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QUESTION BANK

CLASS : 12 PHYSICS

SECTION – A [1- MARK]


1. What is the geometrical shape of equipotential surfaces due to a single
isolated charge?
2. Write the relationship between angle of incidence ‘i’, angle of prism ‘A’ and
angle of minimum deviation for a triangular prism.
3. A capacitor has been charged by a dc source. What are the magnitudes
of conduction and displacement currents, when it is fully charged?

4. The given graph shows the variation of photo-electric current (I) versus applied
voltage (V) for two different photosensitive materials and for two different
intensities of the incident radiation. Identify the pairs of curves that correspond
to different materials but same intensity of incident radiation.

5. Which of the following waves can be polarized (i) Heat waves (ii) Sound
waves? Give reason to support your answer.
6. A 5 V battery of negligible internal resistance is connected across a 200 V battery
and a resistance of 39 Ω as shown in the figure. Find the value of the current.
7. Which of the following substances are para-magnetic? Bi, Al, Cu, Ca, Pb, Ni
8. A heating element is marked 210 V, 630 W. Find the resistance of the element
when connected to a 210 V dc source.

9. A conducting loop is held below a current carrying wire PQ as shown. Predict


the direction of the induced current in the loop when the current in the wire is
constantly increasing.

10. The graph shows variation of stopping potential V0 versus frequency of


incident radiation ν for two photosensitive metals A and B. Which of the two
metals has higher threshold frequency and why?

11. Using the concept of force between two infinitely long parallel current
carrying conductors, define one ampere of current.
12. A biconcave lens made of a transparent material of refractive index 1.25 is
immersed in water of refractive index 1.33. Will the lens behave as a
converging or a diverging lens? Give reason.
13. Why do the electric field lines never cross each other?
14. To which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does a wave of frequency 5 x
11
10 Hz belong?
15. Why is it found experimentally difficult to detect neutrinos in nuclear β-decay?
16. Why is the use of a.c. voltage preferred over d.c. voltage? Give two reasons.
17. Define the term ‘mobility’ of charge carriers. Write its S.I. unit
18. In a series LCR circuit, VL = VC ≠ VR. What is the value of power factor?
19. The focal length of an equiconvex lens is equal to the radius of curvature of
either face.What is the refractive index of the material of the lens?
20. Write a relation for polarisation P of a dielectric material in the presence of an

external electric field E .


21. What happens when a forward bias is applied to a p-n junction?
22. A point charge +Q is placed in the vicinity of a conducting surface. Draw the
electric field lines between the surface and the charge. (1)
23. Define modulation index. Why is it generally kept less than one? (1)

24. In the figure given, mark the polarity of plates A and B of a capacitor when the
magnets
are quickly moved towards the coil. (1)

25. The objective lenses of two telescopes have the same apertures but their focal
lengths are in the ratio 1: 2. Compare the resolving powers of the two
telescopes.

26. Define the conductivity of a conductor. Write its SI unit. (1)

27. Plot a graph showing the variation of current ‘I’ versus resistance ‘R’,
connected to a cell of emf E and internal resistance ‘r’.
28. State the factors on which the refractive index of a material medium for a given
wavelength depends.
29. Sketch the emergent wavefront.
30. In the wave picture of light, intensity of light is determined by square of the
amplitude of wave. What determines the intensity of light in the photon
picture of light?
SECTION – B [ 2- MARKS ]
31. An ammeter of resistance 0.6 ohm can measure current up to 1.0 A. Calculate
(i) The shunt resistance required to enable the ammeter to measure current up to
5.0A
(ii) The combined resistance of the ammeter and the shunt.
32. (a)Write the necessary conditions for the phenomenon of total internal
reflection to occur.
(b)Write the relation between the refractive index and critical angle for a given
pair of optical media.

33. (a) An e.m wave is travelling in a medium with a velocity v = v i . Draw a


sketch showing the propagation of the em wave, indicating the direction of the
oscillating electric and magnetic fields.

(b)How are the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields related to the
velocity of the em wave?
34.

