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Volume 878

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Wilhelm von Waldenfels

A Measure Theoretical

Approach to Quantum

Stochastic Processes

Wilhelm von Waldenfels

Himmelpfort, Germany

Lecture Notes in Physics

ISBN 978-3-642-45081-5 ISBN 978-3-642-45082-2 (eBook)

DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2

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Preface

and ax+ , called creation operators, indexed by x in the finite set X. They have the

commutation relations, for x, y ∈ X,

ax , ay+ = δx,y

[ax , ay ] = ax+ , ay+ = 0.

First we realize these operators in a purely algebraic way. We define them as gen-

erators of a complex associative algebra with the above commutation relations as

defining relations. We denote this algebra by W(X). It is a special form of a Weyl

algebra. A normal ordered monomial of the ax , ax+ , x ∈ X is what we call a mono-

mial of the form

ax+1 · · · ax+m ay1 · · · ayn .

The normal ordered monomials form a basis of W(X). This means any element of

W(X) can be represented in a unique way according to the formula

K(x1 , . . . , xm ; y1 , . . . , yn )ax+1 · · · ax+m ay1 · · · ayn ,

We can then move on to consider a continuous set of annihilation and creation

operators, e.g., ax , ax+ , x ∈ R, with the commutation relations

ax , ay+ = δ(x − y)

[ax , ay ] = ax+ , ay+ = 0

where δ(x −y) is Dirac’s δ-function. These operators are harder to define rigorously.

One possibility is to use the integrals

a(ϕ) = dx ϕ(x)ax

v

vi Preface

a + (ψ) = dx ψ(x)ax+ ,

where the arguments ϕ and ψ are square-integrable functions. Then the non-

vanishing commutation relations read

a(ϕ), a + (ψ) = dx ϕ(x)ψ(x).

Everything in this context can be well defined using what is called Fock space.

Another way to approach the problem was chosen by Obata [35]. He uses an

infinite system of nested Hilbert spaces, first defines ax , and then the adjoint ax+ in

the dual system.

In quantum field theory, one uses for operators the representation developed by

Berezin [8]

· · · dx1 · · · dxm dy1 · · · dyn Km,n (x1 , . . . , xm ; y1 , . . . , yn )

m,n

these operators can be performed by using the commutation relations. Berezin pro-

vides for that purpose an attractive functional integral.

Another way to perform the multiplication of these operators is to define a con-

volution for the coefficients K, using the commutation relations formally, and then

to forget about the ax and ax+ and work only with the convolution. This can be

done in a rigorous way. This is the theory of kernels introduced by Hans Maassen

[31] and continued by Paul-André Meyer [34]. These kernels are therefore called

Maassen-Meyer-kernels. The theory works for Lebesgue measurable kernels [41].

We now mention the usual way of defining a(ϕ) and a + (ϕ). Denote by

R = {∅} + R + R2 + · · ·

the space of all finite sequences of real numbers, where we use the + sign for union

of disjoint sets. Equip it with the measure

∞

1

ê(λ)(f ) = f (∅) + · · · dx1 · · · dxn f (x1 , . . . , xn ),

n!

n=1

ê(λ) is used because this is essentially the exponential of the Lebesgue measure λ.

Then Fock space is defined to be

L2s R, ê(λ) ,

Preface vii

where the letter s stands for symmetric. If L2s (Rn ) = L(n) is the space of symmetric

Lebesgue square-integrable functions on Rn , then

a(ϕ)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = dx0 ϕ(x0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

and

+

a (ϕ)f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

= ϕ(x0 )f (x1 , . . . , xn ) + ϕ(x1 )f (x0 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + · · ·

+ ϕ(xn )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn−1 ).

∞

L(n) ⊂ L2s R, ê(λ) ,

n=0,f

where the suffix f means, that any element f = (f0 , f1 , . . . , fn , . . . ) has components

fn = 0 for sufficiently large n.

This approach is based on the duality of the Hilbert space L2s (R, e(λ)) with itself.

We use Bourbaki’s measure theory [10] and employ the duality between measures

and functions. The space R is locally compact when provided with the obvious

topology. Use the notation Ms (R) for the space of symmetric measures and Ks (R)

for the space of symmetric continuous functions of compact support. We can now

define, for a measure ν on R and a symmetric function f ∈ Ks (R),

a(ν)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = ν(dx0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

+

a (ϕ)f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

= ϕ(x0 )f (x1 , . . . , xn ) + ϕ(x1 )f (x0 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + · · ·

+ ϕ(xn )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn−1 )

viii Preface

By making use of the δ-function we have raised both a conceptual and a semantic

problem. Denote the point measure at the point x by εx , with

εx (dy)ϕ(y) = ϕ(x).

In the physical literature, the δ-function can have three different meanings corre-

sponding to the different differentials with which it is combined:

δ(x − y)dx = εy (dx)

δ(x − y)dxdy = Λ(dx, dy),

Λ(dx, dy)ϕ(x, y) = dxϕ(x, x).

We will use both types of notation: one is mathematically clearer, the other one is

often more convenient for calculations. In mathematics one very often uses δx for

the point measure εx . We tend to avoid this notation.

Now we can define easily

a(x)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (x, x1 , . . . , xn ).

