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A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 1

A PROTOTYPE DESIGN OF BORDER ALERT SYSTEM FOR FISHERMEN USING GPS

A Project Study

Presented to the Faculty of the

College of Engineering

Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation

University Site, Lucena City

In partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the degree

Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering

By:

Van Kelly M. Galvez

Louis Franzelle R. Marciano

Danna Gladiola D. Pangiligan

Nikka C. Yosolon

December 2017
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 2

UNIT I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The Municipality of General Luna is a fourth class municipality in the province of Quezon,

Philippines. The primary job of most people living here is being a fisherman. Maximum risks

occur for fishermen in situations where they travel on a boat for fishing. In some situations, they

should not move at some point and they should not enter into other town's area as it may cause

conflicts and misunderstanding.

The Philippine Star stated that tensions flared after an Indonesian Fisheries Ministry patrol

ship intercepted the Chinese fishing vessel off the Natuna islands, which overlap the

southernmost reaches of the South China Sea, according to Indonesian officials.

As said by the Manila Times, the head of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), Lt.

Gen. Rey Leonardo Guerrero, urges the Association of Southest Asian Nations (Asean) to further

enhance their border security that can restrict transnational crime and will cause the prevention

of entry of terrorist. He also stressed the need to strengthen the regional border security through

the coordination of the border patrols. Lastly, Guerrero expressed hope that the three countries:

Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia, that through the Trilateral Cooperation Arrangement signed

last June this year will overall tighten the security. This agreement aims to stop the crimes, like

kidnapping, trafficking and the entrance of terrorist in the Sulu Sea.


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British Broadcasting Company (BBC) News reported "The talks in the Pakistani city of

Rawalpindi are focusing on Sir Creek, a narrow strip of marshland separating India's western

border from Pakistan. The dispute over Sir Creek has hampered the search for oil and gas and led

to hundreds of fishermen being arrested. Both sides freed dozens of the other's nationals from

their jails as talks got underway. Peace moves began in 2004. Pakistan freed 70 Indian prisoners,

50 of them fishermen, from jails in Karachi and Lahore, while India repatriated 57 Pakistanis at

the Wagah border crossing. The two sides routinely arrest each other's fishermen for alleged

border violations. The fishermen say they are often unsure whose waters they are in because of

the dispute."

According to Voice of America (VOA) News, the Philippines has been in dispute with China

over Scarborough Shoal and the surrounding waters. China has used its navy to keep Filipino

fishermen out and encouraged its fishermen to catch in these waters. Further south, Indonesia has

also seized and destroyed over 300 fishing vessels, from Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines,

for illegal fishing in its waters the past three years.

As mentioned by British Broadcasting Company (BBC), the ties between China and Japan

have been turned soured by a dispute and claims, that a set of eight uninhabited islands and rocks

encompasses a total area of 7 sq km, is under by their set territorial border. Japan claims that they

surveyed the islands for 10 years and later put up a sovereignty marker and formally added as

one of the islands of the Japanese. Also, by the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco, Japan have

claimed to a number of territories and islands including Taiwan and says that China have no

objections to the said deal. On the other hand, China says that the islands have been part of the

Chinese territories since the Ancient times, that serves as a fishing grounds administered by the

province of Taiwan.
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Since the sea border between the towns is not easily identifiable. There is a real necessity in

designing a system that can track the vehicle and send the information about the vehicle to the

concerned person and alert the fishermen through the use of an alarm. This led the researchers to

design a system which provides the safety and equality of fishermen by notifying the sea border

to them using GPS (Global Positioning System). On the other hand, notifying the border security

to inform them the location of the boats in the sea can be possible using the GSM (Global

System for Mobile Communication) technology.


A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 5

Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to design and develop an electronic Border Alert System

for Fishermen using GPS. Specifically it sought to answer the following objective:

1. To design an electronic border alert system that informs the fishermen when they already

reached the sea boundary of the neighboring town.

2. To design a circuit of the designed electronic border alert system.

3. To fabricate a prototype designed of the circuit.

4. To evaluate functionality, efficiency and reliability of the prototype.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework applied in the research study is shown in Figure 1.1. It can be

seen that the idea of the study is divided into three stages: Input, Process, and Output. The input

of the study consists of concepts about maritime boundary and the navigation system. It also

deals with the understanding of different theories needed for the study of the system.

