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ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 151-2002

Practices for
Measuring,
Testing, Adjusting,
and Balancing
Shipboard HVAC&R
Systems
Approved by the ASHRAE Standards Committee on June
22, 2002; by the ASHRAE Board of Directors June 27, 2002;
and by the American National Standards Institute August
8, 2002.

ASHRAE Standards are scheduled to be updated on a five-


year cycle; the date following the standard number is the
year of ASHRAE Board of Directors approval. The latest
copies may be purchased from ASHRAE Customer Ser-
vice, 1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329-2305. E-mail:
orders@ashrae.org. Fax: 404-321-5478. Telephone: 404-
636-8400 (worldwide) or toll free 1-800-527-4723 (for or-
ders in U.S. and Canada).

©Copyright 2002 American Society of Heating,


Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
ISSN 1041-2336

When addenda or interpretations to this standard have


been approved, they can be downloaded free of charge
from the ASHRAE Home Page at www.ashrae.org/STAN-
DARDS/ addenda.htm or www.ashrae.org/STANDARDS/
intpstd.htm.
ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 151
Cognizant Technical Committee: TC 9.7, Testing and Balancing
SPLS Liaison: Dean S. Borges

William K. Thomas, Chair* Craig A. Lotz*


Richard W. Trent, Vice-Chair* Darryl W. McCaslin*
Ernest E. Choat* James C. Niemeyer*

*Denotes members of voting status when the document was approved for publication

ASHRAE STANDARDS COMMITTEE 2001-2002


Nance C. Lovvorn, Chair Richard D. Hermans
Thomas E. Watson, Vice-Chair John F. Hogan
Charles G. Arnold Frederick H. Kohloss
Van D. Baxter William J. Landman
Dean S. Borges Rodney H. Lewis
Paul W. Cabot Ross D. Montgomery
Waller S. Clements Davor Novosel
Charles W. Coward, Jr. Dennis A Stanke
Harold L. Crowder, Jr. Michael Tavares
Brian P. Dougherty Steven T. Taylor
Richard A. Evans J. Richard Wright
Arthur D. Hallstrom Lee W. Burgett, CO
Gordon V.R. Holness, ExO

Claire B. Ramspeck, Manager of Standards

SPECIAL NOTE
This American National Standard (ANS) is a national voluntary consensus standard developed under the auspices of the American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Consensus is defined by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI), of which ASHRAE is a member and which has approved this standard as an ANS, as “substantial agreement reached
by directly and materially affected interest categories. This signifies the concurrence of more than a simple majority, but not necessarily
unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that an effort be made toward their resolution.”
Compliance with this standard is voluntary until and unless a legal jurisdiction makes compliance mandatory through legislation.
ASHRAE obtains consensus through participation of its national and international members, associated societies, and public
review.
ASHRAE Standards are prepared by a Project Committee appointed specifically for the purpose of writing the Standard. The
Project Committee Chair and Vice-Chair must be members of ASHRAE; while other committee members may or may not be ASHRAE
members, all must be technically qualified in the subject area of the Standard. Every effort is made to balance the concerned interests
on all Project Committees.
The Manager of Standards of ASHRAE should be contacted for:
a. interpretation of the contents of this Standard,
b. participation in the next review of the Standard,
c. offering constructive criticism for improving the Standard,
d. permission to reprint portions of the Standard.

DISCLAIMER
ASHRAE uses its best efforts to promulgate Standards and Guidelines for the benefit of the public in light of available
information and accepted industry practices. However, ASHRAE does not guarantee, certify, or assure the safety or
performance of any products, components, or systems tested, installed, or operated in accordance with ASHRAE’s Standards
or Guidelines or that any tests conducted under its Standards or Guidelines will be nonhazardous or free from risk.

ASHRAE INDUSTRIAL ADVERTISING POLICY ON STANDARDS


ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines are established to assist industry and the public by offering a uniform method
of testing for rating purposes, by suggesting safe practices in designing and installing equipment, by providing proper
definitions of this equipment, and by providing other information that may serve to guide the industry. The creation
of ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines is determined by the need for them, and conformance to them is completely
voluntary.
In referring to this Standard or Guideline and in marking of equipment and in advertising, no claim shall be
made, either stated or implied, that the product has been approved by ASHRAE.
CONTENTS

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 151-2002


Practices for Measuring, Testing, Adjusting,
and Balancing Shipboard HVAC&R Systems
SECTION PAGE
Foreword ................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................................... 2
2 Scope ............................................................................................................................................................. 2
3 Definitions and Symbols ................................................................................................................................. 2
4 Ship Classifications ........................................................................................................................................ 3
5 Instruments..................................................................................................................................................... 4
6 Installed Balancing Devices............................................................................................................................ 6
7 Electrical Measurements ................................................................................................................................ 8
8 System Effects.............................................................................................................................................. 10
9 HVAC&R System Survey Test and Analysis ................................................................................................ 10
10 Verification of Automation for HVAC&R Systems....................................................................................... 12
11 Air Measurements ...................................................................................................................................... 13
12 Air Systems ................................................................................................................................................ 14
13 Hydronic Measurements............................................................................................................................. 15
14 Hydronic System Testing and Balancing.................................................................................................... 16
15 Refrigeration System Testing ..................................................................................................................... 18
16 Reporting Procedures and Forms .............................................................................................................. 21
17 References ................................................................................................................................................. 25
Annex A: Duct Traverse Using Logs.................................................................................................................. 26
Annex B: Drive Change Calculations................................................................................................................. 32
Annex C: Motor Power Calculations .................................................................................................................. 32
Annex D: Pump Performance Calculations ....................................................................................................... 33
Annex E: Capacity Calculations......................................................................................................................... 34

© Copyright 2002 American Society of Heating,


Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle NE
Atlanta, GA 30329
www.ashrae.org

All rights reserved.


(This foreword is not part of this standard but is included (c) Procedures for measurements used in testing and
for information only.) balancing and system analysis.
(d) Reporting format and forms.
FOREWORD
(e) Classification of ships and spaces to assist in defin-
Technical Committee 9.7 recommended a standard be ing the different procedures required for different
written for testing and balancing of shipboard HVAC&R sys- ships and spaces.
tems to unify procedures for the marine industry and to aid (f) Procedures for testing and adjusting refrigeration
ship operators and design engineers in writing a testing and systems, including direct-expansion type, chilled-
balancing specification that would encompass the ramifica- water type, and absorption-type, air-cooled con-
tions of system test and adjustments. densers, and seawater-cooled condensers.
Field test results are essential to operators and to design
engineers, manufacturers, and installers to better enable them 2.5 This standard does not include system design, applica-
to evaluate the results of the system performance and installa- tion, or equipment design criteria.
tion techniques under actual operating conditions.
3. DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
This standard describes the quality of field testing, instru-
ments, reporting, and testing techniques. The standard covers 3.1 Definitions
causes that affect a system’s performance. HVAC system test-
ing and balancing will determine if design conditions are met. accessible: time, access, and space required for balanc-
Testing and balancing results are the means used to verify ing.
and monitor system performance. Testing and balancing
reports are a written record of information that is useful for adjustable: devices required for balancing that can be
the following reasons: changed to alter capacity of the equipment to be balanced.
(a) To assist operating personnel responsible for the authorized shipping company representative: captain,
efficient plant operation chief engineer, port engineer, and designated officers of ships
(b) To show existing conditions (vessels).
(c) To compare a periodic test to original conditions
for determination of pending failures or deteriora- available: time, access, and space required for balancing.
tion of components
barometric pressure: measurement of ambient environ-
(d) As a basis for future modifications mental pressure.
(e) As a record for spare parts designations
(f) As a record for operational readiness watertight integrity: containment bulkheads to control
flooding onboard ship.
1. PURPOSE
onboard: any area on the ship.
This standard provides uniform and systematic practices
for making measurements in testing, analyzing, balancing, shipboard: any area on the ship.
and reporting the performance of the heating, ventilation, air-
conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems on board holds: cargo storage areas onboard the ship.
ships.
platform: a stabilizing device that maintains instruments
level when the ship is rolling.
2. SCOPE
2.1 This standard describes methods for evaluating ship- balancing valves: metering-type valves with locking
board HVAC&R systems. positions to control water flow and steam flow.

2.2 This standard applies to all air-moving equipment, balancing dampers: opposed blade devices to control
hydronic equipment, and HVAC heat-transfer equipment, airflow.
refrigeration equipment, HVAC electrical power and control
equipment. flow meters: devices used to measure airflow and fluid
flow for balancing.
2.3 This standard describes methods for measuring temper-
ature, humidity, enthalpy, current, wattage, voltage, rotation, monitoring systems: equipment to measure and record
fluid flow, heat flow, pressures, sound, and vibration levels in the parameters of the HVAC&R systems, i.e., temperature,
HVAC&R systems. humidity, pressure, electric current, kW, and volts.
2.4 This standard includes the following:
equivalent diameters: length in diameter for a rectangu-
(a) Minimum system configuration requirements to lar duct is the equivalent in round-duct diameter.
ensure the system can be tested and balanced.
(b) Minimum instruments and permanently installed power: energy source used to drive the HVAC&R system,
measuring equipment for underway measurements. and parameters for measurement are current, kW, and volts.

2 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


traverse: method of measuring air and fluid flow in duct- • Passenger
work and piping systems; the traverse measures fluid velocity • Hospital
pressure. • Break Bulk Cargo
• Container
well ventilated: ventilation rated to sustain life and safety. • Vehicle Carrying
• Dry Bulk Carrier
underway: a ship moving.
• Oil Tanker
3.2 Other Definitions • Bulk Chemical Carrier
Other definitions are listed in the ASHRAE Terminology • Liquefied Gas Carrier
of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration. • Refrigerated Cargo
• Barge Carrier
3.3 Marine Terms
• Towing Vessels and Tug Boats
Terms such as rolling, pitching, hogging, and sagging are
• Oceanographic Research
descriptive of the ship as it moves through heavy seas. Since
the ship is seldom level, any instruments and balancing proce- • Maritime Prepositioning
dures used in buildings cannot be used onboard ship unless the • Fast Sealift
ship is in dry dock; even then the ship may not be level. • Roll-on/Roll-off
• Ammunition
4. SHIP CLASSIFICATIONS • Cable Carrying and Repair
• Mobile Offshore Drilling
4.1 Scope • Combat
This section sets forth the classification of ships for ship-
board and cargo heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigera- 4.5 Classification of Shipboard Spaces and Default Con-
tion systems. ditions
4.2 General If no conditions are specified, then the following default
conditions apply for shipboard spaces.
Shipboard HVAC&R systems can vary with ship type.
Operating requirements will also vary, and the differences 4.5.1 Staterooms
shall be recorded. Significant or special considerations shall Default condition: typical comfort conditions.
be observed by the testing and balancing technician and 4.5.2 Sanitary Spaces
recorded on the report form. Default condition: drain traps are filled with water. Space
is under a negative pressure.
4.3 Description of Major Importance
4.5.3 Commissary Spaces
4.3.1 Watertight Integrity
Default condition: ventilated, under slight negative pres-
Watertight integrity applies to all ships; however, to some
sure.
ships, the watertight compartmentalization is far greater than
for others. Ductwork, piping, and electrical passage between 4.5.4 Lounges
compartments must be installed and fitted with isolation Default condition: typical comfort conditions.
devices to allow the compartment to be maintained watertight. 4.5.5 Physical Fitness Spaces
Work crews should not drill holes for flow measurements, Default condition: air conditioned or ventilated.
interfere with isolation devices, or perform any work that 4.5.6 Laundries
would cause the watertight integrity to be breached. Default condition: not air conditioned but ventilated.
4.3.2 Tests and Measurements 4.5.7 Medical and Dental Spaces
Tests and measurements of the system parameters shall be Default condition: same as hospitals, clean filtered air,
made by qualified technicians using calibrated instruments. heated and cooled individual space control; isolation rooms
Report forms with design and field data shall be prepared and under a negative pressure; operating rooms, clean air and
approved prior to the testing. under a positive pressure.
4.3.3 Access 4.5.8 Offices
Access to the test and balance area must be provided, and Default condition: typical comfort conditions.
the spaces must be adequately illuminated.
4.5.9 Communication and Electronic Equipment
4.3.4 Confined Spaces Spaces
All confined spaces shall be tested for environmental Default condition: requires constant cooling due to heat
conditions to support life within safe tolerances prior to entry from equipment.
by the testing and balancing party.
4.5.10 Main Machinery Spaces
4.3.5 Safety in Cargo Spaces Default condition: no cooling but high ventilation rates,
For safety reasons, no one person shall be allowed in the slight pressurization.
cargo spaces without a second person in attendance.
4.5.11 Secondary Machinery Spaces
4.4 Classification of Ships Default condition: high ventilation rates under negative
The types of ships are classified as follows: or positive pressure, depending on application.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 3


4.5.12 Operating and Control Stations For safety in use of the instruments, follow instructions
Default condition: air conditioned, ventilated, pressur- provided by the manufacturer and in this standard. Do not
ized, humidity control. wear loose clothing that can be caught in rotating equipment
4.5.13 Workshops and Workstations when taking measurements or adjusting the components.
Default condition: ventilated and filtered air. This standard does not preclude the use of new instru-
ments, as they are developed and proven to be as accurate or
4.5.14 Rooms for Hazardous Material
more accurate than the instruments described here.
Default condition: under negative pressure monitored for
fire and smoke. 5.3 Air-Measuring Instruments
4.5.15 Storerooms The following instruments are typically required for an
Default condition: temperature and humidity controlled if air balance; refer to Table 5-1 for selecting the specific instru-
used for food storage, ventilated. ments required in each test category.
(a) Electronic manometer
4.6 Cargo Holds
(b) Differential pressure gauge
The following default conditions apply for cargo holds.
(c) Pitot-static tubes
4.6.1 Break Bulk Cargo Holds
Default condition: well ventilated. (d) Rotating vane anemometer
4.6.2 Holds Containing Motor Vehicles (e) Thermal anemometer
Default condition: high ventilation rate when loading and (f) Airflow-measuring hood
unloading. (g) Tachometer
4.6.3 Holds on Maritime Prepositioning Ships (h) Thermometers
Default condition: temperature and humidity controlled. (i) Volt-ammeter (true RMS type)
4.6.4 Container Ship Holds (j) KW meter with power factor correction
Default condition: depends if refrigerated or other condi- (k) Barometer
tioned type of cargo.
(l) Relative humidity meter
4.6.5 Dry Bulk Cargo Holds
(m) Photo-tachometer
Default condition: may require temperature and humidity
control. Hold also requires dust control ventilation; dust can (n) Sound-measuring instrumentation
be explosive.
Access doors and plates shall be provided with balancing
4.6.6 Holds for Hazard Materials
dampers to allow proper testing and balancing.
Default condition: positive pressure required, fire and
smoke monitors. 5.4 Hydronic Measuring Instruments
4.6.7 Refrigerated Cargo Holds The following instruments are typically required for a
Default condition: Positive pressure and refrigerated air. hydronic balance. Refer to Table 5-2 here for selecting the
Dehumidified air to access tunnels, etc. specific instruments required in each test category.
4.6.8 For All Holds (a) Pressure differential meters
All holds should be pressurized to prevent sea air from (b) Emersion thermometers
entering cargo spaces. Ventilation air needs to be conditioned
(c) Flow meters and associated charts
(heated, cooled, filtered, depending on ship type).
(d) Pressure test gauges
4.7 Cargo Hold Ventilation (e) Doppler nonintrusive, ultrasonic-type flow meter
Combat and military ship ventilation, temperature, and for dirty water
humidity regulations are determined by the military depart-
ment that has jurisdiction over the cargo. (f) Transit-time, nonintrusive, ultrasonic-type flow
meter for clean water
5. INSTRUMENTS (g) Photo-tachometers for pump RPM
(h) KW meter for power measurements
5.1 Scope
This section covers the instruments used to make the (i) Density meter for correcting water solutions to stan-
measurements specified in this standard. For each instrument, dard water
there is a description, recommended uses, limitations, instru- (j) Volt-ammeter meter with true RMS
ment accuracy required, and calibration required.
Isolation valves and bypass lines shall be utilized when
5.2 General provided to allow connecting the testing and balancing instru-
This section will describe the instruments necessary for ment to the system.
shipboard measurements, testing and balancing. Instruments
that are useful or necessary in special situations are also 5.5 Instrument Platform
included. The instrument shall have the ability to function in any
For detailed instructions on use, limits, and accuracy of an position or have a base that will remain level under conditions
instrument under shipboard conditions, see Sections 8, 11, 12, a ship may encounter. Operational measurements and adjust-
and 13. ments can be required at any time.