The definition of the creation operator is more difficult. Consider the measure-

valued function

x → εx

and define

a + (dx) = a + ε(dx) : Ks (R) → M (R),

+

a ( dx)f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

= εx0 (dx)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) + εx1 (dx)f (x0 , x2 , . . . , xn ) + · · ·

+ εxn (dx)f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn−1 ),

where the result is a sum of point measures on R. With the help of these operators

it is possible to establish a quantum white noise calculus.

We have the commutation relation

a(x), a + (dy) = εx (dy).

Preface ix

N = dx a + (x)a(x).

R

n(dx) = a + (dx)a(x),

n

n(dx)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = εxi (dx)f (x1 , . . . , xn ).

i=1

Mlmn = M(s1 , . . . , sl ; t1 , . . . , tm ; u1 , . . . , un )

= a + (ds1 ) · · · a + (dsl )a + (dt1 ) · · · a + (dtm )a(t1 ) · · · a(tm )a(u1 ) · · ·

× a(um )du1 · · · dun .

We define a measure on R5 by

mplmnq = m(x1 , . . . , xp ; s1 , . . . , sl ; t1 , . . . , tm ; u1 , . . . , un ; y1 , . . . , yq )

= ∅|a(x1 ) · · · a(xp )dx1 · · · dxp Mlmn (s1 , . . . , sl ; t1 , . . . , tm ; u1 , . . . , un )

a + (dy1 ) · · · a + (dyq )|∅ .

Fix a Hilbert space k, and denote by B(k) the space of bounded operators on it.

Consider a Lebesgue locally integrable function

Flmn = Flmn (s1 , . . . , sl ; t1 , . . . , tm ; u1 , . . . , un )

which is symmetric in the variables si , ti and ui , and two functions f, g ∈ Ks (R, k),

f = fp (x1 , . . . , xp )

g = gq (y1 , . . . , yq ).

1

f |B(F )|g = mplmnq fp+ Flmn gq

p!l!m!n!q!

where f + denotes the adjoint vector to f . This formula may look terrifying, but

it becomes more manageable by using multi-indices. It gives to Berezin’s formula

(∗) above a rigorous mathematical meaning, and it has the big advantage that it is a

classical integral, so that we have all the tools of classical measure theory available.

x Preface

space X, and to an arbitrary measure λ on X instead of the Lebesgue measure. We

will need that in Example 2 below.

The δ-function, or equivalently the point measure ε0 , can be approximated by

measures continuous with respect to the Lebesgue

measure. If ϕ ≥ 0 is a continuous

function of compact support on R, with dx ϕ(x) = 1, put

1 x

ϕζ (x) = ϕ

ζ ζ

and

ϕζx (y) = ϕζ (x − y).

Then for ζ ↓ 0

and

ϕζx (y)dy = ϕζ (x − y)dy → εx (dy) = δ(x − y)dy.

Recall

+ +

a (ϕ) = ϕ(x)a (dx), a(ϕ) = dx ϕ(x)ax .

a + ϕζx dx → a + (dx), a ϕζx → ax

since

+ x

a ϕζ dxf (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

= ϕζ (x − x0 )f (x1 , . . . , xn ) + · · · + ϕζ (x − xn )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn−1 ) dx

→ εx0 (dx)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) + · · · + εxn (dx)f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn−1 ),

and

x

a ϕζ f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = dx0 ϕζx (x0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ) → f (x, x1 , . . . , xn ).

In this context the operators a + (ϕζx ) and a(ϕζx ) are called coloured noise opera-

tors, and the transition ζ ↓ 0 is called, for historical reasons, the singular coupling

limit.

Without introducing any heavy apparatus we can treat four examples, where we

restrict ourselves to the zero-particle case and to the one-particle case, i.e. just to the

vacuum |∅ and L(1) = L1 (R, k), and do not need the whole Fock space.

Preface xi

damped oscillator

We restrict to the one-excitation case: We have either all oscillators in the

ground state and the atom in the upper level, or one oscillator is in the first state

and the atom is in the lower state. In the rotating wave approximation the Hamil-

tonian can be reduced to

H = ωa + (dω)a(ω) + E10 a + (ϕ) + E01 a(ϕ),

where

0 0 0 1 1 0

E01 = , E10 = , E11 =

1 0 0 0 0 0

and ϕ is a continuous function ≥ 0, with compact support in R, and dtϕ(t) = 1.

We consider a + (ϕ) and a + (ϕ) as coloured noise operators, replace ϕ by ϕζ ,

calculate the resolvent and perform the singular coupling limit. This means, in

frequency space, that ϕ approaches 1 and not δ. Then the resolvent converges to

the resolvent of a one-parameter strongly continuous unitary group on the space

1 0

H= C ⊗ C|∅ ⊕ C ⊗ L(1) .

0 1

The one-parameter group can be calculated explicitly, then we obtain the Hamil-

tonian as a singular operator, and calculate the spectral decomposition of the

Hamiltonian explicitly.

After establishing a more general theory on the entire Fock space we recog-

nize the interaction representation V (t) of the time-development operator in the

formal time representation as the restriction of U0t to H, where Ust is the solution

of the quantum stochastic differential equation (QSDE)

√ √

dt Ust = −i 2πE01 a + (dt)Ust − i 2πE10 Ust a(t)dt − πE11 dt

L2 R, C2 ⊃ H.

This is very similar to the first example, but we have to consider not only the

frequency but also the direction and the polarization of the photons. So for the

photons we are concerned with the space

X = L2 R × S2 × {1, 2, 3} ,

where the first factor stands for the formal time (replacing the frequency via

Fourier transform), the second one for the direction and the third one for the

xii Preface

the calculations easier. We provide X with the measure

λ|f = dtω02 dn f (t, n, i),

i=1,2,3

dn = 4π

S2

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · ·

and consider

Γ = L2 X, C2 .

