with the
evolution of man, but intensity increased due to the
activities of modern man.
v Due to the lack of stable food and disruption of
movement, wild animals came out of forest area and
attack the agricultural field and humans and in turn
got killed by the humans.
v INTRODUCTION OF EXOTIC SPECIES:
v Organisms introduced into habitats where they are not
native are termed as exotics.
v They can be thought of as Biological Pollutants and are
considered to be among the most damaging agents of
habitat alteration and degradation the world.

v CLIMATE CHANGE:
A changing global climate threatens species and
ecosystems.
v The distribution of species (biogeography) is largely
determined by climate.
v Climate change may simply shift these distributions
but, for a number of reasons, plants and animals may
not be able to adjust.
MAJOR CAUSES OF THE DESTRUCTION
AND DEGRADATION OF TROPICAL
FORESTS

Basic Causes Secondary Causes


• Not valuing ecological services • Roads • Cattle ranching
• Crop and timber exports • Fires • Logging
• Government policies • Settler farming • Tree plantations
• Cash crops
• Poverty
• Population growth
Cattle Tree Logging
ranching plantations
Cash crops

Settler
farming
Roads Fires
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY IN INDIA
TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY IN
Himalayas - This majestic range of
INDIA
Thar desert - The climate
and vegetation in this area
mountains is the home of a diverse range
of flora and fauna. Eastern Himalayas is
is a contrast to the one of the two biodiversity hotspots in
Himalayan region. India.

Sunder bans - The largest


mangrove forest in India.

Chilika - This wetland


area is protected under
the Ramsar convention.

Western Ghats - One of the two


biodiversity hotspots in India.
244/18664
88/390
72/458
25/521
03/231
09/5749
IS THE BIODIVERSITY OF
INDIA UNDER THREAT?

10%of India’s plant species are


under threat.
More than 150 medicinal plants
have disappeared in recent
decades.
About 10% of flowering
plants,20% of mammals and 5%
of the birds are threatened.
IMPACT OF LOSS OF
TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
IMPACT OF LOSS OF
TERRESTRIAL
IncreasedBIODIVERSITY
vulnerability of species
extinction.

Ecological imbalance.

Reduced sources of food, structural


materials, medicinal and genetic
resources.

Cost increase to the society.


Runoff of eroded soil into aquatic
systems.

 Premature extinction of species


with specialized niches.

 Loss of habitat for native species


and migratory species such as birds
and butterflies.

 Regional climate change from


WHAT CAN YOU
DO?
WHAT CAN YOU DO?
Adopt a forest.
Plant trees and take care of them.
Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products.
Buy sustainably produced wood and wood products.
Choose wood substitutes such as bamboo furniture,
fencing & recycled plastic outdoor furniture.
Help to restore a nearby degraded forest or grassland.
Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants natural
to the area.
A SURPRISE !
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