The second stage is the process stage which consists on how to design the prototype. The

following steps will help to provide ideas in designing the system: the gathering of data

conceptualization of the system design followed by fabrication of the prototype. And the

evaluation and testing to determine the functionality, reliability, and efficiency of the prototype

and it will serve as a guide for improving the prototype.


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The last stage is the output which is the prototype design of Border Alert System using

Global Positioning System (GPS) its functionality for locating, alerting and warning the public

using GPS.

Fig. 1.1 Conceptual Framework


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Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the following:

Fishermen. Its primary purpose is to help them define the boundary line between their respective

area and the neighboring town, to ensure the maximum safety and peace between the two towns. The

implementation of this study can also educate them about the fishery laws thus prevent them to

trespass the border of the neighboring town. Also, this study promotes the preservation and proper

management of both towns’ marine resources.

Coast Guard. This can help notify incoming fishermen that they are approaching the restricted

area of the border. Also, it can prevent intruder like fishermen, to illegally enter the restricted border

of their town.

Lastly, it can be used to monitor and to coordinate with the marine forces patrolling that specified

area. The implementation of this prototype to the resident fishermen of General Luna can assist them

on defining the boundary line of two towns. This will in turn prevent conflict and promote safety. It

also helps on the implementation of law between nations so that there is a proper management and

efficient usage of marine resources.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focuses on the prototype design of the GPS Based Border Alert System that

notifies fishermen if their defined boundary line is still inside the respective area. It will thus

prevent fishermen from illegally entering (trespass) the restricted area. The prototype will use the

microcontroller as the base to be embedded in the boating system. Also, it will use as well the

GPS System to track the exact location of the specified target. The study conducted is beneficial

for areas that use fishing as one of their source of income. It will solve the frequently
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 8

encountered problem which is the illegally crossing borders by notifying the fisherman if the

defined boundary line is within reach.

The prototype design limits itself to back up battery as its main source. Using backup battery

as the main source, an inevitable problem can arise like the power interruptions when conducting

fishing activities. Thus it is advisable to bring a spare battery for continuous use of the prototype.

This also is limited to determine and depends the GSM signal strength to the network service

provider. It can only send text message to a single number stored in the microcontroller.

For the completion of the study, the researcher intends to use the microcontroller as its base

to be embedded to the fishing boat. It will use the technology of the GPS System to track the

exact location of the fishing boat to compare it to the defined restricted area of the neighboring

nation. Also, it will use the GSM module to notify fishermen through SMS if the fishing boat is

coming near the border. Lastly, it can help Coastguard monitor if there is an incoming fishing

boat that has the probability of crossing border.

Definition of Terms

The following are the definition used by the researcher

Alarm is the device that triggered as the fishermen crosses the boundary line.

Design is a construction of an object or system according to the desired plan.

GPS also known as Global Positioning System is a radio navigation system that determines the

exact location, velocity and time of the specified entity anywhere in the world.

GSM also known as Global System for Mobile Communications is an open, digital cellular

technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services.


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Microcontroller it is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory

for the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an

I/O control unit. And it is called a "computer on a chip" (James L.A. (2006).

Acronym

GPS – Global Positioning System

GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications

SMS – Short Message Service


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UNIT II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE

This unit is composed of related studies and literature. The researcher had gone through intensive

readings of materials, both printed and downloaded through internet which has a great significance to

the problem.

To those fishermen whose family’s main economical support is fishing, they will always have

security problems and continuous life threats. The people who live in these coastal areas have main

work of fishing, due to carelessness or without knowing their boundary limit, they sometimes

accidentally crosses the borders.

Microcontroller

Gunther and Bettina (2007) stated microcontroller already contains all components which

allow it to operate standalone, and it has been designed in particular for monitoring and/or

control tasks. In consequence, in addition to the processor it includes memory, various interface

controllers, one or more timers, an interrupt controller, and last but definitely not least general

purpose I/O pins which allow it to directly interface to its environment. Microcontrollers also

include bit operations which allow you to change one bit within a byte without touching the other

bits.