Denote by Π(n) the projector on the plane perpendicular to n,

Π(n)ij = δij − ni nj .

H = dnω02 ω Π(n)i,l a + (dω, n, i)a(ω, n, l)

i,l

+ dnω02 ϕ(ω) Π(k)i,l E10 qi a(ω, n, l)dω + E01 q i a + (dω, n, l)

i,l

the singular coupling limit via the resolvent, and arrive at a strongly continuous

unitary one-parameter group on

1 0

H= C ⊗ C|∅ ⊕ C ⊗ L (X, λ) .

2

0 1

operator and give its spectral decomposition. If V (t) is the interaction represen-

tation of the time evolution in a formal time representation, then V (t) turns out to

be the restriction of Ust to H. Here Ust is the solution of the differential equation

√

dt Us = −i 2π

t

Π(n)il E01 q i a + d(t, n), l Ust

S2 il

+ E10 Ust qi a(t, n, l)ω02 dndt − πγ E11 Ust dt

Preface xiii

with

8π 2

γ= |q| .

3

This is a new type of QSDE and should be investigated further.

3. The Heisenberg equation of the amplified oscillator

In the coloured noise approximation the Hamiltonian reads

H = ωa + (dω)a(ω) + b+ a + (ϕ) + ba(ϕ)

where b and b+ are the usual oscillator operators with the non-vanishing com-

mutator [b, b+ ] = 1. Whereas the evolution corresponding to H is difficult and

will be treated in Chap. 9, the Heisenberg evolution is very easy. Define

H = Cb+ ⊕ a(ψ) : ψ ∈ L2 (R) ,

A → eiH t Ae−iH t .

coupling limit via the resolvent and obtain, similarly to the first example, that

evolution forms a strongly continuous one-parameter group on H. We identify

H with the H of Example 1 and define Eij accordingly. Then the interaction

representation V (t) of the evolution is the restriction to H of the solution Ust to

the QSDE

√ √

dt Ust = i 2π a + (dt)E01 Ust − i 2πE10 Ust a(t)dt + πE11 Ust dt.

spectral decomposition. Whereas this example looks algebraically very similar

to the first one, it is analytically very different. The evolution is not unitary, but

it does leave invariant the hermitian form

(c, f ) → |c|2 − f 2 .

The spectrum of the Hamiltonian consists of the real line and the points ±iπ .

4. The pure number process

We consider the coloured noise Hamiltonian

H = ωa + (dω)a(ω) + a + (ϕ)a(ϕ).

The one-particle space L(1) = L2 (R) stays invariant. We calculate on this sub-

space the resolvent, and determine the weak coupling limit. We again compute

xiv Preface

the unitary one-parameter group, the Hamiltonian and its spectral decomposition.

The interaction representation is the restriction of the solution of the QSDE

−i2π +

dt Ust = a (dt)Ust a(t).

1 + iπ

After using coloured noise we establish a white noise theory. Then we attack the

general Hudson-Parthasarathy differential equation, i.e., the QSDE

with Uss = 1. The solution can be given as an infinite power series in normal or-

dered monomials. The coefficients Ai , B are in B(k) for some Hilbert space k. If the

coefficients satisfy some well-known conditions, the evolution is unitary. We give

an explicit formula for the Hamiltonian. In Chap. 10 we show how this differential

equation can be approximated by coloured noise.

In order to treat the amplified oscillator we investigate the QSDE

1

dt Ust = −ia + (dt)b+ Ust − ibUst a(t)dt − bb+ .

2

This is an example of a QSDE with unbounded coefficients. For this we need the

white noise theory, and establish an infinite power series in normal ordered polyno-

mials. Using an algebraic theorem due to Wick, we sum the series and obtain an a

priori estimate. We prove unitarity, strong continuity and the Heisenberg evolution

of Example 3. With the help of the Heisenberg evolution we get estimates which

allow the calculation of the Hamiltonian.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to my good friend and colleague,

Patrick D.F. Ion. He spent weeks reading and discussing the present work with me,

finding a number of mathematical errors and providing good advice. Last but not

least, he improved my clumsy English as well as the LaTeX layout of the mathe-

matical formulae. This book could never have been completed without the untiring

help of Hartmut Krafft, a fellow citizen of our village, rescuing me on all computer

and LaTeX issues. I owe a great deal to the continuous moral support of my dear

friend Sigrun Stumpf.

Contents

1 Weyl Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1 Definition of a Weyl Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 The Algebraic Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Wick’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 Basis of a Weyl Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.5 Gaussian Functionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.6 Multisets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.7 Finite Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators . . . . . . . . 16

2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators . . . . . . 25

2.1 Creation and Annihilation Operators on Fock Space . . . . . . . 25

2.2 The Sum-Integral Lemma for Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.3 Creation and Annihilation Operators on Locally Compact Spaces 31

2.4 Introduction of Point Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3 One-Parameter Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.1 Resolvent and Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.2 The Spectral Schwartz Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes . . . . . . . . 55

4.1 Krein’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators . . . . 57

4.2.1 Discussion of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

4.2.2 Singular Coupling Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4.2.3 Time Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4.2.4 Replacing Frequencies by Formal Times . . . . . . . . . 68