(a)Identify ‘X’ and ‘Y’


(b)Write their functions.
35. State Lenz’s Law.A metallic rod held horizontally along east-west direction, is
allowed to fall under gravity. Will there be an e.m.f. induced at its ends? Justify
your answer.
36. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the working of a photo-diode.
Write briefly how it is used to detect the optical signals.
37. Mention the important considerations required while fabricating a p-n junction
diode to be used as a Light Emitting Diode (LED). What should be the order of
band gap of an LED if it is required to emit light in the visible range?
38. A convex lens of focal length 30 cm is placed coaxially in contact with a
concave lens of focal length 40 cm. Determine the power of the combination.
Will the system be converging or diverging in nature?
39. In the given circuit diagram, a voltmeter ‘V’ is connected across a lamp ‘L’.
How would (i) the brightness of the lamp and (ii) voltmeter reading ‘V’ be
affected, if the value of resistance ‘R’ is decreased? Justify your answer.

40. Considering the case of a parallel plate capacitor being charged, show how one
is required to generalize Ampere's circuital law to include the term due to
displacement current.
41. Estimate the average drift speed of conduction electrons in a copper wire of cross-
-7 2
sectional area 2.5 x 10 m carrying a current of 2.7 A. Assume the density
28 -3
of conduction electrons to be 9 x 10 m .
42. A cell of emf 'E' and internal resistance ‘r’ is connected across a variable
resistor 'R'. Plot a graph showing variation of terminal voltage 'V' of the cell
versus the current 'I'. Using the plot, show how the emf of the cell and its
internal resistance can be determined.
43. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is charged to a potential V. It is then
connected to another uncharged capacitor having the same capacitance. Find out
the ratio of the energy stored in the combined system to that stored initially in
the single capacitor.
44. Using Rutherford model of the atom, derive the expression for the total energy
of the electron in hydrogen atom. What is the significance of total negative
energy possessed by the electron?
45. Using Bohr's postulates of the atomic model derive the expression for radius
of nth electron orbit. Hence obtain the expression for Bohr’s radius.
46. Show diagrammatically the behaviour of magnetic field lines in the presence of
a. paramagnetic and
b. diamagnetic substances. How does one explain this distinguishing feature?
47. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the working of a p-n junction diode
as a half- wave rectifier.
48. Two monochromatic rays of light are incident normally on the face AB of an
isosceles right-angled prism ABC. The refractive indices of the glass prism for
the two rays '1' and '2' are respectively 1.38 and 1.52. Trace the path of these
rays after entering through the prism.

49. Draw a circuit diagram of n-p-n transistor amplifier in CE configuration.


Under what condition does the transistor act as an amplifier?
50. Write the functions of the following in communication systems:
a. Receiver
b. Demodulator
c. Distinguish between ‘Analog’ and ‘Digital’ forms of communication.
d. Explain briefly two commonly used applications of the ‘Internet’.
51. Given the ground state energy E0 = - 13.6 eV and Bohr radius a0 = 0.53 A . Find
out how the de Broglie wavelength associated with the electron orbiting in the
ground state would change when it jumps into the first excited state.
52. State Bohr’s postulate of hydrogen atom which successfully explains
the emission lines in the spectrum of hydrogen atom.
53. Use Rydberg formula to determine the wavelength of line.
7 −1
[Given: Rydberg constant R = 1.03 × 10 m ]
54. State the two Kirchhoff’s rules used in electric networks. How are there
rules justified?
55. Write the important characteristic features by which the interference can be
distinguished from the observed diffraction pattern.
56. Explain the basic differences between the construction and working of a
telescope and a microscope.
57. (i) Define refractive index of a medium.

(ii) In the following ray diagram, calculate the speed of light in the
liquid of unknown refractive index. (2)

58. Electrons are emitted from the cathode of a photocell of negligible work
function, when photons of wavelength are incident on it. Derive the
expression for the de Broglie wavelength of the electrons emitted in terms of
the wavelength of the incident light. (2)
59. Derive the Bohr’s quantisation condition for angular momentum of the
orbiting of electron in hydrogen atom, using de Broglie’s hypothesis.
60. (a) Write two characteristic features of nuclear force.

(b) Draw a plot of potential energy of a pair of nucleons as a function of


their separation.

61. State the two points to distinguish between sky wave and space wave modes of
propagation.
62. The figure shows a plot of terminal voltage ‘V’ versus the current ‘i’ of a
given cell. Calculate from the graph (a) emf of the cell and (b) internal
resistance of the cell. (2)

63. (a)An alternating voltage E = Eo sinωt is applied to a circuit containing a


resistor R connected in series with a black box. The current in the circuit is
found to be
I = Io sin (ωt + π/4).
(i) State whether the element in the black box is a capacitor or inductor.
(ii) Draw the corresponding phasor diagram and find the impedance in terms
of R.