Ibrahim (2006) also stated Microcontrollers are single-chip computers which can be used

to control real-time systems. Such controllers are also referred to as embedded real-time

computers. These devices are low-cost, single-chip and easy to program. Microcontrollers have

traditionally been programmed using the assembly language of the target processor.
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The researcher’s purpose for the microcontroller is that it serves as the heart of the

system. Since microcontroller can be used to control, this will be the researcher’s main

component that will make their prototype possible. It will receive data from the GPS, the data

received contains latitude and longitude of the current location from the GPS satellite. The

current location is compared with the stored coordinates of latitude and longitude. It will also

control the buzzer, relay circuit.

Relay

Blackburn and Domin (2006) discussed in their book The Institute of Electrical and

Electronic Engineers (IEEE) that relay as ‘‘an electric device that is designed to respond to input

conditions in a prescribed manner and, after specified conditions are met, to cause contact

operation or similar abrupt change in associated electric control circuits.’’ A note adds: ‘‘Inputs

are usually electric, but may be mechanical, thermal, or other quantities or a combination of

quantities. Limit switches and similar simple devices are not relays”. Relays are used in all

aspects of activity: home, communication, transportation, commerce, and industry, to name a

few. Wherever electricity is used, there is a high probability that relays are involved. They are

used in heating, air conditioning, stoves, dishwashers, clothes washers and dryers, elevators,

telephone networks, traffic controls, transportation vehicles, automatic process systems, robotics,

space activities, and many other applications.

Reza (2010) mentioned relays called contactors are available to switch currents from

milliampere to several thousands of amperes. In this system we should use a relay circuit with

the water pump to adapt with high voltage ac current


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The relay in this study serves as the engine control unit which will control the speed of

the engine. The speed of the engine will reduce whenever the fisherman was about to reach the

boundary and when they do, the engine will stop, indicating that they already have reached the

boundary.

GPS

Hoque (2016) defines the Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigations

system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or

near the earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. GPS is

“space based satellite navigation system” that can show your exact position on or near the Earth

surface, anytime, anywhere, in any weather condition, no matter where you are. The GPS system

provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. The GPS

technology has tremendous amount of applications in GIS & Remote Sensing data collection,

surveying and mapping. The technology seems to be beneficiary to the GPS user community in

terms of obtaining accurate data up to about 100 m for navigation, meter-level for mapping and

down to millimeter level for geodetic positing. In simple words it can be said that if one has a

small GPS receiver, he can get his position anywhere in the land, sea, air, desert or forest in

terms of any co-ordinate system.

NaveenKumar & Ranjith (2014) states that to accurately locate the positioning of the

target position using a GPS, a GPS transmitter and receiver is needed. The mechanism for the

tracking of a coordinates in the terrestrial sphere starts with a transmitter. Transmitter interface

itself with the required satellites to continuously track the target position in a timely manner.
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Afterwards, the satellites then interface with the receiver to compare the received information

with the stored data of the exact latitude and longitude.

The current time is also indicated, along with the receive data of the exact coordinate of

the target location. The coordination of operations in the GPS satellites is needed so that the

iterated signals are transmitted in synchronize way. The moving signals that enter the GPS

receiver, travels at the speed of light but the point of entry have slightly different time. To

calculate the distances between each of the satellites, the amount of time for the signal to reach

the receiver must be determine. Lastly, when the distance of at least four of the GPS satellite

have been determined, the coordinates of the target position will be located. (Jayahari,

Mahendran, Karuna, & Akhil, 2016)

GPS is a satellite-based system that uses a constellation of 24 satellites to give a user an

accurate position. It is important at this point to define accurate.GPS was originally designed for

military use at any time anywhere on the surface of the earth. Soon after the original proposals

were made, it became clear that civilians could also use GPS, and not only for personal

positioning (as was intended for the military). The first two major civilian applications to emerge

were marine navigation and surveying. Nowadays applications range from in car navigation

through truck fleet management to automation of construction machinery (Leica Geosystems,

1999). The Leica Geosystems discussed that in order for the GPS to work properly. These

segments must be defined. The total GPS configuration is comprised of three distinct segments:

The Space Segment -Satellites orbiting the earth. It is designed to consist of 24 satellites

orbiting the earth at approximately 20200km every 12 hours. At time of writing there are 26

operational satellites orbiting the earth. The space segment is so designed that there will be a
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minimum of 4 satellites visible above a 15° cut-off angle at any point of the earth`s surface at

any one time. Four satellites are the minimum that must be visible for most applications.

The Control Segment- Stations positioned on the earth`s equator to control the satellites.