4.2.5 The Eigenvalue Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation . . . . . 79

4.3.1 Physical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

4.3.2 Singular Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

4.3.3 The Hamiltonian and the Eigenvalue Problem . . . . . . 86

4.4 The Heisenberg Equation of the Amplified Oscillator . . . . . . 88

xv

xvi Contents

4.4.2 The Singular Coupling Limit, Its Hamiltonian

and Eigenvalue Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

4.5 The Pure Number Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

5 White Noise Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

5.1 Multiplication of Diffusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

5.2 Multiplication of Point Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

5.3 White Noise Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

5.4 Wick’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

5.5 Representation of Unity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

5.6 Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

6 Circled Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

6.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

6.2 A Circled Integral Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

6.3 Functions of Class C 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

7 White Noise Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.1 Integration of Normal Ordered Monomials . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.2 Meyer’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.3 Quantum Stochastic Processes of Class C 1 : Definition

and Fundamental Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

7.4 Ito’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation . . . . . . . . . . 139

8.1 Formulation of the Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

8.2 Existence and Uniqueness of the Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.3.1 A Two-Level Atom in a Heatbath of Oscillators . . . . . 141

8.3.2 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation . 143

8.3.3 The Heisenberg Equation of the Amplified Oscillator . . 144

8.3.4 A Pure Number Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

8.4 A Priori Estimate and Continuity at the Origin . . . . . . . . . . 145

8.5 Consecutive Intervals in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

8.6 Unitarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

8.7 Estimation of the Γk -Norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154

8.8 The Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

8.8.1 Definition of the One-Parameter Group W (t) . . . . . . . 161

8.8.2 Definition of â, â+ and ∂ˆ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

8.8.3 Characterization of the Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

9 The Amplified Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

9.1 The Quantum Stochastic Differential Equation . . . . . . . . . . 179

9.2 Closed Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

9.3 The Unitary Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

9.4 Heisenberg Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

9.5 The Hamiltonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Contents xvii

9.7 The Classical Yule-Markov Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

10 Approximation by Coloured Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

10.1 Definition of the Singular Coupling Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation . . . . . . 215

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Chapter 1

Weyl Algebras

tive algebra with the commutation relations as defining relations. This is a special

case of a Weyl algebra. We discuss Weyl algebras, show that ordered monomials

form a basis, introduce multisets and their notation. The vacuum and the scalar

product are defined in a natural way. We prove an algebraic theorem due to Wick.

bra with unit element denoted by 1. We will define the quantum mechanical mo-

mentum and position operators in an algebraic way following the ideas of Hermann

Weyl [45]. They are elements of a special Weyl algebra. Weyl algebras are defined as

quotients of a free algebra. The complex free algebra with indeterminates Xi , i ∈ I ,

is the associative algebra of all noncommutative polynomials in the Xi . So, for in-

stance, X1 X2 = X2 X1 . The algebra is denoted by F = CXi , i ∈ I . A basis for it is

the collection of monomials or words W formed out of Xi , i ∈ I

W = Xi k · · · Xi 2 Xi 1 .

Assume given a skew-symmetric matrix H = (Hij )i,j ∈I , and divide the algebra

CXi , i ∈ I by the ideal generated by the elements

Xi Xj − Xj Xi − Hij , i, j ∈ I.

The resulting algebra is generated by the canonical images xi , i ∈ I , and has the

relations

xi xj − xj xi = Hij .

It is called the Weyl algebra generated by the xi with the defining relations xi xj −

xj xi = Hij .

The canonical commutation relations provide the best known example: the quan-

tities pi and qi , with i = 1, . . . , n, generate a Weyl algebra with the defining rela-

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_1,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

2 1 Weyl Algebras

tions

pi qj − qj pi = −iδij ,

pi pj − pj pi = qi qj − qj qi = 0.

We introduce the tensor product in a coordinate-free way, following Bourbaki [12].

Assume we have n vector spaces V1 , . . . , Vn , and consider the space C of formal

linear combinations of the n-tuples

(x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ V1 × · · · × Vn .

− (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) − (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , yi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ),

(x1 , . . . , xi−1 , cxi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) − c(x1 , . . . , xi−1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn )

for i = 1, . . . , n; xi , yi ∈ Vi ; c ∈ C.

The tensor product is the quotient C/D,

n

C/D = V1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Vn = Vi .

i=1

x1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ xn .

F : V1 × · · · × Vn → U,

= F (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) + F (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , yi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ),

F (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , cxi , xi+1 , . . . , xn ) = cF (x1 , . . . , xi−1 , xi , xi+1 , . . . , xn )

for i = 1, . . . , n; xi , yi , in Vi ; c ∈ C.

proposition.

1.2 The Algebraic Tensor Product 3

• The mapping

(x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ V1 × · · · × Vn → x1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ xn ∈ V1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Vn

is multilinear.

• If

F : V1 × · · · × Vn → U

is a multilinear mapping into a complex vector space U , then there exists a unique

linear mapping

F̃ : V1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Vn → U

such that

F̃ (x1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ xn ) = F (x1 , . . . , xn ).

the set

{b1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ bn : bi ∈ Bi }

forms a basis of V1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Vn .

show that they are independent. Recall the space C of formal linear combinations of

the (x1 , . . . , xn ), and consider the subspace U spanned by the (b1 , . . . , bn ), bi ∈ Bi .