4 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


5.6 Instrument Description, Use, Limits, and Accuracy

TABLE 5-1
Instrument Description, Use, Limits, and Accuracy

Description Measurements Limitations Accuracy


Electronic Manometer Differential low pressure Works in dry area 2%-5%
Differential Pressure Gauge Differential medium pressure Verify calibration before use 5%-10%
Pitot Tube Traverse Measures air velocity in ducts Must be held parallel airflow 1%-2%
Rotating-Vane Anemometer Measures air velocity Requires correction factor 2%-5%
Thermal Anemometer Measures air velocity Nondirectional 2%-5%
Airflow Hood Measures CFM direct May add resistance 1%-3%
In addition, reduces flow
Tachometer Measures RPM direct Requires end of shaft to be accessi- 1%-3%
ble
Photo Tachometer Measures RPM without contact Needs reflecting device 5%-9%
Volt/Amp Meter (True RMS Type) Measures volts and amperes Access to clamp on 3%-5%
kW Meter (W/ PF correction) Measures power directly in kW Access to terminals 3%-5%
Thermometers, Glass Measures temperature Glass breakage 0.05°C/0.1°F
Thermometers, Digital Measures temperature Requires batteries 0.05°C/0.1°
Relative Humidity Psychrometer Measures wet-bulb temperature Glass thermometer; can break 0.05°C/0.1°
RH Meter Direct, % RH Electronic Measures relative humidity Verify calibration before use 1%-2% RH
Barometer Precision Type Measures atmos. pressure Reads in units of Hg. Mm/0.1 in. hg.

5.7 Hydronic Instruments

TABLE 5-2
Hydronic Instruments

Description Measurements Limitations Accuracy


Differential Pressure Measures water pressure drop across a Installed taps must match meter 2%-3%
flow device connections
Emersion Thermometer Measures water temperature in the piping Thermometer wells must allow 0.05°C/0.1°F
stem to be in fluid
Installed Flow Meters Measures water flow Requires charts to determine 2%-3%
flow
Pressure Test Gauges Measures pressure in piping or equipment Pressure range must match sys- 2%-3%
tem
Nonintrusive Flow Meters, Ultrasonic Measures flow rate Requires clean water 2%-3%
Type
Nonintrusive Flow Meter, Doppler Type Measures flow rate Requires dirty water 2%-3%
KW Meter Measures power in kW Access to terminals 3%-5%
Photo Tachometer Measures RPM without contact Needs reflecting device 5%-9%

5.8 Calibration 5.9 Refrigeration Test Instruments


Instruments require calibration annually or sooner if Pressure test requires a set of calibrated refrigeration test
dropped or damaged. gauges.
Sound meters have calibrators that come with the meter. Temperature test of the refrigerant is part of the above
These meters need the calibration checked before starting a refrigeration test gauges. Temperature measurements of dx
series of sound tests, and after the series is completed, they coils require a set of calibrated digital thermometers, one to
should be checked to ensure nothing changed during the test- read wet-bulb temperatures and one to read dry-bulb temper-
ing. atures.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 5


Figure 1 Air system diagram.

Figure 2 Hydronic system diagram.

Power test requires a kW meter described above and a 6.2.3 Locate Balancing Valve
continuity test meter for checking performance of the control Locate a balancing valve with locking positions device in
system. return piping of each branch, coil, and heat-exchanger.
6.2.4 Locate Pressue Gauges and Thermometers
6. INSTALLED BALANCING DEVICES
Locate pressure gauges and thermometers at the inlet and
6.1 Scope outlet of each unit of equipment that uses hydronic fluids.
This section sets forth the requirements for location and 6.2.5 Steam Systems
installation of the permanently installed balancing devices in
Steam systems shall have orifice flow-metering stations
air and hydronic systems onboard ship.
with pressure gauges and gauge clocks installed on both sides
6.2 General of the flow meter in accordance with the manufacturer's
6.2.1 Balancing Station requirements.
A balancing station is composed of a measuring device, a 6.2.6 Steam Accessories
balancing device, and a straight section of duct or pipe perma-
For steam accessories such as steam traps, the balancing
nently installed in the duct and piping systems so as not to
affect the watertight integrity of the vessel. technician responsible for complying with design and correct
installation procedures shall verify control valves, thermo-
6.2.2 Locate Flow Meter
Locate a flow meter at suction of pump in 10 diameters of stats, and strainers.
straight pipe and in each branch, coil, and heat-exchanger 6.2.7 Verify Steam Pressure
supply piping. Verify the steam pressure is correct for the application.
6 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002
6.3 Air Balancing Devices and Monitoring Systems ent factors for rotating-vane heads of different size; the 4-inch
The measuring device to obtain velocity-pressure diameter head is preferred in this standard. The head shall be
measurements shall be a velocity-measuring grid installed screwed on a traverse rod and measurements taken with the
inside the duct, with the connection to the outside of the duct head flat on the coil. A minimum of 38 readings per coil bank
sealed watertight. The grid shall be installed with air straight- are required. Refer to ASHRAE RP-451 procedure7 for
eners on both sides and two duct diameters between the grid details.
and air straighteners.
The balancing device to control flow rate shall be an 6.6 Noise Control with Balancing Procedures
opposed blade damper or an air valve. Splitter dampers or Dampers in outlet or inlet faces can create noise if used for
adjustable turning vanes are not suitable for flow-control main system balancing. Locate main system balancing damp-
balancing devices. Shafts from the damper or air valve shall ers in branch ductwork as far away from outlet or inlet as
run to the outside of the duct and be sealed watertight, or the possible. Use outlet or inlet dampers only for trim balancing,
operator should be installed on the damper inside the duct and if used at all.
connected to the control system. Watertight access plates shall High-pressure drops across any terminal, coil, or volume
be provided to service damper and operator. control box can create noise. A two-stage pressure drop with
The straight section of duct shall contain the air straight- an air valve and a volume control box downstream will reduce
eners, the grid, and the balancing device. In any condition of high-pressure drop noises. The first device shall be used to
airflow, the grid shall be calibrated to measure in L/s (CFM). take the largest pressure drop. Other devices toward the outlet
The straight duct section used to measure airflow shall not shall be used for the smaller pressure drop.
have controls or other devices that will cause turbulence in the When outlets or intakes directly on the main duct cause
airstream. noise, they must be corrected by installing branch ducts with
The control package that reads out the actual flow rate a damper before the outlets or inlets.
and the transmitter that sends the data to the work station Slowing fan speed to take out any excess capacity may
(computer) shall be compatible with the flow grid, and reduce noise from the fans. A 25% reduction in fan speed is
operation should be verified by the testing and balancing required to reduce noise level approximately 10 dB. Always
personnel.
verify noise levels with proper sound-level measurements and
6.4 Locations of Balancing Devices in Air Systems analysis.
Balancing devices for controlling zone flow are located in
6.7 Hydronic Balancing Devices
the main duct at branch take-offs.
Balancing devices to measure and control airflow for 6.7.1 Fix-Flow Measuring Devices
makeup air purposes are located in each outside air intake. All fixed-flow measuring devices shall be separate from
Balancing devices to measure and control pressure and the balancing device, so continuous flow measurements are
the amount of outside air required to pressurize the space are made while balancing.
located in relief air ducts. 6.7.2 Flow-Measuring Devices
6.5 Required Practice in Selecting Balancing Devices Flow-measuring devices include the venturi flow meter
and the orifice plate. A suitable installation in the piping is the
6.5.1 The Pressure Drop
venturi (low-pressure drop) device and the orifice plate (high-
The pressure drop required across a balancing flow-
pressure drop) device. Flow-measuring devices shall have
control device in a throttling condition determines the type of
installed matching connections for portable meter readout.
device to use.
6.7.3 Balancing Devices
6.5.2 A Pitot Traverse
A pitot traverse to determine airflow shall be in a straight Balancing devices shall have a turn-down ratio compati-
section of direct air for accurate measurements. Use the ble with the system pressure drop required. A 50 to 1 turn-
traverse where holes in the duct do not interfere with water- down ratio may be required for low flows with a high-pressure
tight integrity. drop. The balancing device shall throttle-flow without being
The location of a pitot traverse shall be in the duct where closed so tight as to plug up with debris in the system. The
the air is clean, free of excessive moisture, and not exposed to balancing device shall have locking collars or means for
excessive temperature. Depending on the system, this location setting and locking the device in the balanced position. Sepa-
may be on the inlet side of the fan/unit, on the outlet side of the rate isolation valves are required for shutoff of flow.
fan, or both. 6.7.4 Location of Balancing Flow-Measuring Devices
6.5.3 Alternate Method of Measuring Airflow Location of balancing flow-measuring devices is required
Use the ASHRAE RP-451 procedure7 as an alternate in the main piping at each major unit of equipment, including
method for measuring airflow. This procedure uses velocity water boilers, chillers, AHU coils, condensers, and cooling
measurements across a coil face. The coil is a fixed device in tower water distribution piping and branch piping to zones
the system. The technician must have access to the coil for serving several terminal components. Flow-measuring
instrumentation and measurements. Traverse the face of the devices on terminal units are not required unless the applica-
coil bank with a rotating-vane anemometer. There are differ- tion is critical.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 7


6.7.5 Terminal Units 7. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS
Terminal units, like re-heat coils, fin tube radiation, and 7.1 Scope
fan-coil units, may be balanced by measuring temperature Section 7 is to for the TAB technician’s electrical
difference across the unit. Set balancing valves accordingly. measurements.
Coils with airflow across them shall be set by measuring air
temperature across the coil and adjusting the water flow until 7.2 General
the design air temperatures are obtained. Flow meters are the The type of measurements are described in each section
preferred method. where they are necessary. There are many common measure-
ments; this section will elaborate on methods and procedures.
6.7.6 Balancing Devices
Use electrical safety precautions when measuring live electric
Balancing devices must be located in all piping where the systems.
flow has to be balanced or throttled. Balancing devices shall
have the capability of being locked in the balanced position 7.3 Types of Electrical Measurements
and should not be used as an isolation valve. Gate valves, Types of electrical measurements include the following:
globe valves, and plug valves are not accurate enough to be
good balancing devices. • Voltage
• Amperage
6.7.7 Flow-Measuring Devices • Power Factor
Flow-measuring devices shall not be located where water • Phase
flow is turbulent, near elbows, tees, transitions, pump suction, • Hz
pump discharge, or anywhere that would affect the accuracy of • Kilowatts
the measuring device. In general, all flow-measuring devices • Hp
shall have a minimum of five diameters upstream of the device
and a minimum of two diameters downstream of the device. The basic HVAC electrical equipment tested and
6.7.8 Balancing Valves balanced is motors, electric coils, controls, and their related
components.
Balancing valves may be located anywhere in the piping
Required formulae will be listed in this section.
to or from the device to be balanced. An exception is three-
way control valves, where two balancing valves are required: 7.4 Voltage Measurements
one in the bypass port line and the other in the combined Voltage measurements are conducted to verify design
bypass and return water port. Other critical applications may voltage. A voltmeter is used for these measurements. Safety
dictate the location of the balancing valve. precautions are required. Voltages above 550-575 are
6.7.9 Temperature and Humidity Monitoring Devices normally not taken without specialized equipment and usually
by a qualified electrician. Accurate voltage measurements are
Temperature and humidity monitoring devices shall be
used in calculation of power and capacity output of motors and
installed with shielded cable and be properly grounded to
coils.
prevent interference with radio signals and other electronic
Hand-held volt meters with proper leads are fastened
devices. If the monitoring device is telemetering with radio
across terminal connections to measure the operating volts.
signals, verify the frequency so it will not interfere with ship-
Record and average the readings taken.
board radio traffic. Radio frequency for this device must be
obtained from the Federal Cable Commission Licensing 7.5 Amperage Measurements
Board, so before requesting a frequency for the monitoring A clamp-on ammeter usually takes amperage measure-
equipment, verify allowable frequencies with the radio officer ments around the cable leading to the motor or power-consum-
and the captain of the ship or as directed. Refer to Section 13. ing device. Measure amperage on each power leg and record
A testing and balancing engineer will set the monitoring individually; if one leg is much higher or lower than the other
system parameters and verify temperature and humidity legs, it shows an unbalanced condition and needs correcting.
sensor performance as well as the computer report printout. Amperage measurements are used in power calculations; they
6.7.10 Spare Parts must be correct.
Adequate spare parts shall be maintained to service the 7.6 Power Factor Measurements
temperature and humidity systems and their source of heating, Power factor is the ratio of active to total power. This is
cooling, and dehumidification. The testing and balancing measured with a power factor meter. A lag power factor is less
report is a reference for installed systems on board and shall be than one, and a lead power factor is more than one. If there is
used to verify installed name-plate data. All discrepancies no lead or lag angle, the power factor is unity or 1. Power
shall be corrected by the furnishing facility. factor is proportional to speed, being lower at lower speeds.
6.7.11 Compatible Meter (a) At full load, motor power factor is high.
Installed measuring devices shall have a compatible (b) At light load, motor power factor drops signifi-
meter, furnished by the device manufacturer, left on board for cantly.
ship maintenance personnel. The testing and balancing engi- (c) Low power factor can lower the plant voltage,
neer shall verify the meter is compatible and on board. increase losses, and reduce the system’s capacity.

8 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


7.7 Phase Measurements 7.9 Kilowatt Measurements
There are one-, two-, and three-phase electrical systems
Kilowatts are measured with a watt or kilowatt meter.
as well as DC power systems. One- or single-phase power is
used for small motors, lights, and controls, whereas three- Motor power should be measured with a kilowatt meter to
phase power is used for heavy-duty loads. DC power is often obtain the true power. Lightly loaded motors can give false
used for speed-control applications. Two-phase power is rare measurements when using volts and amps only.
and is used for for special systems.
Phase indicators are used for measuring phase; three- 7.10 Hp Measurements
phase leads can be changed to reverse motor rotation. Seven hundred forty-six watts are equal to one Hp. If you
7.8 Frequency or Hertz Measurements know the kW measurement (1000 watts), it is simple enough
The standard frequency for the United States is 60 Hz; to calculate the operating or brake horsepower: 1000/746 =
however, other countries may not standardize on 60 Hz. 1.34 Hp. Bhp (brake horsepower) is the actual working horse-
Motors with variable-frequency drives can run from zero to
power. Compare to nameplate Hp for adequacy of motor. It is
100 Hz, and some systems are 400 Hz. It is imperative to know
another matter to calculate Bhp from volts, amps, and power
on what frequency the system is operating.
If the power source is 60 Hz, then the equations and factor and efficiency measurements. Loads will fluctuate with
formulas contained here will apply. If these are not suitable, time, which makes it difficult to take simultaneous measure-
correction factors will be required. ments. Also, all measurements must be accurate.