It consists of one master control station, 5 monitor stations and 4 ground antennas distributed

amongst 5 locations roughly on the earth`s equator. The Control Segment tracks the GPS

satellites, updates their orbiting position and calibrates and synchronizes their clocks.

The User Segment- Anybody that receives and uses the GPS signal. The User Segment

comprises of anyone using a GPS receiver to receive the GPS signal and determine their position

and/ or time. Typical applications within the user segment are land navigation for hikers, vehicle

location, surveying, marine navigation, aerial navigation, machine control etc.

There are several different methods for obtaining a position using GPS. The method used

depends on the accuracy required by the user and the type of GPS receiver available. Broadly

speaking, the techniques can be broken down into three basic classes:

Autonomous Navigation using a single stand-alone receiver. Used by hikers, ships that

is far out at sea and the military. Position Accuracy is better than 100m for civilian users and

about 20m for military users.

Differential Phase position gives an accuracy of 0.5-20mm. Used for many surveying

tasks, machine control etc.

Differentially corrected positioning is more commonly known as DGPS, this gives an

accuracy of between 0.5-5m. Used for inshore marine navigation, GIS data acquisition, precision

farming etc.
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According to Frenzel (2008), GPS is another application made possible by satellite

technology. It provides pinpoint geographic location information. The GPS satellites transmit

position data signals, and a GPS receiver processes and computes the time to receive each one. By

doing this satellites allow the GPS receiver to determine the exact latitude and longitude of a person.

The researcher’s use GPS for the purpose of determining the location of the fisherman’s boat

the GPS will provide the exact longitude and latitude through the use of this. This facility enables to

find out whether the boat crossed the border or not.

GSM Module

GSM/GPRS module is used to establish communication between a computer and a

GSMGPRS system. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an architecture used for

mobile communication in most of the countries. Global Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an extension

of GSM that enables higher data transmission rate. GSM/GPRS module consists of a GSM/GPRS

modem assembled together with power supply circuit and communication interfaces (like RS-232,

USB, etc.) for computer (Babu & Kumar, 2011).

According to Tomasi (2010) GSM is a second generation cellular telephone systems in

Europe. Before implementing GSM, all European countries used different cellular telephone

standards; thus, it was impossible for a subscriber to use a single telephone system designed to use

the services of SS7 signaling and an all-digital data network called integrated services digital network

(ISDN) to provide a wide range of network services. With between 20 and 50 million subscribers,

GMS is now the world’s most popular standard for new cellular telephone and personal

communications equipment.
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GSM was developed by several countries in Western Europe, starting around 1990. The

system is very well defined. The document provided by the European Telecommunications Standards

Institute (ETST) is 5,000 pages, GSM uses 200-kHz channels, which are time shared by eight users.

The extra bandwidth provides even greater opportunities than does IS-136 for enhancing system

performance. Major providers of GSM service in the United States are T-Mobile and Cingular. One

enhancement is that the power sent by the base to the mobile user is increased as the distance

between the two is increased. When a mobile is approaching a location at which it will be handed off

to another base station, the possibility of the call being drop is minimized. Since GMS “knows” how

far the mobile is located from each base station, the mobile’s precise location can be found as soon as

the phone is turned on. GSM has sufficient timing accuracy so that it can use the velocity of light to

calculate distance in the basis of delay time. Another advantage of GSM’s wider bandwidth is that

additional features can be added, such as photographs and e-mails (Frenzel, 2008).

GSM system will be used by the researcher’s for this study to be able to provide

communication between the two parties. This will ensure a continuous monitoring of each boat to

prevent unnecessary actions of the fishermen.

Liquid Crystal Display

Koide (2014) discussed LCD as a spatial light modulator based on the electro-optical effect.

In order to recognize the image on the LCD display a backlighting apparatus, i.e., backlight unit

(BLU), is required. The light generated in BLU is transmitted through the LCD and is spatially

modulated by each pixel in the panel which is recognized as an image. LCDs are lightweight, have

thin structure, and have low power consumption. Therefore, LCDs are widely applied as display
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 17

devices for products as cellphone, netbook, video camera, digital still camera, car navigation system,

personal computer, desktop monitor, and a flat-screen TV.

Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) have established a firm foothold on the market as flat panel

displays for computers, transportation, communication (especially in its mobile version),

instrumentation and, in the future, with increasing importance for television. The understanding of

LCDs requires knowledge about the various electro-optical effects of liquid crystal cells. And about

the control of the grey shades and colours in the picture elements (pixels, or pels) by addressing

circuits. The electro-optical effects are based either on the propagation of polarized light through

anisotropic liquid crystals cells, or on the propagation of unpolarized light through scattering cells.

The gray shade controlling voltage across each pixel is provided mainly by either passive matrix or

active matrix addressing. In passive matrix addressing, the voltage in each pixel is generated by

voltages at the end of the rows (or lines) and the columns of the display, whereas active matrix

addressing uses Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) or Metal Insulator Metal (MIMs) devices as switches

in each pixel (Leuder,2010).

According to (Tokheim, 2014), LED actually generates light, where the LCD simply controls

available light. The LCD has to gain wide acceptance because of its very low power consumption.

The LCD is also well suited for use in sunlight or in other brightly areas. The LCD is also suited for

more complex displays than just seven-segment decimal. The key to LCD operation is the liquid

crystal, or nematic fluid. This nematic fluid is sandwiched between two glass plates. An AC voltage

is applied across the nematic fluid, from the top metalized segments to the metalized backplane.

When affected by the field of the ac voltage, the nematic fluid transmits light differently and the

energized segment appears as black on a silvery background. The liquid-crystal display (LCD) has

the distinct advantage of having a lower power requirement than the LED, typically on the order of
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 18

microwatts for the display, compared to the order of milliwatts for LEDs. It does, however require an

external or internal light source.

Consequently, The LCD in this study is used for displaying the latitude and longitude. LCD

display is connected to the microcontroller. The researchers use LCD not only to provide location but

to give visual warning to the fishermen that they have crossed the border of the other town or city.

SMS

SMS also known as Short Messaging Security provides a convenient means for people to

communicate with each other using text messages via mobile devices or internet connected

computers. Each message contains at most 140 bytes (1120 bits) of data, the equivalent of up to 160

English characters, or 70 Chinese characters (www. infosec.gov)

Nordin (2005) noted that SMS is a unique messaging service that allows user to enter a short

message (Maximum 160 characters) from a keyboard of a mobile device and have that message

forwarded to a recipient or a group of recipient. It is originally designed for GSM mobile phone

system, but now is available for a variety of other systems.

The researchers use SMS to notify the authority if the fisherman crosses the border or not.

When the boat crosses the border the stored message along with current latitude and longitude

positions is sent to the desired GSM module that is stored in the microcontroller.

Alarm System

Alarms and signals are one form of warnings and instructions and they are integral parts of

procedures. Sensors (sometimes human) must detect a problem and tell people about it. In particular,

they must tell people where there is a danger. In one sense, signals and alarms are instructions to act;
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 19

they are coded instructions, rather than direct, verbal instruction. People must learn what the alarms

and signals mean and what actions they call for. Some signals, like hand signals for crane operations,

are not automatic (Brauer, 2006).

Consequently, (Reese, 2009) stated alarm system is a warning. Warnings and instructions are

important elements of procedures. Warnings identify what dangers exist in equipment or operations

and the dangers in normal and abnormal routine and no routine operations. Instructions explain how

each person involved in an operation is to act and act safely and how people are to protect themselves

from the dangers in normal and abnormal, routine and nonroutine operations. Instructions need to

have a step-by-step format, need to be imperative, and need to state actions to be followed. Too often,

people write instructions in a descriptive form, explaining how a process works.

Alarm systems that rely on the use of telephones, whistles, or screams are ineffective and

dangerous. A proper system consists of an electronic device that activates an alert to a dangerous

situation in two ways, visually and audibly. Such a system identifies the location of the room or

action of the worker by means of an alarm sound and a lighted indicator, which visually identifies the

location. In addition, the alarm should be sounded in a security (or other response team) ate to

summon aid.

Control systems can be equipped with a variety of alarm features. Their purpose is to warn

the operator or initiate some action if an undesirable process condition develops. When a condition

falls outside parameters that are programmed into a controller, it activates an alarm. The alarm action

may be to turn on a light or electronic sound, to flash a message on the controller’s display which

describes the problem, or to shut the system down.


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In accordance to the study of Alarm system and warning system the researchers focuses in

using a buzzer that will serve as a warning system for the fishermen whenever they are about to and

when they already crossed the border. When the boat is within the border, buzzer is not activated.