64. The magnetic field in a plane electromagnetic wave is given by: By


= 12 × 10–8 sin (1.20 × 107 z + 3.60 × 1015 t) T. Calculate the
(i) Energy density associated with the Electromagnetic wave

(ii) Speed of the wave

65. A spherical convex surface of radius of curvature 20 cm, made of glass (μ = 1.5)
is placed in air. Find the position of the image formed, if a point object is placed
at 30 cm in front of the convex surface on the principal axis.
66. Name the optoelectronic device used for detecting optical signals and
mention the biasing in which it is operated. Draw its I- V characteristics.
67. Give reason, why high frequency carrier waves are needed for effective
transmission of information signals.
68. What is the range of frequencies used for T.V. transmission? State two
factors by which the range of TV signals can be increased.

69. Arrange the following electromagnetic wave in the order of their


increasing wavelength:

a. γ- rays
b. Microwaves
c. X-rays
d. Radio waves
What role does infra-red radiation play in (i) maintaing the Earth’s warmth
and

(ii) physical therapy?

70. a) Why photoelectric effect cannot be explained on the basis of wave nature
of light? Give reasons.
(b) Write the basic features of photon picture of electromagnetic radiation
on which Einstein’s photoelectric equation is based.

SECTION – C [ 3- MARK ]

71. Name the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum which is


a) suitable for radar systems used in aircraft navigation.
(b) used to treat muscular strain.
(c) used as a diagnostic tool in medicine.
Write in brief, how these waves can be produced.
72. (i) A giant refracting telescope has an objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an
eye piece of focal length 1.0 cm is used, what is the angular magnification of
the telescope?
(ii) If this telescope is used to view the moon, what is the diameter of the image of

the moon formed by the objective lens? The diameter of the moon is

m and the radius of lunar orbit is m.


73. Write Einstein’s photoelectric equation and mention which important features
in photoelectric effect can be explained with the help of this equation. The
maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons gets doubled when the

wavelength of light incident on the surface changes from to . Derive the

expressions for the threshold wavelength and work function for the metal
surface.
74. In the study of Geiger-Marsdon experiment on scattering of a particles by a thin
foil of gold, draw the trajectory of -particles in the coulomb field of target
nucleus.Explain briefly how one gets the information on the size of the nucleus

from this study. From the relation R = , where is constant and A is


the mass number of the nucleus, show that nuclear matter density is
independent of A.
75. Distinguish between nuclear fission and fusion. Show how in both
these processes energy is released.
Calculate the energy release in MeV in the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction:
Using the data :

= 2.014102 u = 3.016049 u = 4.002603 u mn =


1.008665 u

1u = 931.5 MeV/

76. A cell of emf ‘E’ and internal resistance ‘r’ is connected across a variable load
resistor R. Draw the plots of the terminal voltage V versus (i) R and (ii) the

current I. It is found that when R = 4 , the current is 1 A and when R is

increased to 9 , the current reduces to 0.5 A. Find the values of the emf E
and internal resistance r.
77. Draw a block diagram of a detector for AM signal and show, using necessary
processes and the waveforms, how the original message signal is detected
from the input AM wave.
78. State the principle of working of a galvanometer.
A galvanometer of resistance G is converted into a voltmeter to measure upto V

volts by connecting a resistance in series with the coil. If a resistance is


connected in series with it, then it can measure upto V/2 volts. Find the

resistance, in terms of and , required to be connected to convert it into a


voltmeter that can read upto 2 V. Also find the resistance G of the galvanometer

in terms of and .
79. With what considerations in view, a photodiode is fabricated? State its working
with the help of a suitable diagram. Even though the current in the forward bias
is known to be more than in the reverse bias, yet the photodiode works in
reverse bias. What is the reason?
80. Draw a circuit diagram of a transistor amplifier in CE configuration.
Define the terms: (i) Input resistance and (ii) Current amplification factor.
How are these determined using typical input and output characteristics?
81. (a)In a double slit experiment using light of wavelength 600 nm, the angular
width of the fringe formed on a distant screen is 0.1°. Find the spacing
between the two slits.