7.11 Formulae used in Testing and Balancing

Motor Data
SI (metric) IP
Three Phases

1.73 × volts × amps × pf × meff 1.73 × volts × amps × pf × meff


kW = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bhp = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1000 746

Single Phase

volts × amps × pf × meff volts × amps × pf × meff


kW = -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bhp = --------------------------------------------------------------------
1000 746

Heat
W = 1.232 × L/s × TD C Btuh = cfm × 1.08 × TD F
Btuh = kW × 3413
Electric Coils (Single Phase)

volts × amps × pf
W = volts × amps × pf kW = ------------------------------------------------
1000

Direct Current (DC)

volts × amps × meff


kW = volts × amp × meff Bhp = --------------------------------------------------------
746

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 9


7.12 Nameplate Data Duct leakage is also a system effect that can have an
The following nameplate data must be taken from the impact on fan system capacity, from 15% to 35% or more.
motor nameplate and put on a report form.
8.3 Air System Effects
(a) Manufacturer’s name Test data measured The following are air system effects:
(b) Frame number (a) Branch duct too close to fan outlet
(c) Horsepower Bhp (calculated) (b) Sharp turn in ductwork off fan outlet
(d) Safety factor Actual kW (c) No turning vanes in short-radius elbows
(e) Volts/Phase Actual Volts/Phase (d) No bell mouth fitting to reduce inlet resistance
(f) Rated amps Actual amps on each leg (e) Improper fan wheel type for system resistance
(g) Rated rpm Actual rpm (f) Improper duct design off fan discharge
(h) Speeds Actual speed (g) Improper duct design at fan inlet
(i) Circuit protection Heater size (h) Lack of three duct diameters between elbows
7.12.1 Nameplate Data for Electrical Equipment (i) Pressure losses due to abrupt duct transitions
(a) Manufacturer Field measurements (j) Ductwork not properly sealed and has air leaks
(b) Rated voltage Actual voltage (k) Equipment leaks because unit not sealed properly
(c) Rated phase Actual phase installed (l) Improper balancing devices for system pressure
(d) Rated amps Actual amps per leg (m) Improper type of flexible connections or installa-
(e) Control voltage Actual voltage tion that causes turbulent flow at fan
(f) Circuit protection Actual protection installed 8.4 Hydronic System Effects
(g) Rated kW Actual kW The following are hydronic systems effects:
(h) Efficiency if shown (a) Glycol or other solutions that change specific heat
(i) High-limit cutout temperature Actual temp. unit and density
tripped out (b) Suction and discharge valves, strainers, and check-
7.12.2 Safety Controls Nameplate data valves that are too close to the pump
a. Temperature or pressure setting Actual temp. or (c) Pump suction under a negative pressure
press of trip out (d) Water turbulence at the impeller inlet
1. Freeze stats (e) Air in the system and at pump
2. Filter pressure switch (f) Dirty strainers or wrong size mesh for the applica-
3. Other as required by specifications tion
(g) Control valves not installed correctly
8. SYSTEM EFFECTS
9. HVAC&R SYSTEM SURVEY
8.1 Scope TEST AND ANALYSIS
This section is to alert designers and TAB technicians that
system effects caused by not using the recommended connec- 9.1 Scope
tion procedures to the HVAC equipment in the system can This section sets forth the requirements for the survey of
cause a reduction in capacity of 40% or more, and no amount shipboard and cargo heating, ventilating, and cooling. In addi-
of adjustment will correct the problem. ASHRAE and AMCA tion, this section discusses refrigeration systems and analysis
recognize system effects; there are publications describing of installed performance versus design or required perfor-
what they are and their severity. mance and the physical condition of the equipment.
8.2 General 9.2 General
This section describes some system effects and how they New and existing systems that do not meet operating
can be avoided. Shipboard space is usually restrictive and requirements shall be tested and investigated to determine the
crowded. It is more imperative than ever for the equipment to cause. The procedures for survey test, investigation, and
be properly connected and to avoid any duct branches for 2.5 reporting shall be uniform and follow this standard. Compar-
to 5 diameters after the fan take off, depending on the air veloc- ison data, where applicable, shall allow the design or required
ity, 2.5 diameters at 12.7 m/s (2500 fpm) and 5 diameters at system performance to be compared with the actual system
25.4 m/s (5000 fpm). The duct is to be full sized and straight. performance. The record of differences shall be reported on an
The same applies to piping: full sized and straight for pumps, approved form. Recommendations for correction of differ-
coils, and terminal devices. ences and deficiencies shall include sketches and specifica-
For detailed instructions on use, limitations, and system tions, as required, to indicate that the recommendations are
effects, see the AMCA Manual 209 Series.11 feasible and cost-effective.

10 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


9.3 Description compare to manufacturer's rating data. For part-load data,
9.3.1 Survey obtain rated data from the manufacturer. If unit is not up to
The survey will require a copy of the ship's drawings of rating, require a refrigeration technician to check and set up
the systems to be surveyed with supporting data of the equip- system to obtain correct output. Refer to Section 15.
ment and specifications. 9.4.9 Measure Cooling System Capacity
9.3.2 Test and Measurements Measure cooling system capacity by taking dry-bulb and
Test and measurements of the system parameters shall be wet-bulb temperatures entering and leaving coil. Measure
done with the proper instrumentation. Survey forms with airflow through coil and calculate capacity by looking up in
design or required data shall be prepared and approved prior psychrometric chart or tables, take the total heat for the
to the testing. Qualified technicians shall perform testing with measured wet bulb entering the cooling unit and subtract from
calibrated instruments. the measured wet bulb leaving the cooling unit. This total heat
9.3.3 Access difference is then multiplied by the measured airflow (cfm)
Access to the survey area shall be provided, and the from the cooling unit (btu/lb/minute) and multiplied by a
spaces shall be adequately illuminated. factor (4.5) to convert minutes (60 × 0.075) to (Btu/lb/h).
Formula is Cfm × Delta h × 4.5 = Btu/h; for example, 1000 cfm
9.3.4 Environmental
(h30-h25) × 4.5 = 225000 Btu/h.
All spaces to be surveyed shall be tested for environmen-
To determine refrigeration capacity, divide (Btu/h)/12000
tal conditions to support life within safe tolerances before
Btu/ton = tons.
entry by the survey party.
Example Calculation:
9.3.5 Safety
For safety reasons, no one person shall be allowed in the 225000/12000 = 18.75 tons of capacity
cargo spaces without a second person in attendance.
9.4.10 Heating Flow Measurements
9.4 Uniform Procedures Take flow-rate measurements by means of a fixed orifice
9.4.1 Airflow Measurements plate for steam and an installed flow meter for water. Steam
Airflow measurements shall be taken in accordance with flow-rate capacity at the existing steam pressure must be veri-
Sections 11 and 12 by a duct traverse with a pitot tube and an fied. Water flow rate × temperature difference, × shall be
electronic manometer. corrected for density and specific heat. Capacity test shall be
9.4.2 Rotation Measurements by airflow and temperature measurements across coil. Heat-
Rotation measurements on fans and motors shall be taken ing capacity is calculated by L/s (cfm) × dry-bulb measure-
with a digital contact tachometer. Photo tachometers may be ments of entering and leaving coil difference (td) × (density ×
used only when the contact tachometer cannot be used because specific heat × time) = conversion factor to obtain capacity.
of access. The capacity should match heating-capacity measurements
9.4.3 Power Measurements from steam or water-flow rates.
Power measurements shall be taken with a clamp-on amp 9.4.11 The Test and Balance Report
meter, a clamp-on voltmeter, and a clamp-on kW meter. Refer The test and balance report shall include all measured data
to Section 7. and design data. Summarize data, include sketch of systems,
9.4.4 Water Flow Measurements locate test points, and identify locations of units. The report
Water flow measurement shall be taken by flow meters or shall list deficiencies in the system and recommendations
ultrasonic devices if no flow meters are installed. Refer to required to meet new criteria or update to existing criteria. All
Sections 5, 13, and 14. test and balance reports shall be typed and bound in suitable
covers.
9.4.5 Verify Control Function
Verify control function by changing setpoint of controls 9.4.12 Test Sheets
and measuring results. Compare the measurements to control The names of test engineers and technicians shall be
setpoints. Verify that the system is responding to the control included on all test sheets, along with dates tests were
sequence. performed. Environmental conditions outside of test space
9.4.6 Inspect System for Compliance shall also be included.
Inspect system for compliance with design drawings. In 9.5 Condition of the Equipment
addition, note discrepancies that will affect system operation. The external condition of the equipment shall be deter-
9.4.7 Determine Ductwork Leakage mined by visual observation. Record information from the
Determine ductwork leakage by making a duct traverse at observation and complement with pictures. Record the
the unit and compare to measurements at the outlets and following observations:
intakes. If there is a discrepancy, note the amount and describe
1. Filter condition; clean or replace.
conditions that can cause the leakage, if visible.
9.4.8 Measure System 2. Rusting condition of metal that could lead to structure fail-
Measure refrigeration system suction pressure, measure ure.
head pressure, verify steps of capacity control, and measure 3. Condition of fins on coils and percent of deterioration
running amps and volts of compressors. Measure kW and recorded.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 11


4. Condition of fan wheels, clearance of wheel at inlet cone, • Multiply flow rate × (factor) × enthalpy difference =
shaft, bearing condition, drive and belt condition, and align- capacity
ment. • SI factor formula: density (1.2)
5. Measure vibration levels; compare to normal vibration × delta h × L/s = watts capacity
level specified or to the machinery severity chart. (CFM × 4.5 × delta h) = Btuh capacity
6. Measure sound level of the equipment; compare to noise • IP factor formula: density (0.075) × 60 min/h = (4.5)
criteria table from the Application of Manufacturer’s Sound 9.6.1.3 A sum of the loads on the number of coils on a
Data.12 cooling unit (chiller or A/C unit) will determine the load on
7. Condition of ductwork and flexible connections, support of the cooling unit at the time of test.
the ductwork, and amount of duct leakage. 9.6.1.4 For heating load on heating coil, use the same
8. Verify correct installation of vibration isolators and adjust procedure as for the compartment. The sum of loads for the
so the equipment is not touching the ship's structure. compartments or heating coils is the total load for the heating
source.
9. Check piping and connections to equipment for leaks,
supports, adequate isolation valves, insulation, and condi- 9.6.1.5 Peak loads are measured only at peak condi-
tion of the material. tions; all other measured loads are "part" loads.
10. Automatic controls are working properly. 9.6.1.6 Fluid loads to the coil measured above should
match or be the same capacity. The air-capacity load may be
11. Safety devices are working properly. used in determining the fluid flow L/s (cfm). Alternatively,
12. Piping connections are installed correctly. the capacity may be determined from the fluid-flow rate and
13. Flow-measuring devices are properly installed. temperature difference.
14. Temperature-measuring devices are installed properly. 9.6.1.7 Verification of capacity is essential in determin-
15. Pressure gauges are accurate, are in working order, and in ing that there is adequate capacity for the actual space or com-
the proper location. partment load. In determining the coil, capacity is adequate,
and determining the heating or cooling source is adequate.
9.6 Capacity Verification 9.6.1.8 The cause of insufficient capacity may be due to
Perform the following verifications: malfunction of a component. Additional investigation will be
required to determine if malfunction of a component is the
• Verify that all equipment in a system is operating. Make
cause.
sure interlocks are in the automatic position. Check the
system modes of operation. Record all test data. 9.6.1.9 Testing and balancing procedures will find com-
• Select a mode and verify flow of air and water in each ponents that are not performing to design capacity. Refer to
system component. Sections 11, 12, 13, and 14.
• For air side, measure temperature of air entering and
leaving component. Measure dry-bulb and wet-bulb. 10. VERIFICATION OF AUTOMATION
• For hydronic side, measure temperature and pressure of FOR HVAC&R SYSTEMS
water entering and leaving components. 10.1 Scope
• Measure kW power of all motors in the system. This section sets forth the requirements for verification
• Measure power, volts, phase, and amperes of electrical and calibration of automation systems onboard ship. All
coils, line voltage, 115 volts and higher. HVAC&R control and data logging systems are included in
this section.
Repeat the verification for each mode of operation.
Requirements for installation of telemetering devices
9.6.1 Calculate Capacity with Flow and Temperature
shall have Federal Cable Commission and ship owner’s
Measurements
approval for type and radio frequency.
Calculate capacity with flow and temperature measure-
ments and record the information. 10.2 General
9.6.1.1 A compartment or space load. Ensure that adequate documentation exists to allow the
ship's crew to troubleshoot, repair, and operate the control
Measured air flow in L/s (cfm) × (factor) × temperature system, including the following: control diagrams, electrical
difference (TD) = actual load in the space at time of test. diagrams, piping diagrams, ventilation diagrams, and techni-
cal manuals. The technical manuals shall include the control
Factor formula: density × specific heat × time × TD = setpoint range, initial setpoints, and detailed instructions
Capacity of sensible heat. L/s (cfm) is determined by sensible describing how to change setpoints. All discrepancies shall be
heat only. reported to the vessel owner.
9.6.1.2 A cooling load for a coil requires a different for- The manufacturer's technical representative shall be
mula involving total heat. present to provide the initial setup and commissioning of the
Measured airflow rate system. In many cases, organized training from the manufac-
• Determine enthalpy heat difference (delta h) obtained turer's representative will be required to properly explain the
from enthalpy tables or psychrometric chart use of the control system to the ship's crew.

12 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


Verification of the automation includes activating all and ensure they will operate properly and sense
control mechanisms and observing their proper operation. only the intended temperatures, humidities, and
Controls should be operated through their entire operating pressures.
range. If installed, use the computer to override the controls 10.4.3 Normal Operation Test
to simulate full-load heating and cooling. Control sensors, Place the control system in its normal operation mode
such as those for humidity, temperature, pressure, and flow, prior to test. Inspect the system for proper operation, includ-
shall have their operation verified using hand-held meters. ing the following:
10.3 General Requirements (a) Check automatic dampers to ensure they are in the
The following general requirements should be done: proper position. In most systems, the automatic fire
dampers should close when control power is lost. If
• Obtain a set of all of the following drawings; shop draw- this is the case, secure power to the control system
ings, as-built drawings, schematics, and control dia- and verify the dampers close.
grams. (b) Ensure control valves do not oscillate excessively.
• Obtain a set of control manuals and equipment catalogs. (c) Check temperature, flow, and pressure reading at all
• Obtain a list of the setpoints for all parameters. applicable locations to ensure the system is main-
• Inspect for access and obtain authorization to test the taining the system setpoints. The system setpoints
control system. are normally shown in the heat-load calculations
• Ensure the ship's designated representative is available and the control diagram.
for the test. 10.4.4 System Operation Test
• Ensure data logger system is operating during the test, Operate all components in the control system to ensure
when available. proper operation. Components that should be operated include
• Ensure that adequate testing equipment, such as amme- the following:
ters, temperature probes, and flow meters to verify the
(a) Controller's check to ensure the full-load signal (air
proper operation of the control equipment, shall be
pressure or voltage) is observed during full-load
available for the test.
testing. This can be accomplished by using pres-
sure gauges, volt-ohm meter, or other testing
10.4 Requirements for All Control Systems
devices
10.4.1 Documentation Review
(b) Actuators—Ensure actuators operate throughout
Study the various drawings obtained in Section 10.3 to
their intended range of operation.
become familiar with the design of the control system and to
determine the intended operation sequence of the system. (c) Relays and switches
Review the drawings, catalogs, and manuals to ensure that the (d) Safety devices
information reflects what is actually installed on the ship. (e) Control loops to central monitoring system, when
Report all discrepancies to the vessel owner’s representative. applicable
10.4.2 Field Inspection (f) Relative humidity sensors, thermostats, and pres-
Verify that the system is complete with all required sure devices
components as indicated on the drawings obtained in Section (g) Telemetering equipment, when applicable
10.3. The verification shall include checking the following: (h) Computer offset and receiving equipment and soft-
(a) Verify control valves are installed correctly with the ware
flow going in the right direction. Most control
valves will have an arrow on the casting of the 10.5 Report Forms
valve that indicates the proper direction of flow. Refer to Section 16 for proper forms for this section.
(b) Verify freeze thermostats are installed. Many com-
11. AIR MEASUREMENTS
puter-operated systems will allow the operator to
adjust the temperature setpoint of the freeze ther- 11.1 Scope
mostat. If possible, temporarily reset the freezestat This section sets forth the requirements for the air-test
to a temperature that will simulate a freeze condi- measurements for onboard ship.
tion.
11.2 General
(c) Verify automatic fire damper functions correctly. 11.2.1 Air-Balancing Procedure
(d) Verify balancing valves and flow meters are The air-balancing starts with clean filters in the air-
installed correctly. Review vendor catalogs for the handling unit; then take measurements of flow at the fan in the
specific valves and meters installed to determine main supply duct or mixed air duct before any branch ducts.
correct installation. Determine airflow with a duct traverse.
(e) Verify accuracy of drawing with what is actually 11.2.2 Airflow
installed, including control devices, temperature Airflow at the fan shall be 100% to 110% of design L/s
wells, and pressure taps. (cfm). Adjust motor and fan drives until the speed of the fan
(f) Verify the location and installation of all sensors, matches required speed for the above L/s (cfm) range.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 13