When the boat crosses the border, the alarm is generated.

UNIT III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES

The purpose of the study is to conceptualize a border alert system for fishermen by searching

and developing scientific principle, theories and studies. Research and development is the

appropriate method to be used so that the virtual information gathered were studied, analyzed and

carefully reviewed. This method guided the researchers to work on a methodical basis in order to

advance the knowledge of the researchers with regards to the information and modification of the

design. The study includes the step-by-step process of the construction of a device that would

function as a solution according to the information that has been gathered by the researchers.

Research Design

The first step is to conceptualize the outcome of the prototype design – what it will be and

how it will work. The researchers used research and development method of research as a guide in
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 21

analyzing and assembling and creating a new portable device for the border alert system. By using

this method, researchers can have broad knowledge in designing and development of the prototype.

Collecting of data from the previous experience of fisherman, the researchers came up with an idea

to design a prototype that is capable of determining the latitude and longitude of the location of the

boat where it will be implemented continuous progress for the development of the prototype should

be observed for additional changes of the device.

Collecting of information concerning how the alert system in the open sea works in relation

to the prototype project. From the data collected, follows the application for designing of the

prototype. Development of prototype in this study allows the researchers to test the concept that

serves and provide the specifications for a working prototype and it also allows researchers to have

the capability to explore design alternatives and improvement.

Research Environment

The respondents of the study are the fishermen who live at Barangay Poblacion 8 and 9,

General Luna; it is along General Luna Bay and has the most number of fishermen in the area. The

prototype can also be implemented and used by other fishermen for security and safety purposes.

All the data came from articles, books, internet researches and previous studies related to the

trilateration principle and topics connected in the matter that are used to construct and complete the

study.

Procedures

The set of procedures specified below serves as a guide in performing the study and for the

researchers to develop a prototype design of border alert system for fishermen. It is absolutely
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 22

essential to accomplish each step for the completion of the study and the construction of the

prototype.

Data Gathering and Analysis. In this study, all applicable information, theories, principles and

concepts, from books, articles, internet and knowledge that are piled up is needed.

The researchers went through all the process of pre-survey in order to improve and design the

prototype. For additional information, researchers use the related literature and related studies and

discovered that it is possible to know the location of the boat from an open sea through the use of GPS.

This will determine the latitude and longitude. Through this, fishermen will be informed if they are about

to cross the border the engine will slow down, and if they insist to cross the border the engine will stop

automatically, but it cannot give information on long distance communication so the researchers came up

to an idea that they will put a prototype that can provide information of the location of the fishermen and

at the same time it will send the message to the authority when the fishermen have crossed the border via

GSM module to the authority. With the help of the specialists and practitioners of electronics and

computer engineers besides from the ideas of the researchers, instructors will surely help them in creating

the system.

System Design. The system design for the prototype was made possible by first making the block

diagram and the system flowchart. These tools served as a guide in the creation of the design for the

system. The project study includes the use of microcontroller to process the data collected from the GPS

and GSM modules which will be used to provide the location and provide information regarding the

status of the fishermen. Microcontroller is connected to the alarm circuit and in the relay circuit. It acts as

the main control design of the researchers for the purpose of converting and processing the collected data

into digital information to provide a visual display in the LCD. A 12 V battery is used to energize the

whole system.
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 23

Circuit Design. Researchers focused on the design of the device. The circuit design is composed

of hardware components that have different functions of the prototype and other parts that have

importance on building the whole prototype. The main circuit is composed of several resistors, transistors

and a programmable integrated circuit and it involves two modules GSM and GPS modules. The

researchers use 8051 microcontroller that receives the data from the GPS receiver, GPS modem transmits

the data in RS232, whereas microcontroller supports TTL, hence this device acts as a protocol converter,

and GSM SIM900 modem is used to add SMS alert facility to the system. It continuously reads data from

the GPS and compares the position of boundary and the location of the boat, if the tracked location is

about to cross the boundary the microcontroller alerts the fishermen using the alarm circuit and the engine

will automatically slow down. In case boat reaches the border, and the position of boundary and the

location of the boat matches, the engine will be automatically stopped by the system. The LCD will

continuously display the current position of the boat. Researchers are hands-on in studying each

component, the availability and prices, which will fit the specifications and function and has the correct

designation for the prototype. This design served as a guide to make the whole circuit easy to build and

finalize.

