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TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF FIGURE ................................................................................................................... 2

LIST OF TABLE .................................................................................................................... 2

1.0 TITLE .............................................................................................................................. 3

2.0 OBJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 3

3.0 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 3

4.0 THEORY .......................................................................................................................... 4

5.0 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS ........................................................................................ 6

6.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ....................................................................................... 7

7.0 RESULT ........................................................................................................................... 9

8.0 DISCUSSION ................................................................................................................. 13

9.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 14

10.0 REFERENCE ................................................................................................................ 15

11.0 APPENDIX ................................................................................................................... 16

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LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1: Concentric tube heat exchanger (Parallel-flow).............................................................. 4


Figure 2: Concentric tube heat exchanger (Counter-flow) ............................................................. 4
Figure 3: SM446HT Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger ................................................................. 6
Figure 4: Stopwatch ................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 5: Counter Flow Setup ................................................................................................... 7
Figure 6: Temperature Controller .............................................................................................. 7
Figure 7: Hot fluid volumetric flow rate ..................................................................................... 7
Figure 8: Hot and Cold Water Reading....................................................................................... 8
Figure 9: Graph Power Loss against Volumetric Flow Rate ........................................................ 12

LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Experimental result for counter flow ............................................................................. 9
Table 2: Theoretical result for counter flow ................................................................................ 9
Table 3: Experimental result for parallel flow ............................................................................. 9
Table 4: Theoretical result for parallel flow ................................................................................ 9

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1.0 TITLE
Heat Conduction for parallel and counter-flow concentric tube

2.0 OBJECTIVE
To demonstrate the effect of flow rate variation on the performance characteristics of a parallel
and counter-flow concentric tube heat exchanger.

3.0 INTRODUCTION
The heat exchange is a process between the fluids with a separation of solid wall occurs
in many engineering application. Heat exchanger is a device use to implement this exchange
process. In real application heat exchanger was use in radiator in car. In this experiment we
have to research two types of flow heat exchanger which is parallel flow and counter flow. The
heat were transferred between two fluids via convection mode, which refers to the hot fluid to
the wall and also by conduction which occur within the wall itself and back to the convection
process from wall to the cold fluid.

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4.0 THEORY

Several equations are used in order to achieve the objective; to investigate the effect of flow
rate variation on the performance characteristics of the parallel-flow concentric tube heat
exchanger and the counter-flow concentric tube heat exchanger. The performance
characteristics are

Figure 1: Concentric tube heat exchanger (Parallel-flow)

Figure 2: Concentric tube heat exchanger (Counter-flow)

The efficiency for the cold medium is:


𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛
𝑛𝑐 = × 100
𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛

The efficiency for the hot medium is:


𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑛ℎ = × 100
𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛

The mean temperature efficiency is:


𝑛𝑐 + 𝑛ℎ
𝑛𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 =
2

The power emitted is the given below (where 𝑉̇ℎ is the volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid):

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝑉̇ℎ 𝜌ℎ 𝐶𝑝ℎ (𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

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The power absorbed is given below (where 𝑉𝑐̇ is the volumetric flow rate of the cold fluid):

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑 = 𝑉𝑐̇ 𝜌𝑐 𝐶𝑝𝑐 (𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛 )

The power lost is therefore:

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑡 = 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 − 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑

The overall efficiency (ŋ) is:

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
𝜂= × 100
𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐸𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (𝛥𝑇𝑚 ) is:

𝛥𝑇1 − 𝛥𝑇2 (𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡 ) − (𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛 )


𝛥𝑇𝑚 = =
𝛥𝑇 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝐼𝑛 (𝛥𝑇1 ) 𝐼𝑛 (𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇 )
2 ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑐,𝑖𝑛

The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is:

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
𝑈=
𝐴𝑠 𝛥𝑇𝑚

Where the surface area (𝐴𝑆 ) for the next heat exchanger is 0.067 𝒎𝟐 .

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5.0 EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

Hot and Cold


Water Reading

Hot fluid
volumetric flow
rate
Valve

Temperatur
e controller

Figure 3: SM446HT Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

Figure 4: Stopwatch

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6.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Configure the experiment for counter-flow heat exchanger operation. Set the required
hot water inlet temperature to Th,in = 60°C with the decade switch. Set the cold water
volumetric flow rate ( Vc ) to run at a constant 2,000 cm3/min.

Figure 6: Temperature Controller


Figure 5: Counter Flow Setup

2. The hot fluid volumetric flow rate ( ) was set to 1000 cm3/min. The six temperature
readings in the following table were recorded after 5 minutes. This step was repeated
for volumetric flow rates of 2000, 3000, and 4000 cm3/min.