If xi ∈ Vi , then

xi = xi (b)b

b∈Bi

where xi (b) is the component of xi along b ∈ B. Recall that only finitely many xi (b)

are not equal to 0. The mapping

F : V1 × · · · × Vn → U

(x1 , . . . , xn ) → x1 (b1,k1 ) · · · xn (bn,kn )(b1,k1 , . . . , bn,kn )

k1 ,...,kn

F̃ : V1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ Vn → U

with

F̃ (x1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ xn ) = F (x1 , . . . , xn ).

4 1 Weyl Algebras

In particular,

F̃ (b1,k1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ bn,kn ) = (b1,k1 , . . . , bn,kn ).

As the elements on the right-hand side are independent, the tensor products

(b1,k1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ bn,kn )

m : f ⊗ g ∈ A ⊗ A → fg ∈ A

Assume we have n algebras, and define a product in their tensor product in the

following way:

→ (f1 ⊗ g1 ) ⊗ · · · ⊗ (fn ⊗ gn ) ∈ (A1 ⊗ A1 ) ⊗ · · · ⊗ (An ⊗ An )

→ m1 (f1 ⊗ g1 ) ⊗ · · · ⊗ mn (fn ⊗ gn ) ∈ A1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ An .

So finally

(f1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fn )(g1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ gn ) = f1 g1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ fn gn .

We imbed Ai into i Ai by putting

u1 : A1 f1 → u1 (f1 ) = f1 ⊗ 1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ 1 ∈ Ai

i

..

.

un : An fn → un (fn ) = 1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ 1 ⊗ fn ∈ Ai .

i

The images ui (fi ) commute for different i. Conversely we have the following

proposition [12].

Proposition 1.2.3 If A is an algebra

ferent i, then A is isomorphic to i Ai . We write

A∼

= Ai .

i

relations [xi , xj ] = Hi,j (where [xi , xj ] denotes the commutator as usual), and H

1.3 Wick’s Theorem 5

H1 0

H= ,

0 H2

then

W∼

= W 1 ⊗ W2 ,

where W1 is the Weyl algebra generated by x1 , . . . , xp with the defining relations

[xi , xj ] = (H1 )ij , and W2 is the Weyl algebra generated by xp+1 , . . . , xn with the

defining relations [xi , xj ] = (H2 )ij .

commute, hence the algebras generated by them commute, and we apply the Propo-

sition 1.2.3.

We cite a well-known theorem in quantum field theory from Jauch-Rohrlich’s

book [27].

Assume given two linearly ordered sets A and B, a ring A, and a function f :

A × B → A. Define

C α, β; α , β = f (α, β), f α , β 1 α > α − 1 β > β ,

where [ , ] denotes the commutator as usual, and 1{α > α } has the value 1 when

α > α and 0 otherwise. Consider a finite family (αi , βi )i∈I , αi ∈ A, βi ∈ B and

fi = f (αi , βi ). Assume, e.g., I = [1, n], then the sequence

(fin , . . . , fi1 )

(fjn , . . . , fj1 )

• [[fi , fj ], fk ] = 0

• [fi , fj ] = 0 if αi = αj or βi = βj .

Then the A-product

ments fi can supposed to commute on the right side of OA and the A-product is

commutative. A similar assertion holds for the B-product.

6 1 Weyl Algebras

Denote by P(n) the set of partitions of [1, n] into singletons and pairs. So p ∈

P(n) is of the form

p = {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } .

Define

B(p) = B(p; f1 , . . . , fn ) = B(ft1 · · · ftl )Cr1 ,s1 · · · Crm ,sm

with

Crs = C(αr , βr ; αs , βs ) = Csr .

Then we have

Theorem 1.3.1

OA f1 · · · fn = B(p; f1 , . . . , fn ).

p∈P(n)

gi = g(αi , βi ) ∈ A, i ∈ [1, n]

α ≥ αi , i ∈ [1, n] and furthermore [[h, gi ], gj ] = 0, and if α = αi then [h, gi ] = 0.

We have

n

hB(g1 · · · gn ) = B(hg1 · · · gn ) + C(α, β; αi , βi )B gj . (∗)

i=1 j ∈[1,n]\{i}

n

= gn · · · gk hgk−1 · · · g1 + [h, gi ]gn · · · gi+1 gi−1 · · · gk gk−1 · · · g1 .

i=k

As

[h, gi ]1{α = αi } = 0

we have for i ∈ [k, n]

[h, gi ] = [h, gi ]1{β ≤ βi } = [h, gi ] 1{α > αi } − 1{β > βi } = C(α, β; αi , βi ).

C(α, β; αi , βi ) = 0.

1.3 Wick’s Theorem 7

clear. Assume it for n − 1. Define a mapping ϕ : P(n) → P(n − 1) by erasing the

letter n. Assume again

p = {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } .

Then

{{t2 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm }} for t1 = n,

ϕp =

{{s1 }, {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r2 , s2 }, . . . , {rm , sm }} for r1 = n.

q ∈ P(n − 1) = {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } .

Then

ϕ −1 (q) = p0 , p1 , . . . , pl

{{n}, {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm }} for i = 0,

p =

i

{{t1 }, . . . , {ti−1 }, {ti+1 }, . . . , {tl }, {n, ti }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm }} for i > 0.