(b) Light of wavelength 5000 propagating in air gets partly reflected from the
surface of water. How will the wavelengths and frequencies of the reflected and
refracted light be affected?
82. An inductor L of inductance XL is connected in series with a bulb B and an ac
source.How would brightness of the bulb change when (i) number of turn in the
inductor is reduced, (ii) an iron rod is inserted in the inductor and (iii) a capacitor

of reactance = is inserted in series in the circuit. Justify your answer in


each case.
83. Define the term modulation. Name three different types of modulation used for a
mes-sage signal using a sinusoidal continuous carrier wave. Explain the meaning
of any one of them.
84. Two nearby narrow slits are illuminated by a single monochromatic source.
Name the pattern obtained on the screen.One of the slits is now completely
covered. What is the name of the pattern now obtained on the screen? Write two
differences between the patterns obtained in the two cases.
85. A nucleus makes a transition from one permitted energy level to another level of
lower energy. Name the region of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the
emitted photon belongs. What is the order of its energy in electron volts
86. A small square loop, of side 2mm is placed inside, and normal to the axis, of a
long solenoid. The solenoid has a total of 2000 turns of wire uniformly wound
over its total length of 2m. If the current flowing in the solenoid wire changes
from 1A to 3A in a second, calculate the emf induced in the square loop. Under
what condition is the heat produced in an electric circuit
a. directly proportional
b. inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit?
87. A resistor R is put in series with a voltameter having electrodes made from a
metal of chemical equivalant E. A mass m of the metal gets deposited in a time t
when a current is made to flow through the combination. Obtain an expression
for the heat produced in the resistor during this time.
88. For the potentiometer circuit, shown in the given figure, points X and Y
represent the two terminals of an unknown emf E. A student observed that when
the jockey is moved from the end A to the end B of the potentiometer wire, the
deflection in the galvanometer remains in the same direction. What are the two
possible faults in the circuit that could result in this observation ?

If the galvanometer deflection at the end B is (i)more (ii) less than that at
the end A, which of the two faults, listed above, would be there in the circuit?
Give reasons in support of your answer in each case.
89. Two capacitors of unknown capacitances C1 and C2 are connected first in
series and then in parallel across a battery of 100 V. If the energy stored in the
two combinations is 0.45 J and 0.25 J respectively, determine the value of C1
and C2. Also calculate the charge on each capacitor in parallel combination.
90. State and explain the principle and working of a galvanometer.
91. With what considerations in view, a photodiode is fabricated? State its working
with the help of a suitable diagram. Even though the current in the forward bias
is known to be more than in the reverse bias, yet the photodiode works in reverse
bias. What is the reason?
92. Draw a circuit diagram of a transistor amplifier in CE configuration.
Define the terms : (i) Input resistance and (ii) Current amplification factor.
How are these determined using typical input and output characteristics ?
93. In a double slit experiment using light of wavelength 600 nm, the angular width
of the fringe formed on a distant screen is 0.1°. Find the spacing between the
two slits.

94. Light of wavelength 5000 propagating in air gets partly reflected from the
surface of water. How will the wavelengths and frequencies of the reflected
and refracted light be affected?
95. An inductor L of inductance XL is connected in series with a bulb B and an ac
source. How would brightness of the bulb change when (i) number of turn in the
inductor is reduced, (ii) an iron rod is inserted in the inductor and (iii) a capacitor

of reactance = is inserted in series in the circuit. Justify your answer in


each case.
96. (a) State Ampere’s circuital law. Use this law to obtain the expression for the
magnetic field inside an air cored toroid of average radius ‘r’, having ‘n’ turns
per unit length and carrying a steady current I.
(b) An observer to the left of a solenoid of N turns each of cross section area ‘A’
observes that a steady current I in it flows in the clockwise direction. Depict the
magnetic field lines due to the solenoid specifying its polarity and show that it
acts as a bar magnet of magnetic moment m = NIA.
97. Define mutual inductance and write its S.I. units.
Derive an expression for the mutual inductance of two long co-axial solenoids
of same length wound one over the other.

98. In an experiment, two coils and are placed close to each other. Find out

the expression for the emf induced in the coil due to a change in the current

through the coil .


99. (a) Using Huygens’s construction of secondary wavelets explain how a
diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen due to a narrow slit on which
a monochromatic beam of light is incident normally.
(b) Show that the angular width of the first diffraction fringe is half that
of the central fringe.
(c)Explain why the maxima at become weaker and weaker with
increasing n.

100. (a) A point object ‘O’ is kept in a medium of refractive index in front of a
convex spherical surface of radius of curvature R which separates the second
medium of refractive index n2 from the first one, as shown in the figure. Draw
the ray diagram showing the image formation and deduce the relationship

between the object distance and the image distance in terms of and R.
(b) When the image formed above acts as a virtual object for a concave spherical

surface separating the medium n2 from draw this ray diagram


and write the similar (similar to (a)) relation. Hence obtain the expression for
the lens maker’s formula.

