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Alexa Birckbichler

In this problem set, we are looking at twin primes. Twin primes are prime numbers that differ by
exactly two, like 5 and 7, 11 and 13, and many more. While studying these primes we found an
unusual phenomenon involving twin primes. If you multiply them and add 1 to the product you
get a number that is 1) a perfect square and 2) is a multiple of 36. The only twin primes that do
not work out, having these properties is 3 and 5. Our task is to discover why this happens. We
experiment with numbers that are twin primes and primes that are not twins. In this we can hope
to see exactly what is happening during the process, that makes these numbers work out the way
they do.

Twin Primes Sum +1 Perfect square Multiple of 36

5*7 35 36 6 36 *1

17 * 19 323 324 18 36 *9

29*31 899 900 30 36 * 25

41 * 43 1763 1764 42 36 * 49

59 * 61 3599 3600 60 36 * 100

71 * 73 5183 5184 72 36 * 144

107 * 109 11663 11664 108 36 * 324

137 * 139 19043 19044 138 36 * 529

227* 229 51983 51984 228 36 * 1444

239 * 241 56599 57600 240 36 * 1600

To begin solving this problem I looked at a list of prime numbers and picked out all of the twin
primes. Once I did that, I plugged them into the given formula. While working in class we found
another formula that fit one of the two expressed necessities for a twin prime. If you take the
smallest number of the two twin primes and plug it in for n (in the formula provided below) you
will get that it equals its perfect square. The number that is a perfect square is also the number in
between our two twin primes.
n(n+2)+1= (n+1)^2
While trying to find out why they are all multiple of 36 here are some things I have noticed
- of all the numbers I picked the end result it always (asides from 5 and 7) ends in a 4 or 0.
- the numbers that get multiple by 36 are all perfect squares (again except 5 and 7): 3, 5, 7 ,
10,12,18,23,38,40
square - perfect
square of the multiple
of 36

6-1 5 5/5 1

18-3 15 15/5 3

30-5 25 25/5 5

42-7 35 35/5 7

60-10 50 50/5 10

72-12 60 60/5 12

108-18 90 90/5 18

138-23 115 115/5 23

228-38 190 190/5 38

240-40 200 200/5 40

3^2=9
9* 36= 324
(n^2)36
I tried a couple things but cant quiet figure out a formula. I know they relate somehow the
perfect square of the twin primes plus one and its multiple of 36.

Primes multiplied

7 * 11 77

13 * 17 221

47 * 53 2491

47 * 43 2021

67 * 71 4757

97 * 101 9797

109 * 113 12,317

499 * 503 250,997

313 * 317 99,221


Primes multiplied

151 * 157 23,707

As an end result I came to the conclusion that somehow all the numbers are related. I found
through the formula how the twin primes and perfect squares are related: n(n+2)+1= (n+1)^2.
And although I found some evidence on how the multiples of 36 are related to the twin primes
and their perfect square I could not find a solid formula to back up my evidence. But I do know
that they are related.