Without loss of generality, we may assume that the fi are A-ordered. We have by

our hypothesis of induction

A(fn · · · f1 ) = fn A(fn−1 · · · f1 ) = fn B(q; f1 , . . . , fn−1 ).

q∈P(n−1)

Now

l

= B(fn , ft1 , . . . , ftl ) + B(ft1 · · · fti−1 fti+1 · · · ftil )C(n, ti )

i=1

= B(p; f1 · · · fn )

p∈ϕ −1 (q)

8 1 Weyl Algebras

A(fn · · · f1 ) = fn B(q; f1 , . . . , fn−1 )

q∈P(n−1)

= B(p; f1 · · · fn ) = B(p; f1 , . . . , fn ).

q∈P(n−1) p∈ϕ −1 (q) p∈P(n)

defining relations [xi , xj ] = Hi,j . Assume given a linearly ordered set Γ and a map-

ping γ : I → Γ with the property that Hi,j = 0 for γ (i) = γ (j ). Then a mono-

mial W = xin · · · xi1 can be Γ -ordered. Denote the Γ -ordering by OΓ (W ). We use

Wick’s theorem in order to calculate OΓ (W ). The A-ordering of our formulation

of Wick’s theorem is the natural ordering of factors in W , the B-ordering is the

Γ -ordering. Then

Cr,s = [xir , xis ] 1{r > s} − 1 γ (ir ) > γ (is ) .

p = {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } ,

the expression

W p = OΓ (ft1 · · · ftl )Cr1 ,s1 · · · Crm ,sm .

Theorem 1.3.2

OΓ (W ) = W p .

p∈P(n)

Proof This is a corollary of the last theorem in the notation just discussed.

Assume the index set I to be totally ordered. We want to show, that the ordered

monomials make up a basis for the Weyl algebra W generated by xi , i ∈ I , with the

defining relations [xi , xj ] = Hi,j . By the last theorem, it is clear that they generate

the Weyl algebra. We have to prove their independence. This problem is related to

the Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt Theorem and we shall borrow some ideas from Bour-

baki’s proof of that [13].

We begin with the special case of H = 0. The Weyl algebra is then the algebra

K = C[xi , i ∈ I ] of commutative polynomials, with complex coefficients, in the

indeterminates xi , i ∈ I .

1.4 Basis of a Weyl Algebra 9

xA = xA(k) · · · xA(1) ,

XA(k) · · · XA(1) and σ ∈ Sk , the symmetric group on k elements, then define

and

1

sW = σW;

k!

σ ∈Sk

The algebra K is defined as the quotient F/I, where I is the ideal generated by

the Xj Xi − Xi Xj . An element of I is a linear combination of elements of the form

= (1 − τ )XA(k) · · · XA(l+1) Xj Xi XA(l−2) · · · XA(1) ,

l − 1 and l. As sτ = s we have

s W (Xj Xi − Xi Xj )W = 0

and s vanishes on I.

We want to prove, that ci xAi = 0 implies ci = 0 for finite sums, if the Ai are

different ordering maps Ai : [1, k] → I . This means

ci XAi ∈ I

and

ci s(XAi ) = 0.

As the words for different Ai on the left-hand side are different, the ci must van-

ish.

lations xi xj − xj xi = Hi,j , then the ordered monomials form a basis of W.

10 1 Weyl Algebras

terminates z1 , . . . , zn and denote by L(K) the algebra of linear maps K → K. Set

∂f

mi ∈ L(K) : mi (f ) = zi f ; di (f ) = Hi,l .

∂zl

i<l

Then

1 for i < j,

1i<j =

0 for i ≮ j.

η(Xi ) = mi + di . This means that in any polynomial we have to replace Xi by

mi + di . If XA = XA(k) · · · XA(1) , with A(k) ≥ · · · ≥ A(1), is an ordered monomial,

then

= (mA(k) · · · mA(1) )(1) = zA(k) · · · zA(1) = zA .

The algebra W = F/I, where I is the ideal generated by [Xi , Xj ] − Hi,j . It is clear,

that η vanisheson I. Assume XAi to

be ordered monomials, with ordering maps Ai

as above, and ci xAi = 0 in W, so ci XAi ∈ I in F. Then

0=η ci XAi (1) = ci zAi ,

If Q is a complex n × n-matrix, we define the linear functional γQ : F =

CX1 , . . . , Xn → C in the following way. If k = 2m is even, we define the set

P of partitions of [1, k] into pairs; we will always write the pairs with the first

component greater than the second:

m

XA p = Q A(pi ) , with

i=1

1.5 Gaussian Functionals 11

Q A(pi ) = Q A(ri ), A(si ) for pi = (ri , si ), ri > si .

0 for k = 2m + 1,

γQ (XA ) =

p∈P XA p for k = 2m.

Proposition 1.5.1 The functional γQ vanishes on the ideal generated by the poly-

nomials

Xi Xj − Xj Xi − (Qi,j − Qj,i ).

and divide the set P, for the given l, into the subsets

M0 = p ∈ P : (l, l − 1) ∈ p , Mrs = p ∈ P : pr , ps ∈ p ,

where pr = (r, l) resp. pr = (l, r), if r > l or r < l, and ps = (s, l − 1) resp. ps =

(l − 1, s). Then when we define

we have

γQ (W ) = Q A(l), A(l − 1) γQ (W0 )

+ Q pr Q ps Q(q).

r,s ∈{l,l−1},r

/ =s p∈Mrs q∈p\{pr ,ps }

Now consider

γQ (W ) − γQ W = (Q A(l), A(l − 1) − Q A(l − 1), A(l) γQ (W0 ).

and let κ : F → W be the canonical homomorphism; then there exists a well defined

mapping γ̃Q : W → C with γQ = γ̃Q ◦ κ.