101. An electric dipole of dipole moment consists of point charges +q and –q


separated by a distance 2a apart. Deduce the expression for the electric field

due to the dipole at a distance x from the centre of the dipole on its axial
line in terms of the

dipole moment . Hence show that in the limit x >> a, /

(b) Given the electric field in the region , find the net electric flux
through the cube and the charge enclosed by it.
102. Explain, using suitable diagrams, the difference in the behaviour of a (i)
conductor and (ii) dielectric in the presence of external electric field. Define
the terms polarization of a dielectric and write its relation with susceptibility.
103. A thin metallic spherical shell of radius R carries a charge Q on its surface. A

point
charge is placed at its centre C and another charge +2Q is placed outside the
shell at a distance x from the centre as shown in the figure. Find (i) the force on
the charge at the centre of shell and at the point A, (ii) the electric flux through
the shell.

104. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is charged to a potential V by a


battery. Without disconnecting the battery, the distance between the plates is
tripled and a dielectric medium of k = 10 is introduced between the plates of the
capacitor. Explain giving reasons, how will the following be affected: (3)

(i) capacitance of the capacitor (ii) charge on the capacitor, and (iii) energy
density of the capacitor.
105. (a) Draw a graph showing the variation of binding energy per nucleon
(BE/A) vs mass number A for the nuclei in 20 ≤ A ≤ 170.
(b) A nucleus of mass number 240 and having binding energy/nucleon 7.6
MeV splits into two fragments Y, Z of mass numbers 110 and 130 respectively.
If the binding energy/nucleon of Y, Z is equal to 8.5 MeV each, calculate the
energy released in the nuclear reaction.
106. (a) In Young’s double slit experiment, the two slits are illuminated by two
different lamps having same wavelength of light. Explain with reason, whether
interference pattern will be observed on the screen or not.
(b) Light waves from two coherent sources arrive at two points on a screen with
path differences of 0 and /2. Find the ratio of intensities at the points.
107. Using Bohr’s postulates, derive the expression for the total energy of the
electron revolving in nth orbit of hydrogen atom. Find the wavelength of H
7 –1
line, given the value of Rydberg constant, R = 1.1 × 10 m .
–3
108. Name the e.m. waves in the wavelength range 10 nm to 10 nm. How
are these waves generated? Write their two uses. (3)
109. (a) Draw the pattern of magnetic field lines for a circular coil carrying
current. (b) Two identical circular loops X and Y of radius R and carrying

the same current are kept in perpendicular planes such that they have a
common centre at P as shown in the figure. Find the magnitude and
direction of the net magnetic field at the point P due to the loops. (3)

110. State the reason, why the photodiode is always operated under reverse bias.
Write the working principle of operation of a photodiode. The semiconducting
material used to fabricate a photodiode, has an energy gap of 1.2eV. Using
calculations, show whether it can detect light of wavelength of 400 nm incident
on it.
111. Draw the circuit diagram of a common emitter transistor amplifier. Write
the expression for its voltage gain. Explain, how the input and output
signals differ in phase by 180°. (3)
112. Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier. Explain its working
principle. Draw the input and output waveforms.
113. Briefly explain the three factors which justify the need of modulating low
frequency signal into high frequencies. (3)
114. Define the term current sensitivity of a galvanometer. In the circuits
shown in the figures, the galvanometer shows no deflection in each case. Find
the ratio of R1 and R2. (3)

115. The current through two inductors of self-inductance 12 mH and 30 mH is


increasing with time at the same rate. Draw graphs showing the variation of the

(a) emf induced with the rate of change of current in each inductor

(b) energy stored in each inductor with the current flowing through it. Compare the
energy stored in the coils, if the power dissipated in the coils is the same. (3)