Figure 7: Hot fluid volumetric flow rate

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3. Look up values for density (ρc and ρh) and constant pressure specific heat (Cpc and Cph)
for the cold fluids at a temperature of Tc,in and for the hot fluids at a temperature of Th,in
from table A-3 of Property Table and Charts.

Figure 8: Hot and Cold Water Reading

4. From this data, the following heat exchanger performance factors: power emitted,
power absorbed, power lost, efficiency (), logarithmic mean temperature difference
(Tm), and overall heat transfer coefficient (U) were calculated and recorded in the
following table.

5. Steps 1 to 4 were repeated for parallel flow.

6. The effects of changing the volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid on each of these
heat exchanger performance factors were discussed in the discussion section.

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7.0 RESULT
Counter-Flow
ṿℎ 𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 𝑇ℎ,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛 𝑇𝑐,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡
(𝑐𝑚3 / (°𝐶) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃)
𝑚𝑖𝑛)
1000 61 54 45 27 32 36
2000 58 55 49 28 32 36
3000 57 55 50 31 32 36
4000 59 58 53 32 33 37
Table 1: Experimental result for counter flow

ṿℎ Power Power Power Efficiency △𝑇1 △𝑇2 △𝑇𝑚 U


(𝑐𝑚3 / Emitted Absorbed Lost (ᶇ) (°𝐶) (°𝐶) (°𝐶) (W/(𝑚2 . °𝐶)
𝑚𝑖𝑛) (W) (W) (W) (%)

1000 1097.58 624.32 473.26 56.88 25 18 21.31 437.27


2000 1233.3 1109.5 123.8 89.96 22 21 21.5 770.22
3000 1234.53 1040.32 194.21 84.29 21 19 19.98 777.14
4000 1646.04 1387.17 258.87 84.26 22 21 21.5 962.98
Table 2: Theoretical result for counter flow

Parallel-Flow
ṿℎ 𝑇ℎ,𝑖𝑛 𝑇ℎ,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑇ℎ,𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑇𝑐,𝑖𝑛 𝑇𝑐,𝑚𝑖𝑑 𝑇𝑐,𝑜𝑢𝑡
(𝑐𝑚3 / (°𝐶) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃)
𝑚𝑖𝑛)
1000 60 54 48 32 32 33
2000 59 55 50 30 33 36
3000 57 56 50 30 33 36
4000 57 57 50 30 34 36
Table 3: Experimental result for parallel flow

ṿℎ Power Power Power Efficiency △𝑇1 △𝑇2 △𝑇𝑚 U


(𝑐𝑚3 / Emitted Absorbed Lost (ᶇ) (°𝐶) (°𝐶) (°𝐶) (W/(𝑚2 . °𝐶)
𝑚𝑖𝑛) (W) (W) (W) (%)
1000 823.19 69.37 753.82 8.43 27 16 40.45 25.6
2000 1233.3 831.43 401.87 67.41 23 20 21.47 578
3000 1440.3 1248.39 191.91 86.65 21 20 20.49 909.36
4000 1920.48 1664.6 255.88 86.67 21 20 20.49 1212.53
Table 4: Theoretical result for parallel flow

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Sample calculation
1000 𝑐𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛 1.667x10−5 𝑚3 /𝑠

1000𝑐𝑚3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 1𝑚3


× × 100𝑐𝑚3 = 1.667x10−5 𝑚3 /𝑠
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60𝑠

At 60℃,
𝜌ℎ = 983.3 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
𝐽
𝐶𝑝ℎ = 4185 .𝐾
𝑘𝑔

Power emitted = ṿ𝒉 𝒑𝒉 𝑪𝒑𝒉 (𝑻𝒉,𝒊𝒏 − 𝑻𝒉,𝒐𝒖𝒕 )

=(1.667x10−5 )(983.3)(4185)(61 − 45)


= 1097.58 W
At 30℃,
𝜌𝑐 = 996 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3
𝐽
𝐶𝑝𝑐 = 4178 𝑘𝑔 . 𝐾

Power Absorbed = ṿ𝒄 𝝆𝒄 𝑪𝒑𝒉 (𝑻𝒄,𝒐𝒖𝒕 − 𝑻𝒄,𝒊𝒏 )

= (1.667x10−5 )(996)(4178)(36 − 27)