11.2.3 Direct-Drive Fans and a minimum flow setting. Pressure ratings for
For direct-drive fans, verify the developed pressure the box will be either on the box or in the submittal
across fan is as specified. If the fan does not produce design data. An electronic manometer that reads low pres-
airflow, list the system defects as a deficiency, and report it sures may be used for this test.
promptly to the captain for correction. (c) When there is a reheat coil as part of the VAV box,
11.2.4 Power Measurements temperature readings are required. The measure-
Power measurements are required. See Section 7. ments will be air temperature entering and leaving
11.2.5 Fan Energy Heat-Load Calculation the coil and water temperature entering and leaving
Fan energy heat-load calculation, temperature across fan, the coil. A digital thermometer with the proper
and flow rate are required on all draw-through systems. probes can be used for these tests.
11.2.6 Speed Measurements 11.6 Space Temperature and Humidity Measurements
Speed measurements, N (rpm), are required on fan motor The ship's spaces and cargo holds that require tempera-
and the fan shafts. Measure the drive size and bore size on the ture and humidity control shall have these locations monitored
fan and motor. Use the appropriate tachometer for speed and recorded when specified. Temperatures shall be verified
measurements by measuring with a digital thermometer in increments of
11.2.7 Recording Measurements 0.05°C (0.1°F).
All measurements shall be recorded on the testing and Relative humidity shall be verified by measuring the rela-
balancing form. tive humidity with a direct-reading humidity meter (±2% RH)
that is properly calibrated.
11.3 Air Duct Traverse Measurements Outside air conditions shall be measured as a reference
(a) Drill holes for pitot tube traverse using the equal point when the above temperature and humidity readings are
area or the log, Tchebycheff method. Drill holes in a taken; include wet-bulb, dry-bulb measurements, wind veloc-
straight section of duct intended for flow measure- ity, and barometric pressure from the ship's instruments. Also,
ment. include readings from test instruments. Sky conditions shall
(b) Measure velocity pressure and convert to velocity. also be recorded as sunny, cloudy, rainy, or any other precip-
Average the measurements. Also, multiply by area itation.
of duct to obtain flow rate L/s (cfm).
12. AIR SYSTEMS
(c) The number of measurements depends on the size
of the duct. 12.1 Scope
(d) Correct the actual flow rate to standard flow rate. This section sets forth the requirements for the air balanc-
Also, enter data in a traverse report form. ing onboard ship.
(e) Measure temperature and pressure at each traverse 12.2General
station. CAUTION: NEVER OPERATE FANS WITHOUT
(f) Measure barometric pressure for use in step (d) ADEQUATE FLOW PATH(S) ESTABLISHED.
above.
12.3 Procedure Prerequisites
11.4 Outlet and Intake Flow Measurements 12.3.1 Contract Documents
(a) Use airflow-measuring hood for flow-rate readout Obtain a complete set of design specifications, “as-built”
at diffusers and intakes. The hood accuracy is based drawings, and approved equipment submittals on the system
on being held vertically and may need correcting to be balanced.
for horizontal measurements. Verify with manufac- 12.3.2 Data Sheets
turer of the hood. Equipment data sheets shall be prepared before balancing
(b) Anemometers with the proper K factors for the out- with pertinent design data on them.
let or intake type may be used when a hood will not 12.3.3 Flow Diagrams
fit. Obtain available flow diagrams from owner, ship's chief
(c) A duct traverse taken on one outlet or intake duct engineer, design engineer, or contracting officer. If not avail-
shall be used to verify the K factor and anemometer able, prepare a set from “as-built” drawings and submittal
method. data.
12.3.4 Field Inspection
11.5 VAV (Variable Air Volume) Box
Verify the system is completely installed with all required
(a) Determine if the box is installed properly; if not, components, including the following:
make a deficiency list and promptly present it to the
contracting officer or project manager. • A completely installed automatic control system
(b) Measurements for a VAV box include air pressure • A completely installed monitoring system, if required
at the inlet of the box and the pressure drop across • Balancing dampers, where required, with locking quad-
the box, according to the manufacturer's test loca- rants
tion. The box setup may require a maximum flow • Verify filters are clean

14 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


• Verify flow-control dampers are operating correctly
• Verify all dampers are open that are supposed to be open CONTROL SEQUENCE
• Verify fan rotation is correct Individual control and monitoring devices shall be
• Verify motor current is within nameplate data verified for proper operation and sequence of control.
This verification shall be accomplished by simulating
12.3.5 Test and Balance Procedure design operating conditions at the control device and
12.3.5.1 The air balancing procedure starts with mea- observing the system response. Incorrect response of
surements of flow rate at the fan in the main ductwork before control of system shall be listed as a deficiency.
any branch duct takeoffs. Determine airflow rate by a duct Simulate low temperature at freeze stats, and verify
traverse. the system response (outside dampers close).
(a) Airflow at the fan shall be set to 100% to 110% of Verify that when a control device fails it moves to a
design or within limits of the system, whichever is fail-safe condition so as to minimize damage to equip-
possible. If the system is not providing design flow, ment or people.
list the problem as a deficiency and record. Notify Verify the response time of a control. If too fast, the
the contracting officer and obtain directions on how system will oscillate or hunt; if too slow, the system may
to proceed. drift from the desired setpoint.
(b) Record flow at all traverse locations.
(c) Rebalance any traverse reading over design. 12.6 Reports
(d) Permanently mark damper position final setting. Test and balance measurements and adjustments shall be
(e) At the conclusion of balancing, at least one or more recorded on approved data sheets.
dampers to a terminal shall be full open at design
Data that do not comply with design tolerances shall be
flow.
listed as a deficiency and recorded on a deficiency form.
12.3.6 Power Measurements
Power measurements are required and include kilowatts, Deficiencies not corrected at completion of the testing
amperes, and volts on the fan motor. Record all data measured and balancing work shall become part of the final testing and
on the fan equipment data sheets. Refer to Section 7. balancing report.
12.3.7 Speed Measurements
Speed Measurements, N-r/s (rpm), are required on fan 13. HYDRONIC MEASUREMENTS
motor shafts; use the appropriate tachometer for speed
measurements. Record data on the fan equipment data sheet. 13.1 Scope
12.4 Branch Duct Measurements This section sets forth the requirements for the hydronic
Each branch duct shall be traversed and flow set starting measurements onboard ship.
with the branch closest to fan. The last branch or branch with
the highest resistance shall have the damper full open at the 13.2 General
design flow. 13.2.1 Hydronic Balancing Procedure
Variable-flow system branch duct shall be set with the
VAV box open to design flow. Design pressure at inlet to box The hydronic balancing procedure starts with clean
shall be measured, recorded, and maintained by the control strainers and all air removed from the system. Take measure-
system. ments of flow at the pump in the main supply piping before any
For diversity systems, where outlets have more design branch piping. Determine water flow by measuring the pres-
airflow than fan-design flow, measure and set outlets or termi- sure drop across a flow meter or pump and by using the rating
nals to match fan flow by closing of terminals closest to fan.
for the device. Calculate the equilvant flow rate in L/s (gpm).
Measure and balance system, close off balanced terminals to
match fan airflow, then open prior closed terminals and 13.2.2 Hydronic Flow
balance. Hydronic flow at the pump shall be 100% to 105% of the
Measure air-distribution outlets and intakes with a flow design L/s (gpm). Adjust motor speed, if variable-speed drive,
hood or anemometer. Use an AK factor for actual free area of
until speed of pump matches required speed for the above
each outlet or intake. Anemometer velocity times the AK
factor equals airflow rate. The flow hood measures direct flow-rate range. If there is a bypass line with a control valve
inflow rate of the outlet or intake. or a manual valve is sure, close before taking flow measure-
Verify automatic control function: adjust setpoints or ments. All valves to coils or terminals must be open.
inform computer operator of the correct setpoint to include in
13.2.3 Direct-Drive Pumps
the computer. Verify all modes of operation that are applica-
ble. For direct-drive pumps, verify water pressure drop across
Measure temperatures and pressures, as applicable, and pump is as specified and there are no bad piping connections
verify system is working properly. (system effects). If the pump does not produce design

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 15


hydronic flow, list this as a deficiency, and report it promptly 13.7 Hydronic System Operation
to the contracting officer or project manager for correction. Verification Measurements
13.7.1 Verify Pressure Measurements
13.2.4 Power Measurements
Verify with pressure measurements that the system is
Power measurements are required and include kilowatts, under the correct design pressure and that pressure is consis-
amps, and volts on the fan motor. Record all data measured on tent under the design modes of operation.
the proper forms. Refer to Section 7. 13.7.2 Verify Temperature Measurements
13.2.5 Speed Measurements Ensure that heating and cooling systems are operating at
Speed measurements, N-r/s (rpm), are required on pump design temperatures.
motor shafts. Use the appropriate tachometer for speed 13.7.3 Verify Hydronic System Strainers
measurements. Record all data measured on the proper forms. Verify hydronic system strainers are clean before balanc-
ing and that water is clean in the system. If not, this is a defi-
13.2.6 Steam Flow Measurements
ciency item.
Measure steam pressure and flow at an orifice plate flow
13.7.4 Verify Automation System
meter. Record all data. Verify automation system in accord with Section 10.
13.3 Hydronic Measurements Shall be Taken at Branch
Piping 14. HYDRONIC SYSTEM
TESTING AND BALANCING
The branch piping shall be fitted with an isolation valve,
a flow meter, and a separate balancing valve for accurate flow 14.1 Scope
measurements. Measure flow in L/s (gpm) for design quanti- This section sets forth the requirements for testing and
ties by taking pressure drop across the device, and calculate balancing hydronic systems onboard ship. This section
includes all thermal transfer fluids, steam, and condensate.
flow with rated CV or chart for the device.
Requirements for installation of flow measuring and
13.4 Hydronic Measurements at Coils balancing devices are in Section 6. Measurement techniques
Temperature readings are required. The dry-bulb and of permanently installed balancing devices are covered in
Section 13.
wet-bulb measurements will be air temperatures entering and
leaving the coil and water temperature entering and leaving 14.2 General
the coil. A digital thermometer with the proper probes may be CAUTION: NEVER SHUT OFF ALL FLOW FROM A
used for these tests. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP.
Damage to equipment and hazard to people may result
13.5 Record Measurements from improper operation of the equipment. It is, therefore,
Measurements shall be recorded on the proper forms necessary to become familiar with the manufacturer's recom-
when final tests are performed. Only final measurements used mendations on the operation procedures. Qualified operating
for final balancing shall be recorded for the final report. personnel shall accompany the testing and balancing techni-
cian to verify proper operating methods and to learn how the
13.6 Space Temperature and Humidity Measurements system was balanced.
The ship's spaces and cargo holds that require tempera- 14.3 Procedure Prerequisites
ture and humidity control shall have these locations monitored 14.3.1 Contract Documents
and recorded when specified. Temperatures shall be verified Obtain a complete set of design specifications, design
by measuring with a digital thermometer in increments of drawings, approved equipment submittal, and “as-built”
0.05°C (0.1°F). drawings on the system to be balanced.
Relative humidity shall be verified by measuring the rela- 14.3.2 Data Sheets
tive humidity with a direct reading humidity meter ( ±2% RH) Equipment data sheets shall be prepared with pertinent
properly calibrated. design data included. The design data shall include all design
Outside air conditions shall be measured as a reference operating points and the manufacturer's operating parameters,
including system pressures, N-r/s (rpm), and on motors, volts,
point when the above temperature and humidity readings are current, and kW. Refer to Section 16.
taken, including wet-bulb and dry-bulb measurements.
14.3.3 Flow Diagrams
Wind velocity and barometric pressure may be taken from Obtain available diagrams from the owner, designer, and
the ship's instruments if allowed by the ship's captain. Sky ship's chief engineer. If not available, then prepare them from
conditions shall also be recorded as sunny, cloudy, rainy, or information on existing documents. Once flow diagrams are
any other precipitation. obtained or prepared, pumps, balancing valves, and unique
Hydronic measurements in cargo holds require special numbers shall identify flow stations. Numbers assigned by the
consideration due to the nature of the cargo. It can be danger- owner or designer shall be used when available. When
numbers have not been previously assigned, the balancing
ous. In addition, a specific set of procedures may apply. Ask
technician shall assign them. Assign the numbers sequentially,
permission to enter cargo spaces from the captain and chief starting at the pump and working outward to the end of the
engineer onboard ship. Also, obtain any restrictions that may system. The numbers assigned to the equipment shall be
apply. placed on the appropriate data sheet.