Prototype Fabrication. Tasks accomplished include selection of the production processes,

determination of the sequence of operations, and selection of tools.

This procedure is established for the purpose of constructing the proposed prototype of the study.

Tools and materials were bought in electronic and electrical shop and others are scrapped materials for the

construction of the prototype was gathered.

Connecting the GSM, GPS modules, alarm and relay circuits to the microcontroller builds the

main parts of the prototype. These are steps in prototype fabrication and are presented as follows:

The first step in the fabrication of the prototype is the system design. This is accomplished by

creating a block diagram that conceptualizes the whole process of the system, starting from the power

source, the GPS and GSM modules and the relay and alarm circuit connected to the microcontroller. After
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 24

designing the system the next process is to design the circuit. By using the block diagram as a pattern, the

researchers were able to create individual circuit for alarm and relay. These circuits are best represented

by the use of schematic diagrams which act as a guide for the representation of the elements inside the

designed prototype. This diagram contained all the significant components and parts including the

interconnection between each element. After the circuit design, it would be best to test the functionality of

the designed system by virtual simulation. This is done by the use of electronics software such as keil and

proteus.

The fourth process is components testing. This process tested the theoretical construction of the

components allowing full optimization of the connections of the circuits. Also, this ensured that all

elements in the prototype are in perfect condition. After component testing, the actual simulation is done.

This method is where the components are transferred and tested in a breadboard to guarantee that the

circuit is working properly. With the assurance that the circuit is working, the next step is to create the

PCB layout using different techniques learned in the elements present in the circuit including links of

every components. This is done by using the layout software, PCB Wizard, to develop the printed layout.

Then, the printed layout is transferred to a printed circuit board (PCB). For the PCB fabrication, cleaning

the board is essential before transferring the PCB layout into the actual PCB. Connections are checked for

unwanted short and open connections. After checking the connections, components are soldered in their

respective positions indicated in the PCB design. And lastly, testing and troubleshooting is required.

Double check any fault or error in the hardware and circuit, to ensure that the system is functioning

properly.

Testing and Evaluation. The testing of the different components was first accomplished to

assure its good working condition. Upon doing this the researchers randomly selected the respondents to

test the study functionality, effectiveness, and reliability of the prototype. Gathering data from the

respondents and from the evaluator was analyzed statistically by the researchers through the use of 5

point Likert Scale. Each question is answered through rating from one to five: (1) Strongly Agree, (2)
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 25

Disagree, (3) Fairly Agree, (4) Agree, (5) Strongly Agree. Responses were analyzed using the weighted

mean formula below:

Where, WM = weighted mean

TR = total respondents

f1, f2, f3, f4, f5 = number of responses

To interpret the result of the evaluation, modified Likert scale was used as shown in Table 1.

COMPUTED AVERAGE RATE


4.21-5.00 5
3.41-4.20 4
2.61-3.40 3
1.81-2.60 2
1.00-1.80 1

Table 1
Likert scale for the evaluation result

Design Concept
The design concept of the study “Border Alert System for Fishermen” is based on electronic

system. This system is composed of GPS and GSM modules, alarm and relay circuits, process and output.

Microcontroller acts as the main control block of the system. GPS module is interfaced to the

system, GPS module continuously transmits the data containing location and other information. The data
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 26

is sent to the microcontroller which will be displayed in the LCD. This information is in the standard

NMEA protocol data format. GPS modem transmits the data in RS232 protocol, whereas microcontroller

supports TTL, hence MAX 232 acts as a protocol convertor. GSM SIM900 modem is used to add SMS

alert facility to the system. Microcontroller is preprogrammed with boundary location for that particular

geographical area. It continuously reads data from the GPS and compares with the boundary location, if

the current location to be found is about the boundary the microcontroller alerts the user using a buzzer. If

system tends to get into the border and the location matches the pre-stored boundary the engine is made

automatically off by the system, an SMS is sent to the authority for alert, simultaneously ringing the

alarm. LCD acts as a user interface which continuously displays Latitude and Longitude co-ordinates.

12V 1.3 AH Battery is used to power up the system. LM 7805 used as a voltage regulator IC which

provides +5V constant DC supply. Relays used to control the engine operation. The relay in this study

serves as the engine control unit which will control the speed of the engine. The speed of the

engine will reduce whenever the fisherman was about to reach the boundary and when they do,

the engine will stop, indicating that they already have reached the boundary.