116. (a) Explain how the intensity of diffraction pattern changes as the order
(n) of the diffraction band varies.
(b) Two wavelengths of sodium light 590 nm and 596 nm are used in turn to study
the diffraction at a single slit of size 4 mm.The distance between the slit and
screen is 2 m. Calculate the separation between the positions of the first
maximum of the diffraction pattern obtained in the two cases. (3)
117. (a)How many electrons must be added to one plate and removed from
the other so as to store 25.0 J of energy in a 5.0 nF parallel plate capacitor?
How would you modify this capacitor so that it can store 50.0 J of energy
without changing the charge on its plates?
118. A point charge +Q is placed at the centre O of an uncharged hollow spherical
conductor of inner radius ‘a’ and outer radius ‘b’. Find the following:
a. The magnitude and sign of the charge induced on the inner and outer surface
of the conducting shell.
b. The magnitude of electric field vector at a distance (i) r =a/2 , and
(ii) r = 2b, from the centre of the shell.
119. The following table gives the length of three copper wires, their diameters,
and the applied potential difference across their ends. Arrange the wires in
increasing order according to the following:
i) The magnitude of the electric field within them,
ii) The drift speed of electrons through them, and
iii) The current density within them.
Wire Length Diameter Potential
no. Difference
1 L 3d V
2 2L d V
3 3L 2d 2V

120. A multirange voltmeter can be constructed by using a galvanometer circuit as


shown in the figure. We want to construct a voltmeter that can measure 2V, 20V
and 200V using a galvanometer of resistance 10Ω and that produces maximum
deflection for current of 1 mA.
ind the value of R1, R2 and R3 that have to be used.
121. Figure shows a metal rod PQ of length l, resting on the smooth horizontal rails
AB positioned between the poles of a permanent magnet. The rails, rod and the
magnetic field B are in three mutually perpendicular directions. A galvanometer
G connects the rails through a key ‘k’. Assume the magnetic field to be uniform.
Given the resistance of the closed loop containing the rod is R.
a. Suppose K is open and the rod is moved with a speed v in the direction
shown. Find the polarity and the magnitude of induced emf.
b. With K open and the rod moving uniformly, there is no net force on the electrons in
the rod PQ even though they do experience magnetic force due to the motion of
the rod. Explain.
(iii) What is the induced emf in the moving rod if the magnetic field is
parallel to the rails instead of being perpendicular?

122. With the help of a diagram, explain the principle of a device which changes a
low voltage into a high voltage but does not violate the law of conservation of
energy. Give any one reason why the device may not be 100% efficient.
123. In a double slit experiment, the distance between the slits is 3 mm and the slits
are 2 m away from the screen. Two interference patterns can be seen on the
screen one due to light with wavelength 480 nm, and the other due to light with
wavelength 600 nm. What is the separation on the screen between the fifth order
bright fringes of the two interference patterns?
124. What do you understand by the statement ‘Light from the sun is unpolarised’.
Explain how does sunlight gets polarized by the process of scattering?
125. Explain how does (i) photoelectric current and (ii) kinetic energy of the
photoelectrons emitted in a photocell vary if the frequency of incident radiation
is doubled, but keeping the intensity same? Show the graphical variation in the
above two cases.
126. Name the experiment which confirms the existence of wave nature of
electrons. Derive the expression for de-Broglie wavelength of an electron
moving under a potential difference of V volts. (ii) An electron and a proton
have the same Kinetic Energy. Which of these particles has the shorter de-

Broglie wavelength?
127. The energy levels of an atom of element X are shown in the diagram. Which
one of the level transitions will result in the emission of photons of wavelength
620 nm? Support your answer with mathematical calculations.

128. Draw a graph showing the variation of binding energy per nucleon versus the
mass number A. Explain with the help of this graph, the release of energy in the
process of nuclear fission and fusion.
129. A message signal of frequency 20 KHz and peak voltage of 20 volts is used
to modulate a carrier signal of frequency 2 MHz and peak voltage of 40 volts.
Determine (i) modulation index, (ii) the side bands produced. Draw the
corresponding frequency spectrum of amplitude modulated signal.
130. Write the functions of the three segments of a transistor. (b) The figure shows
the input waveforms A and B for ‘AND’ gate. Draw the output waveform and
write the truth table for this logic
SECTION – D [ 4- MARK ]
131. Mr Kamath, the chief mechanical engineer, in Northern railways went to Tokyo to
attend a seminar on fast moving trains. His friend Mr Hiorki explained how

Japanese people are concentrating on energy conservation and saving fossil

fuels using maglevtrains. Mr Kamath travelled from Tokyo to Osaka in maglev

train and found that the sound is less, travel is smooth and understood the

Japanese technology in mass transporting systems. Maglev trains work on the

principle of Meissner’s effect.

(a) Mention two values which Mr Kamath found in Mr Hiorki.


