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Energy Saving Through Implementation

of Cleaner Production - The Case of


Jordan.
Rafat Atieh Assi
Air Quality Studies Division & Cleaner Production Unit
Royal Scientific Society (RSS)

Presented at
SESEC IV Symposium
Lausanne, Switzerland (5-7 Oct, 2005)

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Royal Scientific Society (RSS)
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
ƒEnvironmental Research center
ƒBuilding Research Center
ƒElectronic Services & Training Center
ƒComputer Technology & Training Center
ƒMechanical design and Technology center
ƒIndustrial Chemistry center

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Environmental Research Center (ERC)

ƒ ERC provides technical services and


consultations and promotes the adoption of
sound and best environmental practices
conforming with sustainable development
concept.
ƒ ERC also undertakes applied research and
studies to serve the development process of
Jordan with attention given to environmental
protection.

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Cooperation with International
Organizations
ƒ Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (seco)
ƒ Swiss Development & Cooperation Agency (SDC)
ƒ International Development Research Center (IDRC)
ƒ International Arid Land Consortium (IALC)
ƒ US Agency for International Development (USAID)
ƒ Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
ƒ Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
ƒ Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)
ƒ European Union (EU)

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Examples of On-going Projects and
Studies
Cleaner production for SMEs. Hazardous substances information
management and control system.
Integrated wastewater management
policies and technologies in Assessment of As-Samra WSP
marginal communities in Jordan. performance and its impact on
ground water.
The air quality assessment project:
Fuheis, Zarqa, Rashadiyah. Water quality assessment of King
Talal Reservoir, King Abdullah
Canal and Zai water treatment
EIA for development projects. plant.
Vehicular exhaust assessment. Assessing performance of selected
wastewater treatment plants.
Reducing the environmental impact
of olive mills wastewater in the
Middle East.
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RSS Cp
IMPLEMENTING A LONG TERM
Unit

CLEANER PRODUCTION PROJECT

www.cp.org.jo

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Principles of Cleaner Production
INPUT OUTPUT

Raw Mi Air
nim
Materials ize emissions
ize

Auxiliary
im

material
t
Op

Energy High Quality Product

Water
Human
en

resources
th
ng

Mi Solid waste
Know-how ni
re

m &
ize
St

waste water

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Aluminum Extrusion and
Anodizing
ƒ Aluminum profiles for windows, doors, decoration etc., are
produced by extrusion process.
ƒ Aluminium Logs are heated up to 460oC, then Aluminium is
extruded by a hydraulic press to produce the desired profiles.
The dies are also heated to 475oC. The profiles are pulled then
air cooled using ten fans pushing air downwards and two
blowers pushing air upwards. After that the profiles are cut,
stretched and hardened at 180o C for 8-9 hrs.
ƒ High power consumption: all ovens are powered by electricity.
ƒ Al anodizing main steps: Alkaline degreasing, Alkaline etching,
Pickling, Anodizing in sulfuric acid using DC generated by
Rectifiers, Electro coloring, Cold and Hot sealing.

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Aluminum Extrusion and Anodizing - Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
ƒ Install a sensor/ controller to control temp of
extruded profiles ( energy saving, better
productivity, higher product quality).
ƒ Combine the return water of the 4 chillers in one
collection tank.
ƒ Many good housekeeping measures such as:
switching off the cooling fans of extrusion line
automatically when no profiles are extruded, switch
off the un needed lights, etc.

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Aluminum Extrusion and Anodizing - Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
ƒ The rectifiers of the 4 anodizing baths were running on
full Voltage and could not give the required Amperes.

ƒ The rack contacts on the anode bars have a high DC


resistance due to inadequate layout and accumulation
of dirt on the contact surfaces.

ƒ Contact areas should be free of Aluminum oxide since


oxides are electrical insulators.

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Aluminum Extrusion and Anodizing - Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
ƒIt was easy to put a
paper between the
contact and the bar until
reaching lowest part.
ƒDirty remainings were
visible on the contact
surfaces.
ƒ The contact had a
temperature of 70-80°C.