16 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


14.3.4 Field Inspection should be brought to the attention of the contract
Verify the system is complete with all required compo- officer. The impeller can be trimmed to reduce flow
nents. The verification shall include, but not be limited to, to design and reduce operating kW (HP).
confirming the following: (i) If the pump has a speed-controlled motor, the motor
(a) Proper monitoring and control stations can be slowed to reduce flow and operating kW
(b) Temperature wells (HP).
(c) Pressure taps (j) Measure pump-motor power data, voltage, current,
(d) Flow meter and balancing valves kW, and actual motor speed if possible. Record
nameplate data and measured data on pump and
14.3.5 Pre-Balance Procedure motor.
Before balancing the system, do the following:
(a) Ensure all system valves are in the proper operating 14.5 Variable-Flow Hydronic Systems
position. Set variable-flow system to constant flow by opening all
(b) Verify that strainers and filters are cleaned and control valves to full flow. Balance the system as described in
properly installed. Section 14.4, starting at the pump. A typical variable flow is
(c) Verify system is properly filled and vented of air. when two-way control valves either (1) modulate changing
the system flow or pressure in the system so the pump rides up
(d) Verify proper operation of flow-meter valves. and down the curve, (2) there is a speed control on the pump
(e) Verify proper operation of pump (check for correct motor that reacts to the increase in pressure to slow the pump
rotation), and test for correct size of impeller. down to maintain a constant pressure, or (3) a bypass valve in
(f) Verify motor kW (HP) is operating within design the system reacts to a pressure increase and bleeds supply
current requirements. Refer to Section 7. water to the return and attempts to maintain a constant pres-
(g) Verify makeup water is available and connected sure.
correctly. A variable-flow system with a diversity factor is where
(h) Set differential pressure controls to correct value. the terminal flow rate is larger than the pump output. To
(i) Adjust balancing valves for full flow through coils balance, close off enough terminals closest to the pump so the
and heat exchanger. system flow matches the pump flow. Then, balance the open
terminals. Continue by opening the previously closed termi-
(j) Re-verify strainers after balancing to ascertain they
nals and close down balanced terminal units to which the
are still clean. If not, request that the system be
pump flow is matched. Balance the rest of the terminals that
flushed until all dirt and debris are gone.
have not been balanced. Set all terminals to the balanced posi-
14.4 Test and Balance Procedure tion. When the system is balanced, set all control valves to
14.4.1 Pump Flow operate normally. Set pressure controls and verify the system
Measure total pump flow using methods described in is working properly.
Section 13.
14.6 Primary-Secondary Loops
(a) If flow is more than 5% of design flow, adjust pump
throttling valve to within 5% of design flow. 14.6.1 Primary Loops
(b) If flow is less than 5% of design flow, continue to Balance primary loop and then balance secondary loop as
proportionally balance the system. indicated in Section 14.4. Verify crossover connection flows
are balanced. Set controls to work normally and re-check the
(c) Set and mark balancing valve positions. primary loop flow.
(d) Measure and record flow at all balancing stations.
14.6.2 Primary-Secondary-Tertiary Loops
(e) Rebalance any flow meters that are over design
For primary-secondary-tertiary loops with pumps in each
flow. Also, mark position of balancing valve.
loop, each loop is to be balanced as indicated in Section 14.4;
(f) At the conclusion of the balancing, at least one or although each loop may have a different L/s (gpm) flow per
more balancing valves shall be full open at design loop. The L/s (gpm) flow may be different, but the heat trans-
flow or within the limits of the system. fer will stay the same. Only the temperature difference (TD)
(g) Glycol solution in a system can reduce capacity by KJ(Btu) will vary. Balance each loop for the design flow inde-
changing the density and the specific heat. Verify pendently of the other. The crossover pressures must be
solution percent and correct flows accordingly. neutral to prevent cross-circulation between loops. Verify
(h) If the pump is throttled to maintain design flow, this check valves are installed to prevent back-flow between loops.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 17


14.7 Operation of Controls ers used in shipboard refrigeration systems. The procedures
for survey tests, investigating, and reporting shall be uniform
and follow this standard. Comparison data, where applicable,
CONTROL SEQUENCE
shall allow the design or required system performance to be
The following shall be verified: compared with the actual system performance. The differ-
ences reported as deficiencies shall be reported on a deficien-
• Individual control devices
cies testing and balancing report form. All measured data shall
• Operation of the loops
be on an approved report form.
• Sequence of control for the system
Recommendations for correction of deficiencies and
To accomplish this verification, simulate various differences shall include sketches and specifications to indi-
operating conditions at the control devices, then observe cate the recommendations are feasible and cost-effective.
the system response and compare the response with the The refrigeration system design must include capacity for
intended design response. As a minimum, the following pull-down and normal operating conditions for the testing and
shall be checked: balancing to be successful.
(a) All control loops are functioning correctly 15.3 Description
(b) Simulate low temperature at the freezestat, 15.3.1 Survey
and verify the system response (water coils go The survey will require a copy of the ship’s drawings of
to full flow) the systems to be surveyed with supporting data of the equip-
(c) Simulate loss of fluid (chilled or heating ment and specifications.
water). Also, verify that associated pumps shut 15.3.2 Testing and Balancing
down. Testing and balancing technicians shall test and measure
(d) Verify that when a control device fails it the system's parameters. Use survey forms with design or
moves to a fail-safe condition to minimize required data and that are approved before the testing.
damage to equipment. 15.3.3 Access
(e) Verify all sensor readouts agree with measure- Access to the survey area shall be provided, and the
ments taken with test instrumentation. spaces shall be adequately illuminated.
(f) The response time of control systems should All spaces to be surveyed shall be tested for environmen-
be verified. If control devices react too fast, tal conditions to supply life within safe tolerances prior to
the system will oscillate or hunt; if they react entry by the survey party.
too slowly, the system may drift from the 15.3.4 Safety
desired operating setpoint. For safety reasons, no one person shall be allowed in the
cargo spaces without a second person in attendance.

14.8 Reports 15.4 Uniform Procedures


Test and balance measurements and adjustments shall be 15.4.1 Power Measurements
recorded in a report on approved data sheets. Refer to Section See Section 7.
16. 15.4.2 Water Flow Measurements
Data that do not comply within design tolerances shall be Water flow measurements shall be with an approved type
listed on deficiency forms. Upon completion of each test, of flow meter. See Section 13.
these forms shall be presented to the contracting officer or 15.4.3 Refrigeration System Internal Pressures
project manager for prompt corrective action. All refrigeration system internal pressures shall be taken
Deficiencies not corrected at completion of the testing with a calibrated pressure test refrigeration type gauge.
and balancing work shall become part of the final testing and
15.4.4 Temperature Readings
balancing report.
All temperature readings are to be taken with calibrated
digital thermometers.
15. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM TESTING
15.4.5 Permanently Installed System Instrumentation
15.1 Scope When permanently installed system instrumentation is
The tests in this section are limited to capacity tests for known to be calibrated and accurate, it may be used for the test
shipboard refrigeration systems. Rating and performance test readout data.
and part-load performance test are not within the scope of this 15.4.6 Verify Control Function
standard. All tests should be taken at design ambient condi- Verify control function by changing setpoint of controls
tions for greatest accuracy; however, they may be performed and measuring results. Compare the measurements to control
within ±5°C (10°F) of design ambient conditions and prorated setpoints. Verify that the system is responding to the control
data using the manufacturer's performance database. sequence.
15.2 General 15.4.7 Inspect System for Compliance
In this section, refrigeration includes all sources of Inspect system for compliance with design drawings, and
mechanical cooling and related air- or water-cooled condens- note discrepancies that will affect system operation.

18 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


15.4.8 Refrigerant Subcooling Compare results with design criteria for each refrig-
If a design amount of refrigerant subcooling before the erated space. Record any discrepancies.
expansion device is specified, determine actual subcooling (b) Chillers
and compare with design. Record any differences. Chilled and condenser water systems shall have a
15.4.9 The Test and Balance Report hydronic balancing station in the main flow circuit piping
The test and balance report shall include all design data to each unit. Temperature wells and pressure gauges shall
and measured data. Summarize data, include sketches of all be installed in the outlet and inlet piping close to the
systems; locate test points and identify location of all units component being tested.
tested. The report will list deficiencies found in the system and (c) Chilled Water Flow
recommendations required to meet new criteria or update to
Measure and record flow through the evaporator,
existing criteria.
measure and record temperature in 0.05°C (0.1°F) incre-
All test and balance reports shall be typed and bound in
ments in and out of the chiller evaporator, measure pres-
suitable covers.
sure in and out of the evaporator, and calculate capacity as
15.4.10 Test Sheets follows:
The names of test engineers or technicians shall be Compare the delta t with design recommendations.
included on all test sheets, along with dates of tests that were Water flow × density × specific heat × mass × td/
performed. Environmental conditions outside of test spaces rate = capacity. L/s × kg/m3 × kJ/(kg K) × kg × td°C/3515
shall be included. W = tons of capacity (gpm × 500 × td°F/12000 Btu = tons
15.5 Condition of the Equipment of capacity. Rate is 3515 W/h (12000 Btu/h) per ton of
capacity.
See Section 9.5.
Compare capacity with design capacity. Record any
15.6 Capacity Verifications discrepancies.
Perform the following verifications: (d) Condenser Water Flow
(L/s × kg/m x3 × kJ/kg K × kg × td °C/ 4396 W =
• Verify all equipment in a system is operating. Interlocks
capacity in tons.
are in the automatic position. Check the system modes
(gpm × 500 × td °F/15000 Btu/h) capacity in tons).
of operation. Record all test data.
This rate is for electric compressor-type chillers. The
• Select a mode and verify flow of air and water in each
evaporator "tons of capacity" and the condenser "tons of
system component.
capacity" should match. Compare capacity with design
• For air side, measure temperature of air entering and
capacity. Record discrepancies.
leaving component, and measure wet-bulb and dry-bulb
Note: For saltwater-cooled condensers, take temper-
temperatures.
atures in and out of the condenser.
• For hydronic side, measure temperature and pressure of
water entering and leaving components. (e) Absorption Chillers Capacity
• Measure kW power on all motors in the system. Chilled water measurement at the evaporator is the
• Measure power, volts, phase, and current of electrical same as for the electric compressor type. Condenser
coils and line voltage, 115 volts and higher. water measurements are as follows:
• Calculate the capacity of each of the following system • Measure and record flow through the condenser.
components when applicable: • Measure and record temperature in and out of
condenser.
(a) Dry expansion evaporators • Measure and record pressure in and out of con-
Measure cooling system capacity by measuring denser.
entering and leaving wet-bulb temperatures and find the Calculate capacity as follows:
total heat in a psychrometric chart or tables. Take the total L/s × kg/m3 × kJ/kg °K × kg × TD °C/8210 W =
heat for the measured wet bulb entering the cooling coil Capacity in tons. Rate = 8210 W (28000 Btu/h) is the heat
and subtract from the measured wet bulb leaving the cool- rejection rate.
ing coil. This total heat difference is then multiplied by Compare capacity with design capacity. Record any
the measured airflow (cfm) from the cooling coil (Btu/lb/ discrepancies.
minute) and multiplied by a factor (4.5) to convert Note: Heat rejection rates can vary and always need
minutes (60 × 0.075) to (Btu/lb/h). Formula is Cfm × to be verified with manufacturer's design database.
Delta h × 4.5 = Btu/h; for example, 10000 cfm (h30-h25)
(f) Air-Cooled Condenser Capacity
× 4.5 = 225000 Btu/h.
To determine refrigeration capacity, divide (Btu/h)/ Measure and record airflow through condenser
12000 (Btu/ton) = tons. coil(s). Use ASHRAE RP-451 method of airflow
measurement. Measure and record dry-bulb temperature
Example Calculation:
in and out of coil(s).
225000/12000 = 18.75 tons of capacity Calculate capacity as follows:

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 19


Airflow L/s (cfm) × density × specific heat × time 15.11 Absorption Chillers
× Td/Rate = capacity. Chilled-water measurement at the evaporator is the same
Rate is 4396 W/h (15000 Btu/h) per ton of capacity. as for the electric compressor type above. Condenser water
Example Calculations measurements are as follows:
SI calculation: (a) Measure and record flow through the condenser.
Hv = 4719 L/s × 1.20 × 1.006 × 25°C td = 141570 (b) Measure and record temperature in and out of con-
W/(4396) = 32.47 tons (kW × 1000 = watts) denser in 0.05°C (0.10°F) increments.
IP calculation: (c) Measure and record pressure drop across con-
Density at (0.075) ft3/lb × Specific Heat at (0.24 Btu/ denser.
lb) × time (60 min/hour) = 1.08 standard conditions.
(d) Calculate capacity as follows:
Always correct to standard conditions for capacity
calculations. Flow × density × specific heat × mass ×TD/rate = capac-
Btu =10,000 cfm × 1.08 × 45 Ftd = 486,000 ity flow L/s × kg/m3 × kJ/kg K × kg × TD°C/8210 W = tons
Btu/h, (486,000 Btu/h)/(15,000 Btu/ton) = 32.47 tons Capacity. Rate = 8.21 kWh (28000 Btuh) is the heat-rejection
capacity. rate of this unit. Compare capacity with design capacity.
Compare capacity with design capacity. Record any Record any discrepancies.
discrepancies.
Note: Heat-rejection rates can vary and always need to be
15.7 Rating Calculation
verified with the manufacturer's design data base.
Compare every input capacity output to manufacturer's
rating data. 15.12 Air-Cooled Condensers
15.8 Chillers (a) Measure and record airflow through condenser
Chilled and condenser water systems shall have a coil(s). Use ASHRAE RP-451 method of airflow
hydronic balancing station in the main flow circuit piping to measurement.
each unit. Temperature wells and pressure gauges shall be (b) Measure and record dry-bulb temperature in and
installed in the outlet and inlet piping close to the component out of coil(s).
being tested. (c) Calculate capacity as follows:
15.9 Chilled Water Flow Airflow L/s (cfm) × density × specific heat × time × TD/
(a) Measure and record flow through the evaporator. rate = tons capacity. Rate is 4396 W (15,000 Btu/h) per ton of
(b) Measure and record temperature in 0.05°C (0.10°F) capacity.
increments in and out of the chiller evaporator.
(c) Measure pressure in and out of the evaporator. Example Calculation
(d) Calculate capacity as follows: SI
SI: water flow × density × specific heat × mass ×
TD/ rate capacity or L/s × kg/M3 × kJ/(kg K) × kg 4719 L/s × (1.20 × 1.006) = 1.21 × 25°C = 14157 W/
× TD°C/ 3515 W = tons. (4396 W = 32.47 tons) (kW ×1000 = watts).
I-P: (gpm × 00 × TD.F = Btuh). Rate is 3.515
kWh (12000 Btu/h) per ton of capacity Compare IP
capacity with design capacity. Note any discrepan-
cies. Density at (0.075) ft3/lb × specific heat at (0.24 Btu/lb)
× time (60 min/hour) = 1.08 at standard conditions. Always
15.10 Condenser Water Measurements correct to standard conditions for capacity calculations. Btu/
(a) Measure and record water flow through the con- h = 10,000 cfm × 1.08 × 45°F = 486,000 Btu/h/15000 Btu/
denser. h/ton = 32.4 tons capacity.
(b) Measure temperature entering and leaving con-
denser and record same as for the evaporator above. Note: 25°C TD = 45°F TD, 10,000 cfm × 0.4719 = 4719
(c) Measure pressure in and out of the condenser. L/s.
(d) Calculate capacity as follows: Compare capacity with design capacity. Record any
discrepancies.
L/s × kg/M3 × kJ/kg K × kg × TD°C/ 4396 W = tons
capacity. Flow × density × specific heat × mass × TD/rate 15.13 Efficiency Calculations
(15000 Btu/h) = tons capacity. Output capacity ((tons)/input kW) = kW/ton. Compare to
manufacturer's rating data.
Rate = 4.396 kWh (15000 Btu/h) per ton of capacity. This
rate is for electric compressor-type chillers. The evaporator 15.14 Power Measurements
and the condenser "tons of capacity" should match. Compare 15.14.1 Measurements
capacity with design capacity. Record any discrepancies. (a) Measure and record all electrical input to the device