(b) Which values in Mr Kamath do you appreciate ?
(c) What is Meissner’s effect? Write the value of magnetic permeability for
Perfect diamagnetism.
132. Sunil and his parents were travelling to their village in their car. On the way
his mother noticed some grey coloured panels installed on the roof of a low
building. She enquired from Sunil what those panels were and Sunil told
his mother that those were solar panels.
(a) What were the values displayed by Sunil and his mother ? State one value
for each.
(b) In what way would the use of solar panels prove to be very useful ?
(c) Name the semiconductor device used in solar panels. Briefly explain with
the help of adiagram, how this device works.
133. Asha’s mother read an article in the newspaper about a disaster that took
place at Chernobyl. She could not understand much from the article and asked
a few questions from Asha regarding the article. Asha tried to answer her
mother’s questions based on what she learnt in Class XII Physics.
(a) What was the installation at Chernobyl where the disaster took place ?
What, according to you, was the cause of this disaster ?
(b) Explain the process of release of energy in the installation at Chernobyl.
(c) What, according to you, were the values displayed by Asha and her mother
?
134. Muthuswami a resident of Kundakulam was all set to leave everything and shift to
another place in view of the decision of Government to start nuclear thermal power
plant at Kundakulam. His granddaughter Prachi, a science student was really upset
on the ignorant decision of her grandfather. She could finally convince him not to
shift, since adequate safety measures to avoid any nuclear mishap have already been
taken by the Government before starting nuclear thermal power plants.
(i) What is the value displayed by Prachi in convincing her grandfather?
(ii) What is the principle behind working of nuclear reactor?
(iii) What are the main component of nuclear reactor?
(iv) Why is heavy water used as moderator?
135. When Deepak studied the electrical circuits and the current flowing through them, he
became curious about the range of the currents we come across in daily life. He collected
the data and presented in a tabular form as shown below. He then studied the instruments
used to detect and measure current, however could not understand the difference between an
ammeter and an ideal ammeter and thus went to his teacher for the explanation.

S.No. Description Magnitude of current


1 Domestic Appliance Few amperes
2 Lightning Ten thousand amperes
3 Nervous system microamperes
4 Galvanometer Few milliamperes
5 Semiconductors Few milliamperes

SECTION – E [ 5- MARK ]

1. (a) State Ampere’s circuital law. Use this law to obtain the expression for the
magnetic field inside an air cored toroid of average radius ‘r’, having ‘n’
turns per unit length and carrying a steady current I.
(b) An observer to the left of a solenoid of N turns each of cross section area ‘A’
observes that a steady current I in it flows in the clockwise direction. Depict
the magnetic field lines due to the solenoid specifying its polarity and show
that it acts as a bar magnet of magnetic moment m = NIA.
2. Define mutual inductance and write its S.I. units.
(a) Derive an expression for the mutual inductance of two long co-axial
solenoids of same length wound one over the other.

(b) In an experiment, two coils and are placed close to each

other. Find out the expression for the emf induced in the coil due to a

change in the current through the coil .


3. (a) Using Huygens’s construction of secondary wavelets explain how a
diffraction pattern is obtained on a screen due to a narrow slit on which
a monochromatic beam of light is incident normally.
(b)Show that the angular width of the first diffraction fringe is half that of
the central fringe.
(c)Explain why the maxima at become weaker and weaker

with Increasing ‘ n’.

4. (a) A point object ‘O’ is kept in a medium of refractive index in front of a


convex spherical surface of radius of curvature R which separates the second
medium of refractive index n2 from the first one. Draw the ray diagram
showing the image formation and deduce the relationship between the object

distance and the image distance in terms of and R.


(c) When the image formed above acts as a virtual object for a concave spherical

surface separating the medium n2 from draw this ray diagram and
write the similar (similar to (a)) relation. Hence obtain the expression for the
lens maker’s formula.

5. (a) An electric dipole of dipole moment consists of point charges +q and –


q separated by a distance 2a apart. Deduce the expression for the electric field

due to the dipole at a distance x from the centre of the dipole on its axial
line in terms of the dipole moment . Hence show that in the limit x >> a,

(c) Given the electric field in the region , find the net electric flux
through the cube and the charge enclosed by it.

6. (a)Explain, using suitable diagrams, the difference in the behaviour of a (i)


conductor and (ii) dielectric in the presence of external electric field. Define
the terms polarization of a dielectric and write its relation with susceptibility.
(b)A thin metallic spherical shell of radius R carries a charge Q on its surface.
A point
charge is placed at its centre C and another charge +2Q is placed outside the
shell at a distance x from the centre as shown in the figure. Find (i) the force on the
charge at the centre of shell and at the point A, (ii) the electric flux through the
shell.