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Aluminum Extrusion and Anodizing - Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
ƒ It is important to have clean contacts specially between
anode bars and anode contacts, anode bars and racks,
racks and work pieces and on all contacts of the
rectifier DC wiring.
ƒ This is important to have the needed DC amount and
therefore more regular product quality (better layer
thickness dispersion over the whole load) and shorter
process time.
ƒ Reducing electrical resistance through better
maintenance and thus better contacting .
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Aluminum Extrusion and Anodizing - Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
Calculations of savings in electrical power through better
maintenance of contacts:
ƒ 4 anodising baths, each saving 2 Volts: 4 x 2V x 6000A=
48kW
ƒ 7 days work on 24 hours on 52 weeks based on a bath
occupation of 80%= 7 x 24 x 52 x 0.8= 6989 hours
ƒ Estimated rectifier efficiency: 80%
ƒ Cost per kWh: 0.04 JD
ƒ Estimated yearly savings: 48kW x 6989 h / 0.8 X 0.04 JD =
16701 JD

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Pipes Hot Dip Galvanizing
ƒ The pipes are pretreated with the following sequence:
Degreasing at (65-85°C) agitated by compressed air, Pickling
(16% HCl), Rinsing, Fluxing (65oC), Drying of pipes in an oven
ƒ Hot zinc dipping: The zinc is melted at 435-465oC, the zinc
kettle is heated by diesel burners, heat in the flue gases is not
recovered.
ƒ The galvanized pipes are then cooled in a water bath.

¾ Steam is used to heat the pretreatment baths and also to adjust


the thickness of zinc layer inside the pipe by blowing.

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Pipes Hot Dip Galvanizing- Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
ƒ Insulate steam bare distribution pipes and replace boiler valves
for supersaturated steam distribution: Yearly diesel consumption
to provide the heat lost = 16500L, (3700 JD=5244USD),
investment =1000JD, Payback period=1000/3700=0.27yr).
ƒ Replace the use of compressed air in degreasing bath by blower
air.
ƒ Install an isolation cover for the zinc kettle( during vacations and
shutdown).
ƒ Install a temperature controller for the degreasing bath.

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Pipes Hot Dip Galvanizing- Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
Heat losses in the flue gases of the hot dip
galvanizing bath:
ƒ Flue gas flow rate: 3000 m3/hr.
ƒ Density of flue gas = 1 Kg / m3
ƒ Flue gas heat capacity: 0.25 Kcal/(Kg.oC)
ƒ Flue gas Temperature after the economizer: 320 oC
ƒ Diesel density: 0.84 Kg/L
ƒ Flue gas dew point: 200 oC
ƒ Diesel net calorific value: 42800 KJ/Kg
ƒ Working hours: 24 hr/d * 7 d/W * 52 W/yr = 8736 hr/yr

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Pipes Hot Dip Galvanizing- Examples
of Energy Saving Measures
Heat losses in the flue gases of the hot dip
galvanizing bath – Calculations:
ƒ Mass flow rate of flue gas = 3000 m3/hr * 1 Kg of flue gas / m3
= 3000 Kg of flue gas / hr * 8736 hr/yr = 26208000 Kg/yr.
ƒ Heat lost by the flue gas = 0.25 Kcal /(Kg. oC) * (320 – 200) oC
* 26208000 Kg of flue gas / yr = 786.24 * 106 Kcal/yr.
ƒ Heat lost by the flue gas = 786.24 * 106 Kcal/yr = 3286.5 * 106
KJ/yr = 3286.5 * 106 KJ/yr / (42800 KJ/Kg of diesel * 0.84
Kg/L * 0.75(Burners efficiency)) = 121884.1 L of diesel / yr
ƒ 121884.1 L of diesel / yrX 0.225JD / L= 27424 JD (38734 USD)

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Thank you
Contact Information
RSS Web Site: www.rss.gov.jo
CP Web Site: www.cp.org.jo
E-mail: rafat@rss.gov.jo
Tel.: 962-6-5344701
Fax: 962-6-5344806

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