20 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


or components being tested in the same time frame All forms shall include a heading that identifies the test-
other tests are being performed to ensure all testing ing and balancing agency, ship name, vessel type, vessel
done in the same frame is measuring the same load. owner, where vessel TAB was done, and date. Also include a
(b) Measure amperage on each phase and record. footer that includes technician’s name, remarks, and page
number.
(c) Measure and record kW input for use in calcula-
tions. 16.3 Standard Items Required in the Report
(d) Measure volts on each phase and record. The report should include the following:
(e) Measure motor speed to verify it is running at • Title page, date, and name, address, and telephone num-
design speed, where possible. ber of the TAB firm.
(f) Power for controls, not used to produce capacity, • Ship name, vessel type (see Section 4.4), and vessel ID
shall not be measured unless it is a part of the man- number.
ufacturer's design data base. • Project location, where vessel is located at time of TAB.
15.14.2 Power Calculations • Name of naval architect and marine engineering firm.
• Name of chief engineer or port engineer (owner repre-
(a) Measured kW × 3412 Btu/h = energy "input." sentative).
(b) Measured evaporator Btu/h/12,000 Btu per ton = • Name of the general contractor/shipyard responsible for
ton of refrigeration effect = energy "output." installation.
(c) Measured condenser Btu/h/15,000 Btu per ton heat • Signature and certification of testing and balancing
rejection (electric compressors). engineer.
• Table of contents.
(d) Measure absorption chiller energy input including
• Report summary.
electric motor (kW) associated with chiller rating.
• List of discrepancies not corrected.
Convert to Btu/h for total input.
• Air balance section.
(e) Measured evaporator Btu/h as in step "b" above as • Hydronic balance section.
output. • Ambient conditions at beginning and end of test, includ-
(f) Final result is kW/ton or Btu/ton, a rating character- ing dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures, sky condition,
istic of the chiller. and time of day test started.
• Optional items as specified.
15.15 Input/Output
Input/output found by the Field test. Compare to 16.4 Forms, Titles, and Entries
published rating to determine operating efficiency. Listed below are the forms, titles, and entries required for
Note: If the chiller package is functioning properly, the testing and balancing. Each form has a variety of detailed
evaporator ton capacity should match the condenser tons. parts requiring specific entries. All performance test data
should be compared to the design data on the form.
16. REPORTING PROCEDURES AND FORMS 16.4.1 16.4.1 System Diagrams
System diagrams include the following:
16.1 Scope
(a) A single-line diagram indicating outside air, return
This section sets forth an outline for the report of operat-
air, supply air, the volume control box, and each
ing conditions versus designed conditions within specified
outlet and inlet. It is used for a schematic layout of
tolerances. the air-distribution system.
16.2 Reporting Procedures (b) The diagram also includes compartment numbers,
There shall be a logical approach to preparing forms and frame and duct location, duct size at traverse loca-
recording data. This section will list form titles and entries tions, temperatures, and pressures.
commonly used and enable the forms to be designed to suit (c) Hydronic diagrams are optional but are used if loca-
each company or project. Not all entries will be required in tion and identification numbers are not on the draw-
every situation. ings.
Accuracy in preparing the final report forms is important 16.4.2 Fan Data Sheet Entries
for several reasons, including the following: Fan data sheet entries include the following:
(a) Unit number
• Provides a permanent record of the system operating (b) Location
conditions after the last adjustments have been made.
(c) Manufacturer and model number
• Confirms that prescribed procedures have been fol-
lowed. (d) Serial number
• Serves as reference that can be used by the owner for (e) Drive size, type, number of grooves, and open turns
maintenance. on variable pitch drives
• Confirms the system is within design tolerance or pro- (f) Number and size of belts, motor and fan-shaft sizes,
vides reasons why there is a deviation that was not cor- center-to-center of shafts in inches, and adjustment
rected. available
• Serves as the baseline for diagnosing future problems. (g) Motor data, including nameplate data, actual amps,

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 21


rated and actual motor rpm, volts, phase, hp, kW, (c) Dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures leaving coil
starter heater size, and capacity (d) Enthalpy or total heat differences
(h) Fan L/s (cfm), return L/s (cfm), and outside L/s (cfm) (e) Capacity
(i) Fan static pressure, suction, and discharge; static
(f) Water temperature entering/leaving coil
profile and static control point as applicable
(g) Water pressure entering/leaving coil
(j) Fan speed
(h) Water flow through coil
(k) Remarks
(i) Remarks
16.4.3 Traverse Data Sheet Entries
Traverse data sheet entries include the following: 16.4.8 Fin Tube Radiation and Convection Unit
Entries
(a) Traverse location
Fin tube radiation and convection unit entries include the
(b) Size of duct (inside dimensions) following:
(c) Area of duct in square feet (meters) (a) Water temperature entering
(d) Column for each hole traversed (b) Water temperature leaving
(e) Lines for each reading (c) Differential temperature
(f) Barometric pressure (d) Flow through the unit
(g) Temperature in the duct (e) Remarks
(h) Static pressure in the duct 16.4.9 DX Coil Test Data Entries
(i) Actual airflow corrected to standard airflow, if DX coil test data entries include the following:
required (a) Airflow through the coil
(j) Name of technician performing traverse (b) Dry- and wet-bulb temperatures entering coil
16.4.4 Air Distribution Entries (c) Dry- and wet-bulb temperatures leaving coil
Air distribution entries include the following: (d) Enthalpy or total heat difference across coil
(a) Compartment identification and location (e) Capacity at time of test
(b) Outlet or intake balance sequence number (f) Evaporator pressure
1. Size of outlet or inlet (g) Remarks
2. Ak factor 16.4.10 Steam Heat Exchanger Data Sheet Entries
3. Design velocity Steam heat exchanger data sheet entries include the
following:
4. Design airflow
(a) Exchanger identification number
5. Actual velocity
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
6. Actual airflow number
7. Remarks (c) Temperature entering unit
16.4.5 Air Effectiveness Forms (d) Temperature leaving unit
Air effectiveness forms (if specified) include the follow- (e) Flow through unit in L/s (gpm)
ing: (f) Pressure drop through unit
(a) Location/compartment identification (g) Entering steam pressure
(b) Number of occupants in room (h) Remarks
(c) Sequence number of occupant location being tested 16.4.11 Electric Heating Coil Entries
(d) Residual air velocity at occupant location Electric heating coil entries include the following:
(e) Temperature at occupant location (a) Heating coil identification number
(f) Relative humidity at occupant location (b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
(g) CO2 measurement at occupant location or air effec- number
tiveness (c) Amperage on each phase
16.4.6 Dehumidifier Equipment (d) Voltage on each phase
Where dehumidifier equipment has been installed in air (e) Phase
handlers, such as passive heat pipes, record effectiveness (f) KW capacity
(precool delta T and reheat delta T) at both full and part load. (g) Stages
16.4.7 Hydronic Coil Test Form Entries (h) Safety device installed
Hydronic coil test form entries include the following: (i) Alternative method test as air-side heating coil pro-
(a) Airflow through the coil in L/s (cfm) cedure
(b) Dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures entering coil (j) Remarks

22 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


16.4.12 Water-Cooled Chiller Entries (d) Plot corrected sound level reading on noise criteria
Water-cooled chiller entries include the following: curve, if specified
(a) Chiller identification number (e) Remarks
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial 16.4.15 Vibration Level Entries
number Vibration level entries include the following:
(c) Chilled-water flow through evaporator (a) Equipment number
(d) Water temperature entering evaporator (b) Vibration levels at all accessible bearings, motors,
(e) Water temperature leaving evaporator fans, pumps, casings, and isolators
(f) Pressure drop through evaporator (c) Measurements in mils defection and velocity in
(g) Condenser water flow through condenser inches per second
(h) Pressure drop through condenser (d) Each measurement taken in horizontal, vertical, and
axial planes, as accessible
(i) Water temperature entering condenser
(e) Remarks
(j) Water temperature leaving condenser
16.4.16 Mixing Damper Leakage Test Data Entries
(k) Motor data: amps, volts, N-R/S (rpm), starter type,
Mixing damper leakage test data entries include the
overload, protection type, phase, hertz, nameplate,
following:
and actual measured kW input capacity
(l) Type of refrigerant (a) Equipment identification number (unit, box, zone,
etc.)
(m) Pounds of refrigerant in the system (if available)
(b) Dry-bulb temperature in the cold deck
(n) Outside conditions: temperature, humidity, and
general cloud cover (c) Dry-bulb temperature in the hot (or bypass) deck
(o) Barometric pressure (d) Dry-bulb temperature in the mixed airstream
(p) Temperature of the fuel, if applicable (Note: The (e) Above data taken in the full-cool and full-heat (or
performance test for rated capacity is not included bypass) mode
or part of this procedure.) (f) Remarks
(q) Remarks 16.4.17 Airflow Station Test Data Entries
16.4.13 Air-Cooled Condensing Units Airflow station test data entries include the following:
Air-cooled condensing units (applicable to 20 tons and (a) Station identification number
over) entries include the following: (b) Nameplate data, including effective area
(a) Air-cooled condensing unit identification number (c) Differential test pressure or velocity
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial (d) Calculated airflow
number (e) Actual airflow (from traverse form)
(c) Compressor nameplate and actual amps, volts, (f) Read out airflow
phase, and hertz (g) Remarks
(d) N-F/S (rpm) of motors, where applicable 16.4.18 Unit Heater Test Data Entries
(e) Refrigerant type Unit heater test data entries include the following:
(f) Refrigerant in the system (a) Equipment identification number
(g) Suction pressure when gauge installed (b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
(h) Discharge pressure when gauge installed number
(i) Number of stages (c) Test airflow (use manufacturer’s rated airflow if not
(j) Low-pressure control setting ducted)
(k) Condenser fan sequence stages (d) Heat test data per applicable procedure (hot water,
(l) Crankcase heater in watts (nameplate) electric, etc.)
(m) Hot gas bypass installed—yes/no, SCFM airflow (e) Remarks
measurement versus design airflow (Note: The 16.4.19 Fan Coil and Unit Ventilator Test Data Entries
performance test for rated capacity is not included Fan coil and unit ventilator test data entries include the
or part of this procedure.) following:
(n) Remarks (a) Equipment identification number
16.4.14 Sound Entries (b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
For sound entries, include the following: number
(a) Area or location (c) Test supply airflow (use manufacturer’s rated air-
(b) Sound level in dba flow if not ducted)
(c) Sound level at the center band frequencies of eight (d) Test outside air airflow
unweighted octaves with equipment on and off (e) Motor data and actual amps and volts

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 23


(f) Cooling test data according to chilled water or dx 16.4.24 Water-to-Water Heat Exchanger Test Data
coil procedure included on this form Entries
(g) Heating test data in accord with applicable proce- Water-to-water heat exchanger test data entries include
dure (hot water, electric, etc.) included on this form the following:
(h) Remarks (a) Exchanger identification number
16.4.20 Induction Unit Test Data Entries (b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
Induction unit test data entries include the following: number
(a) Unit identification number (c) Waterflow through each side
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial (d) Pressure drop through each side
number (e) Capacity of each side
(c) Manufacturer-rated nozzle pressure and airflow (f) Remarks
(d) Test nozzle pressure and airflow according to man- 16.4.25 Pump Test Data Entries
ufacturing rating Pump test data entries include the following:
(e) Cooling test data according to chilled water or dx (a) Pump number
coil procedure included on this form
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
(f) Heating test data according to applicable procedure
number
(hot water, electric, etc.) included on this form
(c) Motor data, including nameplate data, actual amps,
(g) Remarks
volts, N-r/s (rpm), horsepower, starter heater size,
16.4.21 Laboratory Hood Test Data Entries and capacity
Laboratory hood test data entries include the following:
(d) Pump discharge and suction pressure along with
(a) Hood identification number total dynamic head in the following modes
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial (e) Shutoff head
number
(f) Wide open head
(c) Exhaust and supply (when part of hood) airflow
(g) Final operating head
(d) Exhaust and supply (when part of hood) test veloci-
ties shown on hood face diagram (h) Final water flow
(e) Hood opening dimensions (i) Test plotted on a pump curve (if available)
(f) Remarks (j) Remarks
16.4.22 Kitchen Hood Test Data Entries 16.4.26 Flow Metering (Hydronic) Station Test Data
Kitchen hood test data entries include the following: Entries
(a) Hood identification number Flow metering (hydronic) station test data entries include
the following:
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
number (a) Station identification number
(c) Exhaust and supply (when part of hood) airflow (b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
(d) Exhaust and supply (when part of hood) test veloci- number
ties shown on hood diagram (c) Design and actual L/s (gpm)
(e) Hood opening and/or grease filter extractor dimen- (d) Differential test pressure
sions and quantity (e) Setting (open turns, degree, etc.) if required L/s
(f) Remarks (gpm)
16.4.23 Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Unit Test Data (f) Remarks
Entries 16.4.27 Steam Humidifier Test Data Entries
Air-to-air heat recovery unit test data entries include the Steam humidifier test data entries include the following:
following: (a) Humidifier identification number
(a) Unit identification number (b) L/s (cfm)
(b) Nameplate data: manufacturer, model, and serial
(c) Steam flow
number
(d) Steam pressure
(c) Exhaust air airflow
(e) Entering dry- and wet-bulb temperature and PPM
(d) Outside air airflow
(grains) of moisture
(e) Entering and leaving pressures across the heat
recovery media (f) Leaving dry- and wet-bulb temperature and PPM
(grains) of moisture
(f) Dry-bulb and wet-bulb entering the exhaust and
outside air sections (g) Capacity in steam flow per hour
(g) Dry-bulb and wet-bulb leaving the exhaust and out- (h) Capacity in PPM (grains) of moisture added per hour
side air sections 16.4.28 Terminal Box Data Entries
(h) Capacity of the exhaust side compared to the out- Terminal box data entries include the following:
side airside (a) Box identification number
(i) Remarks (b) Box size

24 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


(c) Cooling L/s (cfm) Note: Any preliminary reports should be stamped
(d) Minimum L/s (cfm) (if applicable) "preliminary" and should not be considered the final report.
(e) Heating L/s (cfm) (if applicable) 16.9 Compliance
(f) Record heat test data on appropriate heat test form The test and balance report, or reports for other phases of
(g) Record box delta P setting if direct L/s (cfm) mea- work included within these procedures, should contain the
surement cannot be made following:
(h) For DDC-controlled boxes, record computer read-
• All test data on proper forms containing complete infor-
out maximum, minimum, and heat, along with box
mation.
correction factor for calibrating to true L/s (cfm)
• Summary of deficiencies not corrected.
(i) Remarks
• Diagrams of systems showing locations of outlets,
16.4.29 Refrigerator Reefer Compartments inlets, and traverse locations.
(a) Coil refrigerant temperature • Pressure and temperature profiles.
(b) Superheat setting • Certification of the report signed and sealed by a test
(c) Space temperature and airflow, where applicable and balancing engineer (TBE).
(d) Suction pressure setting • Report should be typed and bound in a neat and profes-
sional manner.
16.4.30 Cargo Temperature and Humidity
(a) Temperature in 17. REFERENCES
(b) Temperature out
1. ANSI/ASME. 1985. ANSI/ASME Standard B40.1-1985,
(c) Airflow
Gauges—Pressure Indicating Dial Type—Elastic Ele-
(d) Space temperature and humidity percent relative ment. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New
16.5 Special System Reports York, NY.
Special system reports include the following: 2. AMCA. 1985. AMCA Standard 2l0-1985, Laboratory
Methods of Testing Fans for Rating. Air Movement and
• Measure and record test parameters, including design, Control Association, Arlington Heights, IL.
nameplate, and actual test readings. The form shall 3. SMACNA. 1981. SMACNA/HVAC Duct System Design
have proper headings and footers as required by this Tables and Charts. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
procedure. Contractors' National Association, Tyson's Corner,
• Reference requirements for the test and the authority Vienna, VA.
requesting the test. 4. HEVAC. 1981. HEVAC Fan Application Guide. Heating,
Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Manufacturers Asso-
16.6 Instrumentation Calibration Reports ciation Ltd., Phoenix House, Middlesex, London.
Instrumentation calibration reports record the following: 5. ISO. 1977. ISO Standard 3966-1977, Measurement of
Fluid Flow in Closed Conduits—Velocity Area Method
• Manufacturer and model and serial number for each Using Pitot Static Tubes. International Organization for
instrument used on the project. Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
• Current calibration date for each instrument. 6. ASHRAE. 1997. 1997 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamen-
tals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and
16.7 Deficiency Reports Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
Deficiency reports include the following: 7. Sauer, H.J., and R.H. Howell. 1990. Airflow measure-
ment at coil faces with vane anemometers: Statistical
• Deficiencies found in the system that prevents proper
correlation and recommended field measurement proce-
balancing.
dure. ASHRAE Transactions 96(1).
• Discrepancies between the installation and the plans and
specifications that affect the performance or longevity 8. Jorgensen, Robert. 1983. Fan Engineering, 8th ed. Buf-
of the system. falo Forge Company, Buffalo, NY.
9. SNAME Technical 3d Research Bulletin 4-16, August
If the deficiency still exists at the completion of balanc- 1980. Calculations for Merchant Ship HVAC Design.
ing, then include it in the report. 10. ASHRAE. 1985. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 26 1985R,
Mechanical Refrigeration Installations on Shipboard.
16.8 The Final Test and Balance Report
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-
The final test and balance report requires the following:
Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
• Complete data sheets and diagrams of all equipment and 11. AMCA. 1990. AMCA Standard 201-90, Fans and Sys-
systems in the scope of work organized in a logical tems, System Effects. Air Movement and Control Asso-
order. ciation, Arlington Heights, Ill.
• All reports with the printed or typed name and title of 12. ASHRAE. 1998. Application of Manufacturer’s Sound
the report on the cover. Data ISBEN 1-883413-62-1. American Society of
• A minimum of four copies submitted to the client at the Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
completion of testing and balancing. Inc., Atlanta.