12 1 Weyl Algebras

Example Consider a Weyl algebra W with defining relations [xi , xj ] = Hi,j , and

define a linear mapping by taking the coefficient of the unit in the basis of ordered

monomials, cf. Theorem 1.4.1, then by Theorem 1.3.2, under this mapping

xA → Q(p)

p∈P

with

Qi,j = Hi,j 1i<j .

1.6 Multisets

written, with xi ∈ X, i = 1, 2, . . . , n, as an n-tuple

(x1 , . . . , xn ).

It can be defined as a mapping from the interval [1, n] = (1, 2, . . . , n) of the natural

numbers into X. We may write

(x1 , . . . , xn ) = x[1,n] .

A to some target space,

xA = (xa1 , . . . , xan ).

The ordinary set defined by xA is the set

{xa : a ∈ A}.

m : X → N = {0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

The cardinality of m is m = |m| = x∈X m(x), showing different notations for the

same cardinality. The set of multisets is NX , the set of all mappings X → N. It forms

an additive monoid. A multiset is finite if its cardinality is finite. The commutative,

ordered monoid of all finite multisets is denoted M(X), and its ordered monoid

structure comes from defining

and

m1 ≤ m2 ⇐⇒ m1 (x) ≤ m2 (x) for all x ∈ X.

1.6 Multisets 13

m= m(x)1x .

x∈X

n

x • = (x1 , . . . , xn )• = κx = 1xi .

i=1

is a sequence and σ is a permutation, then

If x and x are two sequences, then there exists a permutation σ with x = σ x if and

only if κx = κx .

If m = (x1 , . . . , xn )• , then m(y) is the number of times that y occurs in the se-

quence (x1 , . . . , xn ), so m(y) is also known as the multiplicity of y in x • . Hence the

number of sequences defining the same multiset is

|m|!

# κ −1 (m) =

m!

with

m! = m(x)!.

x∈X

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · · .

We use the plus sign to denote the union of disjoint sets. A function f : X → C is

called symmetric if for x ∈ X n we have f (σ x) = f (x) for all permutations σ . If

f is a symmetric function and Mn (X) is the set of multisets of cardinality n, then

there exists a unique function f˜ : Mn (X) → C such that f = f˜ ◦ κ.

Assume that X is finite and that f vanishes on X n for sufficiently big n; then we

have the formula

1 1

f (x) = f˜(m).

(#x)! m!

x∈X m∈M(X)

If

α = {a1 , . . . , an },

is a set without a prescribed ordering, we define X α as the set of all mappings

xα : α → X. Supplement α with an ordering ω so that then the pair (α, ω) is given,

14 1 Weyl Algebras

(α, ω) = (a1 , . . . , an ).

If ω is another ordering, then

α, ω = a1 , . . . , an ,

in the order ω by the sequence

(xa1 , . . . , xan ).

The multiset

xα• = (xa1 , . . . , xan )• = 1xai

i

symmetric function, then f (xα ) = f ((xa1 , . . . , xan )) is well defined, regardless of

the ordering of α. If β ⊂ α, and xα is given, then we use the notation for restriction

xβ = xα β and xα\β = xα (α \ β). If xα ∈ X α and xβ ∈ X β are given, and α and

β are disjoint, then there exists a unique xα+β ∈ X α+β , such that xα and xβ are the

restrictions of xα+β , and we have

•

xα+β = xα• + xβ• .

•

xα+β = (xa1 , . . . , xan , xb1 , . . . , xbm )• ,

If X is finite and f : X n → C is symmetric, and also α has n elements then

n! ˜

f (x) = f (xα ) = f (xa1 , . . . , xan ) = f (m).

m!

x∈X n xα ∈X α (xa1 ,...,xan ) m ∈ Mn

sufficiently large, and there is a sequence α = (α0 , α1 , α2 , . . .) of finite sets with

#αn = n. Then

∞

∞

1 1 1 ˜

f (x) = f (xαn ) = f (m).

n! n! m!

n=0 n x∈X n=0 xαn ∈X αn m∈M(X)

∞

1

f (x) = f (xα )Δα

n! n α

n=0 x∈X

1.6 Multisets 15

with

1

Δα = .

#α!

Assume, for example,

α0 = ∅,

α1 = {1},

α2 = {1, 2},

α3 = {1, 2, 3},

···

and

xα0 = ∅,

xα1 = x1 ,

xα2 = (x1 , x2 ),

xα3 = (x1 , x2 , x3 ),

··· .

Then

1

f (xα )Δα = f (∅) + f (x1 ) + f (x1 , x2 )

α x1

2! x ,x

1 2

1

+ f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) + · · · .

3! x

1 ,x2 ,x3

x ∈ X, we set

xα = xa1 · · · xan ,

so that

xα xβ = xα+β .

∂x0 xα = δ(x0 , xc )xα\c ,

c∈α

16 1 Weyl Algebras

Assume X to be a finite set and consider the Weyl algebra W(X) generated by

ax , ax+ for all x ∈ X, with the defining relations

ax , ay+ = δx,y , [ax , ay ] = ax+ , ay+ = 0

for x, y ∈ X. This implies, that the ax commute with each other and so do the ax+ .

Using Proposition 1.2.4 we obtain

W(X) = W ax , ax+ ,

x∈X

where W(ax , ax+ ) is the subalgebra generated by ax , ax+ . The elements ax are called

annihilation operators, the elements ax+ creation operators.