Power Supply
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 27

Fig. 1.2 Initial block diagram of the system

LCD
GPS Module
Microcontroller
The design of the device include searching of instrumentGSM
for appropriate
module type of GPS module to

be used in an open sea, knowing the maritime boundaries of General Luna Bay, and the searching for the
Relay DC motor
suitable type of relay to be used in the boat engine. Researchers apply basic knowledge in electronics,

principles of communication and programming language, data communication, microprocessor system


Buzzer /
and basic electrical engineering circuitry for circuits. These are the knowledge that guides researchers in
Alarm
accomplishing the project study.
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 28

Danna Gladiola D. Pangiligan


Jasmin St. San Fernando Comp.
Cotta, Lucena City
09128206697
dgdpangiligan@gmail.com

PERSONAL Date of Birth: January 13, 1997


Place of Birth: Lucena City
Citizenship: Filipino
Civil Status: Single

EDUCATION Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation


Lucena City, Quezon
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
School Year: 2013-Present

Quezon National High School


Lucena City, Quezon
School Year: 2009-2013

Lucena West I Elementary School


Lucena City, Quezon
School Year: 2003-2009

SKILLS Skilled in Microsoft Office Applications such as:


 Microsoft Office Word
 Microsoft Office PowerPoint
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 29

 Microsoft Excel

Mechatronics Servicing NCII


Computer Systems Technological College Sariaya, Quezon
March 2016 – April 2016
Electrical Installation and Maintenance NCII
Technical Skills System of Lucena Inc.
June 2016 – July 2016
Electronics Products and Assemble Servicing NCII
Technical Skills System of Lucena Inc.
August 2016 – September 2016
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 30

Louis Franzelle R. Marciano


Martinez St. Brgy. Parang
Pagbilao, Quezon
09307224175
louisito32141@gmail.com

PERSONAL Date of Birth: September 19, 1995


Place of Birth: Pagbilao, Quezon
Citizenship: Filipino
Civil Status: Single

EDUCATION Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation


Lucena City, Quezon
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
School Year: 2014-Present

Casa Del Nino Jesus De Pagbilao


Pagbilao, Quezon
School Year: 2008-2012

Casa Del Nino Jesus De Pagbilao


Pagbilao, Quezon
School Year: 2008

SKILLS Skilled in Microsoft Office Applications such as:


 Microsoft Office Word
 Microsoft Office PowerPoint
 Microsoft Excel

Computer Hardware Servicing NCII


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Lucena City
June 2012– May 2014
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 31

Van Kelly M. Galvez


Vercelos St., Barangay 9 Poblacion
General Luna, Quezon
09218834707
vankellygalvez@gmail.com

PERSONAL Date of Birth: December 18, 1996


Place of Birth: Atimonan, Quezon
Citizenship: Filipino
Civil Status: Single

EDUCATION Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation


Lucena City, Quezon
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
School Year: 2013-Present

St. Ignatius Parochial School


General Luna, Quezon
School Year: 2009-2013

St. Ignatius Parochial School


General Luna, Quezon
School Year: 2003-2009

SKILLS  Computer Literate


 Basic Knowledge about Electronics
 Knowledgeable in Basic Computer Networking
 Hardware and Software Installation
 Proficient in Microsoft Office Suite
 Troubleshooting Computer Basic Problems
A Prototype Design of Border Alert System For Fishermen using GPS 32

Nikka C. Yosolon
No. 151 Brgy. Santo Tomas
Luisiana, Laguna
09087138956
nymeadows2019@gmail.com

PERSONAL Date of Birth: January 7, 1995


Place of Birth: Pagsanjan, Laguna
Citizenship: Filipino
Civil Status: Single

EDUCATION Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation


Lucena City, Quezon
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering
School Year: 2014-Present

Luis Bernardo Memorial High School


Luisiana, Laguna
School Year: 2007-2011

Luisiana Central Elementary School


Luisiana, Laguna
School Year: 2000-2007

SKILLS  Have basic understanding of electronics and communications theory.


 Can test and build circuits in basic level
 Able to create documents in word, excel and powerpoint.
 Have a basic understanding of Java & C/C++.
 Can create basic templates on Autocad.