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 25


(This is an informative annex; it is provided for information only.)

ANNEX A
DUCT TRAVERSE USING LOGS

TABLE 1
Duct Traverse Using Log the Bycheff Rule Rectangular Duct Hole Spacing in SI
7 Holes 0.053 0.203 0.366 0.5 0.634 0.797 0.947
6 Holes 0.061 0.235 0.437 0.563 0.765 .939
5 Holes 0.074 0.288 0.5 0.712 0.926
3 Holes 0.166 0.5 0.833
Duct, in. Duct, mm Hole Spacing in mm No. Holes
6 152.4 25.3 76.2 126.9 3
8 203.2 33.7 101.6 169.3 3
9 228.6 37.9 114.3 190.4 3
10 254 42.2 127 211.6 3
12 304.8 50.6 152.4 253.9 3
14 355.6 59 177.8 296.2 3
16 406.4 30.1 117 203.2 289.4 376.3 5
18 457.2 33.8 131.7 228.6 325.5 423.4 5
20 508 37.6 146.3 254 361.7 470.4 5
22 558.8 41.4 160.9 279.4 397.9 517.4 5
24 609.6 45.1 175.6 304.8 434 564.5 5
26 660.4 48.9 190.2 330.2 470.2 611.5 5
28 711.2 52.6 204.8 355.6 506.4 658.6 5
30 762 56.4 219.5 381 542.5 705.6 5
32 812.8 49.6 191 355.2 457.6 621.8 763.2 6
34 863.6 52.7 202.9 377.4 486.2 660.7 810.9 6
36 914.4 55.8 214.9 399.6 514.8 699.5 858.6 6
38 965.2 58.9 226.8 421.8 543.4 738.4 906.3 6
40 1016 62 238.8 444 572 777.2 954 6
42 1066.8 65.1 250.7 466.2 600.6 816.1 1001.7 6
44 1117.6 68.2 262.6 488.4 629.2 855 1049.4 6
46 1168.4 71.3 274.6 510.6 657.8 893.8 1097.1 6
48 1219.2 74.4 286.5 532.8 686.4 932.7 1144.8 6
50 1270 77.5 298.5 555 715 971.6 1192.5 6
52 1320.8 80.6 310.4 577.2 743.6 1010.4 1240.2 6
54 1371.6 83.7 322.3 599.4 772.2 1049.3 1287.9 6
56 1422.4 86.8 334.3 621.6 800.8 1088.1 1335.6 6
58 1473.2 89.9 346.2 643.8 829.4 1127 1383.3 6
60 1524 93 358.1 666 858 1165.9 1431 6
62 1574.8 83.5 319.7 576.4 787.4 998.4 1255.1 1491.3 7
64 1625.6 86.2 330 595 812.8 1030.6 1295.6 1539.4 7
66 1676.4 88.8 340.3 613.6 838.2 1062.8 1336.1 1587.6 7
68 1727.2 91.5 350.6 632.2 863.6 1095 1376.6 1635.7 7
70 1778 94.2 360.9 650.7 889 1127.3 1417.1 1683.8 7
72 1828.8 96.9 371.2 669.3 914.4 1159.5 1457.6 1731.9 7
74 1879.6 99.6 381.6 687.9 939.8 1191.7 1498 1780 7
76 1930.4 102.3 391.9 706.5 965.2 1223.9 1538.5 1828.1 7
78 1981.2 105 402.2 725.1 990.6 1256.1 1579 1876.2 7
80 2032 107.7 412.5 743.7 1016 1288.3 1619.5 19.3 7
82 2082.8 110.4 422.8 762.3 1041.4 1320.5 1660 1972.4 7

26 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


TABLE 1A
Duct Traverse Using Log Tchebycheff Rule Rectangular Duct Hole Spacing (IP)

7 Holes 0.053 0.203 0.366 0.5 0.634 0.797 0.947


6 Holes 0.061 0.235 0.437 0.563 0.765 0.939
5 Holes 0.074 0.288 0.5 0.712 0.926
3 Holes 0.166 0.5 0.833

Duct size in in. Hole Spacing in in. No. Holes

6 1 3 5 3
8 1.3 4 6.7 3
9 1.5 4.5 7.5 3
10 1.7 5 8.3 3
12 2 6 10 3
14 2.3 7 11.7 3
16 1.2 4.6 8 11.4 14.8 5
18 1.3 5.2 9 12.8 16.7 5
20 1.5 5.8 10 14.2 18.5 5
22 1.6 6.3 11 15.7 20.4 5
24 1.8 6.9 12 17.1 22.2 5
26 1.9 7.5 13 18.5 24.1 5
28 2.1 8.1 14 19.9 25.9 5
30 2.2 8.6 15 21.4 27.8 5
32 2 7.5 14 18 24.5 30 6
34 2.1 8 14.9 19.1 26 31.9 6
36 2.2 8.5 15.7 20.3 27.5 33.8 6
38 2.3 8.9 16.6 21.4 29.1 35.7 6
40 2.4 9.4 17.5 22.5 30.6 37.6 6
42 2.6 9.9 18.4 23.6 32.1 39.4 6
44 2.7 10.3 19.2 24.8 33.7 41.3 6
46 2.8 10.8 20.1 25.9 35.2 43.2 6
48 2.9 11.3 21 27 36.7 45.1 6
50 3.1 11.8 21.9 28.2 38.3 46.9 6
52 3.2 12.2 22.7 29.3 39.8 48.8 6
54 3.3 12.7 23.6 30.4 41.3 50.7 6
56 3.4 13.2 24.5 31.5 42.8 52.6 6
58 3.5 13.6 25.3 32.7 44.4 54.5 6
60 3.7 14.1 26.2 33.8 45.9 56.3 6
62 3.3 12.6 22.7 31 39.3 49.4 58.7 7
64 3.4 13 23.4 32 40.6 51 60.6 7
66 3.5 13.4 24.2 33 41.8 52.6 62.5 7
68 3.6 13.8 24.9 34 43.1 54.2 64.4 7
70 3.7 14.2 25.6 35 44.4 55.8 66.3 7
72 3.8 14.6 26.4 36 45.6 57.4 68.2 7
74 3.9 15 27.1 37 46.9 59 70.1 7
76 4 15.4 27.8 38 48.2 60.6 72 7
78 4.1 15.8 28.5 39 49.5 62.2 73.9 7
80 4.2 16.2 29.3 40 50.7 63.8 75.8 7
82 4.3 16.6 30 41 52 65.4 77.7 7

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 27


TABLE 2
Duct Traverse Using Log Tchebycheff Rule Pitot Mark Spacing (SI)

MARK PITOT TUBE FOR RECTANGULAR DUCT TRAVERSE AS FOLLOWS:


5 Marks 0.074 0.288 0.5 0.712 0.926
3 Marks 0.166 0.5 0.833 Min. Pitot No.
Tube inch Marks
Duct, in. mm Spacing in mm
6 152.4 25.3 76.2 126.9 12 3
8 203.2 33.7 101.6 169.3 12 3
9 228.6 37.9 114.3 190.4 12 3
10 254 42.2 127 211.6 12 3
12 304.8 50.6 152.4 253.9 12 3
14 355.6 59.0 177.8 296.2 24 3
16 406.4 30.1 117.0 203.2 289.4 376.3 24 5
18 457.2 33.8 131.7 228.6 325.5 423.4 24 5
20 508.0 37.6 146.3 254.0 361.7 470.4 24 5
22 558.8 41.4 160.9 279.4 397.9 517.4 24 5
24 609.6 45.1 175.6 304.8 434.0 564.5 24 5
26 660.4 48.9 190.2 330.2 470.2 611.5 36 5
28 711.2 52.6 204.8 355.6 506.4 658.6 36 5
30 762.0 56.4 219.5 381.0 542.5 705.6 36 5
32 812.8 60.1 234.1 406.4 578.7 752.7 36 5
34 863.6 63.9 248.7 431.8 614.9 799.7 36 5
36 914.4 67.7 263.3 457.2 651.1 846.7 36 5
38 965.2 71.4 278.0 482.6 687.2 893.8 36 5
40 1016 75.2 292.6 508.0 723.4 940.8 48.0 5
42 1066.8 78.9 307.2 533.4 759.6 987.9 48.0 5
44 1117.6 82.7 321.9 558.8 795.7 1034.9 48.0 5
46 1168.4 86.5 336.5 584.2 831.9 1081.9 48.0 5
48 1219.2 90.2 351.1 609.6 868.1 1129.0 48.0 5
50 1270 94.0 365.8 635.0 904.2 1176.0 48.0 5
52 1320.8 97.7 380.4 660.4 940.4 1223.1 48.0 5
54 1371.6 101.5 395.0 685.8 976.6 1270.1 60.0 5
56 1422.4 105.3 409.7 711.2 1012.7 1317.1 60.0 5
58 1473.2 109.0 424.3 736.6 1048.9 1364.2 60.0 5
60 1524.0 112.8 438.9 762.0 1085.1 1411.2 60.0 5
62 1574.8 116.5 453.5 787.4 1121.3 1458.3 60.0 5
64 1625.6 120.3 468.2 812.8 1157.4 1505.3 60.0 5
66 1676.4 124.1 482.8 838.2 1193.6 1552.3 72.0 5
68 1727.2 127.8 497.4 863.6 1229.8 1599.4 72.0 5
70 1778 131.6 512.1 889.0 1265.9 1646.4 72.0 5
72 1828.8 135.3 526.7 914.4 1302.1 1693.5 72.0 5
74 1879.6 139.1 541.3 939.8 1338.3 1740.5 84.0 5
76 1930.4 142.8 556.0 965.2 1374.4 1787.6 84.0 5
78 1981.2 146.6 570.6 990.6 1410.6 1834.6 84.0 5
80 2032 150.4 585.2 1016.0 1446.8 1881.6 84.0 5
82 2082.8 154.1 599.8 1041.4 1483.0 1928.7 84.0 5

28 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


TABLE 2A
Duct Traverse Using Log Tchebycheff Rule Pitot Mark Spacing (IP)

MARK PITOT TUBE FOR RECTANGULAR DUCT TRAVERSE AS FOLLOWS:


5 Marks 0.074 0.288 0.5 0.712 0.926 Maximum
3 Marks 0.166 0.5 0.833

Duct, in. Spacing in in. Min. Pitot Tube, in. No. Marks
6 1 3 5 12 3
8 1.3 4 6.7 12 3
9 1.5 4.5 7.5 12 3
10 1.7 5 8.3 12 3
12 2 6 10 12 3
14 2.3 7 11.7 24 3
16 1.2 4.6 8 11.4 14.8 24 5
18 1.3 5.2 9 12.8 16.7 24 5
20 1.5 5.8 10 14.2 18.5 24 5
22 1.6 6.3 11 15.7 20.4 24 5
24 1.8 6.9 12 17.1 22.2 24 5
26 1.9 7.5 13 18.5 24.1 36 5
28 2.1 8.1 14 19.9 25.9 36 5
30 2.2 8.6 15 21.4 27.8 36 5
32 2.4 9.2 16 22.8 29.6 36 5
34 2.5 9.8 17 24.2 31.5 36 5
36 2.7 10.4 18 25.6 33.3 36 5
38 2.8 10.9 19 27.1 35.2 36 5
40 3 11.5 20 28.5 37 48 5
42 3.1 12.1 21 29.9 38.9 48 5
44 3.3 12.7 22 31.3 40.7 48 5
46 3.4 13.2 23 32.8 42.6 48 5
48 3.6 13.8 24 34.2 44.4 48 5
50 3.7 14.4 25 35.6 46.3 48 5
52 3.8 15 26 37 48.2 48 5
54 4 15.6 27 38.4 50 60 5
56 4.1 16.1 28 39.9 51.9 60 5
58 4.3 16.7 29 41.3 53.7 60 5
60 4.4 17.3 30 42.7 55.6 60 5
62 4.6 17.9 31 44.1 57.4 60 5
64 4.7 18.4 32 45.6 59.3 60 5
66 4.9 19 33 47 61.1 72 5
68 5 19.6 34 48.4 63 72 5
70 5.2 20.2 35 49.8 64.8 72 5
72 5.3 20.7 36 51.3 66.7 72 5
74 5.5 21.3 37 52.7 68.5 84 5
76 5.6 21.9 38 54.1 70.4 84 5
78 5.8 22.5 39 55.5 72.2 84 5
80 5.9 23 40 57 74.1 84 5
82 6.1 23.6 41 58.4 75.9 84 5

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 29


TABLE 3
Duct Traverse Using Log Tchebycheff Rule Spacing For Round Duct (SI)

90 DEGREES APART AND TRAVERSE AS FOLLOWS:


6 Marks 0.032 0.135 0.321 0.679 0.865 0.968
5 Marks 0.076 0.356 0.57 0.689 0.962
3 Marks 0.137 0.375 0.936

Min. Pitot

Duct, in. mm Pitot Tube Marking, mm Tube inch No. marks

6 152.4 20.9 57.2 142.6 12 3


8 203.2 27.8 76.2 190.2 12 3
9 228.6 31.3 85.7 214 12 3
10 254 34.8 95.3 237.7 12 3
12 304.8 41.8 114.3 285.3 12 3
14 355.6 48.7 133.4 332.8 18 3
16 406.4 30.9 144.7 231.6 280 391 18 5
18 457.2 34.7 162.8 260.6 315 439.8 18 5
20 508 38.6 180.8 289.6 350 488.7 24 5
22 558.8 42.5 198.9 318.5 385 537.6 24 5
24 609.6 46.3 217 347.5 420 586.4 24 5
26 660.4 50.2 235.1 376.4 455 635.3 30 5
28 711.2 54.1 253.2 405.4 490 684.2 30 5
30 762 57.9 271.3 434.3 525 733 30 5
32 812.8 26 109.7 260.9 551.9 703.1 786.8 36 6
34 863.6 27.6 116.6 277.2 586.4 747 836 36 6
36 914.4 29.3 123.4 293.5 620.9 791 885.1 36 6
38 965.2 30.9 130.3 309.8 655.4 834.9 934.3 48 6
40 1016 32.5 137.2 326.1 689.9 878.8 983.5 48 6
42 1067 34.1 144 342.4 724.4 922.8 1032.7 48 6
44 1118 35.8 150.9 358.7 758.9 966.7 1081.8 48 6
46 1168 37.4 157.7 375.1 793.3 1010.7 1131 48 6
48 1219 39 164.6 391.4 827.8 1054.6 1180.2 48 6
50 1270 40.6 171.5 407.7 862.3 1098.6 1229.4 60 6
52 1321 42.3 178.3 424 896.8 1142.5 1278.5 60 6
54 1372 43.9 185.2 440.3 931.3 1186.4 1327.7 60 6
56 1422 45.5 192 456.6 965.8 1230.4 1376.9 60 6
58 1473 47.1 198.9 472.9 1000.3 1274.3 1426.1 60 6
60 1524 48.8 205.7 489.2 1034.8 1318.3 1475.2 60 6
62 1575 50.4 212.6 505.5 1069.3 1362.2 1524.4 72 6
64 1626 52 219.5 521.8 1103.8 1406.1 1573.6 72 6
66 1676 53.6 226.3 538.1 1138.3 1450.1 1622.8 72 6
68 1727 55.3 233.2 554.4 1172.8 1494 1671.9 72 6
70 1778 56.9 240 570.7 1207.2 1538 1721.1 72 6
72 1829 58.5 246.9 587 1241.8 1581.9 1770.3 72 6
74 1880 60.1 253.7 603.4 1276.2 1625.9 1819.5 84 6
76 1930 61.8 260.6 619.7 1310.7 1669.8 1868.6 84 6
78 1981 63.4 267.5 636 1345.2 1713.7 1917.8 84 6
80 2032 65 274.3 652.3 1379.7 1757.7 1967 84 6
82 2083 66.6 281.2 668.6 1414.2 1801.6 2016.2 84 6