7. (a) State Gauss’ law. Using this law, obtain the expression for the
electric field due to an infinitely long straight conductor of linear
charge density λ.
(b) A wire AB of length L has linear charge density λ = kx, where x is
measured from the end A of the wire. This wire is enclosed by a Gaussian hollow
surface. Find the expression for the electric flux through this surface. (3+2)

8. (a) Derive the expression for the electric potential at any point P, at distance
r from the centre of an electric dipole, making angle α, with its axis.

(b) Two point charges 4 μC and +1 μC are separated by a distance of 2 m in


air. Find the point on the line-joining charges at which the net electric field of the
system is zero.
9. (a) Prove that an ideal capacitor in an ac circuit does not dissipate power.

(b) An inductor of 200 mH, capacitor of 400 μf and a resistor of 10 are


connected in series to ac source of 50 V of variable frequency. Calculate
the (i)angular frequency at which maximum power dissipation occurs in the
circuit and the corresponding value of the effective current, and
(ii)value of Q-factor in the circuit. (3+2)

10. (a) A metallic rod of length l is moved perpendicular to its length

with velocity ν in amagnetic field acting perpendicular to the plane in


which rod moves. Derive the expression for the induced emf.
(b) A wheel with 15 metallic spokes each 60 cm long, is rotated at 360
rev/min in a plane normal to the horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field.
The angle of dip at that place is 60°. If the emf induced between rim of the wheel
and the axle is 400 mV, calculate the horizontal component of
earth’s magnetic field at the place. How will the induced emf change, if the
number of spokes is increased?
11. (a) Explain with reason, how the power of a diverging lens changes when
(i) it is kept in a medium of refractive index greater than that of the lens.
(ii) incident red light is replaced by violet light.
(b) Three lenses L1, L2, L3 each of focal length 30 cm are placed co-
axially as shown in the figure. An object is held at 60 cm from the optic centre
of lens L1. The final real image is formed at the focus of L3. Calculate the
separation between (i) (L1 and L2) and (ii) (L2 and L3).

(3+2)

12. (a) Deduce the expression, by drawing a suitable ray diagram, for the
refractive index of a triangular glass prism in terms of the angle of
minimum deviation (D) and the angle of prism (A). Draw a plot showing
the variation of the angle of deviation with the angle of incidence.

(a) Calculate the value of the angle of incidence when a ray of light incident on
one face of an equilateral glass prism produces the emergent ray,
which just grazes along the adjacent face. Refractive index of the prism is

13. (a) A particle of charge q is moving with velocity v in the presence of crossed
Electric field E and Magnetic field B as shown. Write the condition under which
the particle will continue moving along x- axis. How would the trajectory of the
particle be affected if the electric field is switched off?

14. A horizontal wire AB of length ‘l’ and mass ‘m’ carries a steady current I1, free to
move in vertical plane is in equilibrium at a height of ‘h’ over another parallel long
wire CD carrying a steady current I2, which is fixed in a horizontal plane as
shown. Derive the expression for the force acting per unit length on the wire AB
and write the condition for which wire AB is in equilibrium.

15. An electron in the ground state of Hydrogen atom is revolving in a circular orbit of
radius R. Obtain the expression for the orbital magnetic moment of the electron in
terms of fundamental constants.

16. Draw the magnetic field lines for a current carrying solenoid when a rod made of
(i) copper, (ii) aluminium and (iii) iron are inserted within the solenoid as shown.

17. (a)Draw a ray diagram of compound microscope for the final image formed
at least distance of distinct vision?
(b)An angular magnification of 30X is desired using an objective of
focal length 1.25 cm and an eye piece of focal length 5 cm. How will
you set up the compound microscope for the final image formed at
least distance of distinct vision?
18. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope for the final image formed at
least distance of distinct vision?
An astronomical telescope has an angular magnification of magnitude 5 for
distant objects. The separation between the objective and an eye piece is 36 cm and
the final image is formed at infinity. Calculate the focal length of the objective and
the focal length of the eye piece?
19. (a)With proper diagram, explain the movement of charge carriers
through different parts of the transistor and hence show that IE = IB + IC.
(b)Identify the logic operation carried out by the circuit shown below and
write its truth table.

20. (a) Draw a circuit diagram to study the input and output characteristics of
an n-p-n transistor in its common emitter configuration. (b) Draw the typical
input and output characteristics and explain how these graphs are used to
calculate current amplification factor of the transistor.