= 624.32 W

∆𝐓𝟏 = 𝐓𝐡,𝐢𝐧 − 𝐓𝐜,𝐨𝐮𝐭


= 61 − 36
= 25℃

∆𝐓𝟐 = 𝐓𝐡,𝐨𝐮𝐭 − 𝐓𝐜,𝐢𝐧


= 45 − 27
= 18℃

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𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐥𝐨𝐬𝐭 = 𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐄𝐦𝐢𝐭𝐭𝐞𝐝 − 𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐀𝐛𝐬𝐨𝐫𝐛𝐞𝐝
= 1097.58 − 624.32
= 473.26 𝑊

The overall efficiency is:


𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐀𝐛𝐬𝐨𝐫𝐛𝐞𝐝
𝛈= × 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝐏𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 𝐄𝐦𝐢𝐭𝐭𝐞𝐝
624.32
= 1097.58 × 100

= 56.88%

The logarithmic mean temperature difference is:


∆𝑻𝟏 −∆𝑻𝟐
∆𝑻𝒎 = ∆𝑻
𝐥𝐧( 𝟏 )
∆𝑻𝟐

25−18
= 25
ln( )
18

= 21.31

The overall heat transfer coefficient is:


𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑏𝑠𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑒𝑑
∪= 𝐴𝑠 ∆𝑇𝑚

624.32
= 0.067(21.31)

= 437.27

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Power Loss against Volumetric Flow Rate
800
700
600
Power Loss,P (W)

500
400
300
200
100
0
1000 2000 3000 4000
Volumeteric Flow Rate,Vh (m3/s)

counter flow parallel flow

Figure 9: Graph Power Loss against Volumetric Flow Rate

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8.0 DISCUSSION

Heat exchangers are devices that facilitate the exchange of heat between two fluids that
are at different temperatures while keeping them from mixing with each other. The simplest
type of heat exchanger consist of two concentric pipes of different diameters that are called as
double pipe heat exchanger. Two types of flow arrangement are possible in a double pipe heat
exchanger, in parallel flow and counter flow.
Parallel flow, both the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at the same direction.
, the temperature of the cold stream outlet, Tc,out is always lesser than that of the hot stream
outlet, Th,out. Therefore, the heat transfer is restricted by the cold stream's outlet temperature,
Tc,out.
In counter flow, on other hand, the hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at
opposite ends and flow in opposite directions. The restriction is relaxed and Tc,out can exceed
Th,out. Hence in this design, the heat transfer is restricted by the cold stream's inlet
temperature, Tc,in.
The counter flow heat exchanger has three significant advantages over the parallel flow
design. First, the more uniform temperature difference between the two fluids minimize the
thermal stresses throughout the exchanger. Second, the outlet temperature of the cold fluid can
approach the highest temperature of the hot fluid. Third, the more uniform temperature
difference produces as more uniform rate of heat transfer throughout the heat exchanger.

Hence the area for counter flow heat exchanger will be less compared to parallel flow
heat exchanger. Thus more efficient. The highest ideal effectiveness achieved in case of counter
flow heat exchanger is 100% while for parallel flow is only 50%. In counter flow heat
exchanger the outlet temperature of hot fluid can be cooled even less than outlet temperature
of cold fluid which cannot be done in case of parallel flow heat exchanger.

Based on the result also can see that the efficiency of counter flow heat exchanger are
better than parallel flow heat exchanger. Furthermore, the difference temperature ∆𝑇 are also
effected the performance of heat transfer. Heat transfer coefficient is a quantitative
characteristic of convective heat transfer between a fluid medium (a fluid) and the surface
(wall) flowed over by the fluid. ∆𝑇 also related to heat transfer coefficient, the higher heat
transfer, the high coefficient of heat transfer.

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9.0 CONCLUSION

The effect of flow rate variation on the performance characteristics of a parallel-flow concentric
tube heat exchanger and counter-flow concentric tube heat exchanger was observed. The ideal
effectiveness achieved in counter-flow heat exchanger is 100% whereas the ideal effectiveness
achieved in parallel-flow heat exchanger is 50%. The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, in
parallel-flow increases faster than in the counter-flow over the same period of time.

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10.0 REFERENCE

1. Cengel & Boles.(2013). MEC 551 Thermal Engineering. Thermodynamics : An


Engineering Approach, Seventh Edition in SI Units Force convection. McGraw-Hill
Education (Asia).

2. Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger University of Texas at Arlington MAE 3183,


Measurements II Laboratory
3. Heat Exchanger By David Vaughn And Tyler Ware September 19, 2000 UTC
Engineer 435, DR’s Henry, Cunningham,
4. http://www.p-a-hilton.co.uk/products/H102A-Concentric-Tube-Heat-Exchanger

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11.0 APPENDIX

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