30 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


TABLE 3A
Duct Traverse Using Log Tchebycheff Rule Spacing for Round Duct (IP)

ROUND DUCT TRAVERSE; DRILL TWO 90 DEGREES APART AND TRAVERSE AS FOLLOWS:
6 Mark 0.032 0.135 0.321 0.679 0.865 0.968
5 Mark 0.076 0.356 0.57 0.689 0.962
3 Mark 0.137 0.375 0.936 Pitot No. of
tube, in. Marks
Duct, in. Pitot Tube Marking in Inches

6 0.8 2.3 5.6 12 3


8 1.1 3 7.5 12 3
9 1.2 3.4 8.4 12 3
10 1.4 3.8 9.4 12 3
12 1.6 4.5 11.2 12 3
14 1.9 5.3 13.1 18 3
16 1.2 5.7 9.1 11 15.4 18 5
18 1.4 6.4 10.3 12.4 17.3 18 5
20 1.5 7.1 11.4 13.8 19.2 24 5
22 1.7 7.8 12.5 15.2 21.2 24 5
24 1.8 8.5 13.7 16.5 23.1 24 5
26 2 9.3 14.8 17.9 25 30 5
28 2.1 10 16 19.3 26.9 30 5
30 2.3 10.7 17.1 20.7 28.9 30 5
32 1 4.3 10.3 21.7 27.7 31 36 6
34 1.1 4.6 10.9 23.1 29.4 32.9 36 6
36 1.2 4.9 11.6 24.4 31.1 34.8 36 6
38 1.2 5.1 12.2 25.8 32.9 36.8 48 6
40 1.3 5.4 12.8 27.2 34.6 38.7 48 6
42 1.3 5.7 13.5 28.5 36.3 40.7 48 6
44 1.4 5.9 14.1 29.9 38.1 42.6 48 6
46 1.5 6.2 14.8 31.2 39.8 44.5 48 6
48 1.5 6.5 15.4 32.6 41.5 46.5 48 6
50 1.6 6.8 16.1 34 43.3 48.4 60 6
52 1.7 7 16.7 35.3 45 50.3 60 6
54 1.7 7.3 17.3 36.7 46.7 52.3 60 6
56 1.8 7.6 18 38 48.4 54.2 60 6
58 1.9 7.8 18.6 39.4 50.2 56.1 60 6
60 1.9 8.1 19.3 40.7 51.9 58.1 60 6
62 2 8.4 19.9 42.1 53.6 60 72 6
64 2 8.6 20.5 43.5 55.4 62 72 6
66 2.1 8.9 21.2 44.8 57.1 63.9 72 6
68 2.2 9.2 21.8 46.2 58.8 65.8 72 6
70 2.2 9.5 22.5 47.5 60.6 67.8 72 6
72 2.3 9.7 23.1 48.9 62.3 69.7 72 6
74 2.4 10 23.8 50.2 64 71.6 84 6
76 2.4 10.3 24.4 51.6 65.7 75.6 84 6
78 2.5 10.5 25 53 67.5 73.5 84 6
80 2.6 10.8 25.7 54.3 69.2 77.4 84 6
82 2.6 11.1 26.3 55.7 70.9 79.4 84 6

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 31


ANNEX B 2. Calculate belt size OD as follows:
DRIVE CHANGE CALCULATIONS Example: d = 6 in. drive on motor, D = 10 in. drive
on fan, C=31 in. L= PITCH LENGTH OF BELT.
(This is a normative annex; it is part of the standard.)
This procedure is applicable to belt-drive systems only. L = 2C+1.57×(D-d)+((D-d)2/(4C))

Procedure L = 2 × 31+1.57 × (10+6)+((10-6)2/(4×31)) = 89.249.


Before making any changes to drives, perform the follow- From the catalog for an “A” belt, this would be an
ing: A90 belt. From catalog for a B belt, this would be a B90
(a) Current readings on each phase belt. The C-C would change to 31.5 inches, as the next
(b) Voltage readings on each phase available pitch length is 91.3 inches.
(c) KW readings, balanced and unbalanced
A tension gauge to set the belt tension is required so
(d) Pressure on inlet to device
the belt(s) have a depression of approximately 1/2 in. in
(e) Pressure on discharge of device the center of the belts between drives. Belts will stretch
(f) Rpm of device and need retention after running for a short time. Verify
(g) Nameplate speed of motor tension required with the belt manufacturer.
(h) Actual RPM of motor
(i) Verify condition of drives and replace worn drive (This is a normative annex; it is part of the standard.)
and belts
ANNEX C
Record all data on a drive change form and calculate new MOTOR POWER CALCULATIONS
drive size. Additional data may be taken as required to verify
performance. Take motor kW and speed to verify motor load- This annex contains formulas applicable to motor power.
ing. Accuracy of measurements shall be within ±5%. Proper
safety procedures shall be used during drive change. Instru- • Power factor
mentation shall be the approved type for test being measured. • Brake horsepower
Variable-frequency speed controllers shall be set to • Kilowatts
design speed. Calculate new drive size as follows:
Procedure
(a) Determine flow increase or decrease ratio.
(b) Calculate rpm increase or decrease ratio as 1. Prior to making any calculations, obtain the following
required. information:
• Motor rpm/equipment rpm = drive ratio (a) Current readings on each phase
• Motor drive size × drive ratio = equipment drive (b) Voltage readings on each phase
size. (c) Motor efficiency from the name plate or from the
• Bore size of drives shall be the same size as motor manufacturer
shaft size and equipment (d) Wattage reading on each phase
• Drive bore shall be the same size as the equip-
ment shaft size. If a motor change (HP) is Note: If equipment to measure wattage is not available,
required, the shaft and bore size may change. the power factor from the manufacturer may have to be used,
• Verify at time of obtaining new drives. but this is less accurate unless the motor is at full load.

Motor speed will change between light load and full load, Power Factor (PF)
with nameplate rpm occurring at full load. For instance, a
1750-rpm nameplate motor will run at 1750 fully loaded but Single-Phase Three-Phase
may run at 1800 rpm lightly loaded or at no load. Fifty rpm can
be significant in drive sizing, either increasing or decreasing W watts
--------------- -------------------------------------------------------
rpm. V×A volts × amps × 1.732

Belt-Sizing Procedure
Brake Horsepower (BHP)
1. Measure and record the following:
• Center to center of shafts on motor and driven device Single-Phase Three-Phase
• Pitch diameters of each drive
• Motor base adjustment +/- I × V × Eff
----------------------------
amp × volts × PF × motor eff. × 1.73
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
746 746
• Belt type and quantity

32 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


Kilowatts (kW) the above ratio and multiplying it by the actual
brake horsepower. If the new horsepower exceeds
Single-Phase Three-Phase the mounted horsepower, a new motor is required.
(e) The new impeller must fit the pump housing; verify
V ×I volts × amps × Pf × 1.732 with the manufacturer.
------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------
1000 1000 (f) Change motor HP and the shaft size may change
and not fit the pump. Verify with the manufacturer.
Variables for above formulas:
Motor speed will change between light load and full load
I = current (amps) with nameplate speed occurring at full load. A 1750-rpm
I ave = amps, average of all phases nameplate motor will run at 1750 fully loaded but may run at
V = volts 1800 rpm lightly loaded.
V ave = volts, average of all phases
Pump Equations
Eff = efficiency of motor
SI Units
Pf = power factor
Pf = power factor (L/s f)/(L/s i) = (m3 f)/(m3 i) = (rad/s f)/(rad/s i)
BHP = brake horsepower (m3 f)/(m3 i) = (D f)/(D i)
1.732 is the square root of 3(phases)
(H f)/(H i) = (D f/D i)2
(This is a normative annex; it is part of the standard.)
(BHP f)/(BHP i) = (D f/D i)3
ANNEX D where
PUMP PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS L/s f = liters per second final or design
This procedure is applicable to hydronic systems. L/s i = liters per second initial or test data
m3/s = cubic meters per second
Procedure
rads = radians per second
• Before making any changes to pumps, perform the fol- D = impeller diameter in mm
lowing: mm = millimeters
(a) Amperage readings on each phase H = head in kPa
(b) Voltage readings on each phase Kpa = kilopascals
(c) KW readings, balanced and unbalanced BHP = brake horsepower
(d) Pressure on inlet to device
(e) Pressure on discharge of device IP Units
(f) RPM of device GPM f/GPM i = RPM f/RPM i = D f/D i
(g) Nameplate RPM of motor
H f/H i = (RPM f/RPM i)2 = (D f/D i)2
(h) Actual RPM of motor
BHP f/BHP i = (RPM f/RPM i)3 = (D f/D i)3
• Record all data on pump form and calculate new impel-
ler size if required. Additional data may be taken as where
required to verify performance. GPM = gallons per minute
• Take motor kW and speed to verify motor loading. RPM = revolutions per minute
Accuracy of measurements shall be within ±5%. D = impeller diameter in inches
• Proper safety procedures shall be used during measure-
H = head in feet, water gauge
ments.
• Instrumentation shall be the approved type for test being BHP = brake horsepower
measured.
Hydronic Equivalents SI to IP
• Variable-frequency speed controllers shall be set to
design speed. 3.78 kg = 8.33 lb = one gallon
• Calculate new impeller size as follows:
4180 j/(kg °C) = 1 Btu/lb at 68°F = specific heat of water
(a) Determine flow increase or decrease percentage.
(b) Calculate new impeller with ratio of actual pump 1845 j/(kg °C) = 0.45 Btu/lb at 68°F = specific heat of water
flow to required pump flow. vapor
(c) Calculate new head by taking the square of the 3 kPa = 0.433 psi = 1 foot of water gauge
above ratio of flow and multiplying it by the actual
101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi = 29.92 in. of Hg.
head.
(d) Calculate the new horsepower by taking the cube of 28.3 L = 28.3 kg = 64.4 lb water = 7.49 gal = 1 ft3 of water

ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002 33


6.89 kPa = 2.31 feet w.g. = 1 psi Standard pressure is 101.325 kPa.
1 m/s = 3.33 feet per second Standard air density is 1.204 kg/m3.
Standard temperature for the above is 20ºC.
Pumps
Specific heat at constant pressure is 1.006 kJ/(kg K).
Pump head is usually measured in kPa (feet of water) ×
specific gravity. IP Calculations

Pump suction is usually measured in kPa (in. Hg). Capacity in Btu/h = CFM × density specific heat × mass ×
time × Td
Pump pressure is usually expressed in kPa (psi). cfm X × 1.08 × Td °F = Btu/h sensible heat.
cfm × 4.5 × enthalpy difference = Btu/h total heat.
Pump Performance Curves Standard air density is 0.075 lb/lb of air.
Pump curves show: Standard temperature for the above is 70ºF.
(a) Head vs. capacity Specific heat of air is 0.24 Btu/lb/°F.
(b) Capacity vs. horsepower
(This is a normative annex; it is part of the standard.)
(c) Horsepower vs. efficiency
(d) Pump shutoff pressure vs. impeller size ANNEX E
CAPACITY CALCULATIONS
Net positive suction head (NPSH) combines all the
factors limiting the suction side of a pump. This includes inter- SI Calculations
nal pump losses, static suction lift, friction losses, vapor pres-
Capacity in watts: L/s × density × specific heat × Td °C
sure, and atmospheric conditions. It is important to
Standard air; density is 1.204 kg/m3 Actual p(density) = 3.48
differentiate between required NPSH and available NPSH.
press/T
The available NPSH must be greater than the required NPSH
L/s ×1.2 × 1.006 × Td °C = watts sensible heat, L/s × 1.2 ×
or the pump may cavitate.
1.006 × enthalpy difference = watts total heat.
Pump calculations to verify if pump is overloaded Density (example) p = 3.48 × 101.325/273.15+T if T is 40°C,
then (3.48) × (101.325 / 313,15) = 1.13 kg/m3
(a) Water horsepower = flow × head × specific gravity
of the fluid / power constant (IP 3960) Standard pressure is 101.325 kPa.
(b) Brake horsepower = flow × head × specific gravity
of the fluid / by (3960 × pump efficiency) Standard air density is 1.204 kg/m3.
Standard temperature for the above is 20°C.
Capacity Calculations Specific heat at constant pressure is 1.006 kJ/(kg K).

SI Calculations IP Calculations
Capacity in watts: L/s × density × specific heat × Td °C. Capacity in Btu/h = CFM × density × specific heat × mass ×
Standard air density is 1.204 kg/m3 Actual p(density) = 3.48 time × Td
press/T. CFM × 1.08 Td °F = Btu/h sensible heat.
L/s × 1.2 × 1.006 × Td °C = watts sensible heat L/s × 1.2 × cfm × 4.5 × enthalpy difference Btu/h total heat.
1.006 × enthalpy difference watts total heat. Standard air density is 0.075 lb/lb of air.
Density (example): p = 3.48 × 101.325/273.15+T if T is 40°C Standard temperature for the above is 70°F.
then (3.48) × (101.325 / 313.15) = 1.13 kg/m3 Specific heat of air is 0.24 Btu/lb/°F.

34 ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 151-2002


POLICY STATEMENT DEFINING ASHRAE’S CONCERN
FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ITS ACTIVITIES

ASHRAE is concerned with the impact of its members’ activities on both the indoor and outdoor environment. ASHRAE’s
members will strive to minimize any possible deleterious effect on the indoor and outdoor environment of the systems and
components in their responsibility while maximizing the beneficial effects these systems provide, consistent with accepted
standards and the practical state of the art.
ASHRAE’s short-range goal is to ensure that the systems and components within its scope do not impact the indoor and
outdoor environment to a greater extent than specified by the standards and guidelines as established by itself and other
responsible bodies.
As an ongoing goal, ASHRAE will, through its Standards Committee and extensive technical committee structure,
continue to generate up-to-date standards and guidelines where appropriate and adopt, recommend, and promote those new
and revised standards developed by other responsible organizations.
Through its Handbook, appropriate chapters will contain up-to-date standards and design considerations as the material is
systematically revised.
ASHRAE will take the lead with respect to dissemination of environmental information of its primary interest and will seek
out and disseminate information from other responsible organizations that is pertinent, as guides to updating standards and
guidelines.
The effects of the design and selection of equipment and systems will be considered within the scope of the system’s
intended use and expected misuse. The disposal of hazardous materials, if any, will also be considered.
ASHRAE’s primary concern for environmental impact will be at the site where equipment within ASHRAE’s scope
operates. However, energy source selection and the possible environmental impact due to the energy source and energy
transportation will be considered where possible. Recommendations concerning energy source selection should be made by
its members.
86490
PC 8/02