In W(X) we define the anti-isomorphism given by

T

ax → axT , ax+ → ax+ = ax .

Consider a monomial

M = axϑnn · · · axϑ11

with ϑi = ±1 and

a+ for ϑ = +1,

axϑ = x

ax for ϑ = −1.

Then

M T = ax−ϑ

1

1 · · · a −ϑn .

xn

i.e., if the monomial is of the form

Proof In order to apply Theorem 1.4.1, we order the generators of W(X). We as-

sume that X has N elements, order the elements of X and define ξi = ax+i and

ξN +i = axi for i = 1, . . . , N .

Consider a monomial

ϑ(n) ϑ(1)

M = ax(n) · · · ax(1) .

1.7 Finite Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators 17

As the ax commute and the ax+ commute among themselves, normal ordering is

defined, see Sect. 1.3, and

+

:M: = Oa M = ax(i) ax(i) .

i:ϑ(i)=+1 i:ϑ(i)=−1

Denote by P(n) the set of partitions of [1, n] into singletons {ti } and pairs

{rj , sj }, rj > sj . So we have a typical partition

p = {t1 }, . . . , {tl }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } .

ϑ(t )

Mp = :ax(t11) · · · axϑ(t l ) :C(r , s ) · · · C(r , s )

t (l) 1 1 m m

with

1 for x(r) = x(s), ϑ(r) = −1, ϑ(s) = +1,

C(r, s) =

0 otherwise.

Then

M= Mp .

p∈P

+ m + m1 + mk

a = ax1 · · · axk , a m = (ax1 )m1 · · · (axk )mk .

+ m1 m

a a 2,

with m1 , m2 ∈ M(X).

We want to define the ‘right vacuum’ Φ. It is characterized by the property that

ax Φ = 0 for all x ∈ X. We define the left ideal Il ⊂ W(X) generated by the ele-

ments ax , x ∈ X. A normal ordered monomial is in Il if it is of the form (a + )m a m

with m = 0. These elements form a basis of Il . The quotient space W(X)/Il has

the basis (a + )m + Il , where m runs through all multisets in M(X). Denote the zero

element 0 + Il of W(X)/Il by 0, and call

Φ = 1 + Il ,

then

ax Φ = Il = 0.

18 1 Weyl Algebras

+ m m

a + Il = a + Φ.

The quotient space W(X)/Il is a W(X) left module. The action of W(X) on

W(X)/Il is denoted by Tl .

Tl (f )(g + Il ) = f g + Il .

Use Dirac’s notation (a + )m Φ = |m , then Φ = |0 and

ax+ |m = |m + 1x , ax |m = δx,y |m − 1x .

y∈X

If l ∈ M(X), then

m!

a l |m = |m − l ,

(m − l)!

recalling m! = x∈X m(x)!. So a l |m = 0 iff m ≥ l. Especially

a m |m = m!Φ.

In an analogous way we define the left vacuum Ψ . Consider the right ideal Ir

generated by the ax+ , x ∈ X. The elements of the form (a + )m a m with m = 0 form

a basis of Ir . The quotient space W(X)/Ir has the basis a + Ir , where m runs

m

through all multisets in M(X). The quotient space W(X)/Ir is a W(X) right mod-

ule under the action Tr

Tr (f )(g + Ir ) = gf + Ir .

Ψ = 1 + Ir , then

a m + Ir = Ψ a m .

Again use Dirac’s notation Ψ a m = m| and Ψ = 0|. Then

Ψ ax+ = 0|ax+ = 0,

m|ax = m + 1x |,

m|ax+ = δx,y m − 1x |,

y∈X

l m!

m| a + = m − l|.

(m − l)!

1.7 Finite Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators 19

linear mappings of W(X)/Il into itself, is a faithful homomorphism. Similarly, the

mapping f ∈ W(X) → Tr (f ) ∈ L(W(X)/Ir ) is a faithful anti-homomorphism.

Proof We have to show, that Tl (f ) = 0 ⇒ f = 0. Assume f = c(m, m )(a + )m

a m = 0, and choose m = max{|m | : c(m, m ) = 0}. This number exists, as the sum

is finite. Choose m0 with |m0 | = m and c(m, m0 ) = 0 for some m. If c(m, m ) = 0,

then |m | ≤ m and a m |m0 = m0 !δm ,m0 |0 and, furthermore,

m

0 = Tl (f )m0 = m0 !c m, m0 a + |0 = m0 !c m, m0 |m .

m m

As the |m are linear independent, all c(m, m0 ) = 0. This is a contradiction. That Tr

is faithful can be proven in an analogous way.

1 + Il + Ir .

dered monomials. Then

f + Il + Ir = f + Il + Ir = Ψf Φ.

f = Ψf Φ = 0|f |0 .

If

M = axϑnn · · · axϑ11

is a monomial, then

M = 0|M|0 = Mp .

p∈P2

Here P2 is the set of pair partitions of [1, n]; if (r, s), r > s, is such a pair, then

1 for xr = xs , ϑr = −1, ϑs = +1,

C(r, s) =

0 otherwise.

So

C(r, s) = axϑrr axϑss .

20 1 Weyl Algebras

with ri > si is pair partition, then

Mp = C(ri , si ).

i

M = M T .

Q (x, ϑ), x , ϑ = axϑ axϑ

for x, x ∈ X and ϑ, ϑ = ±1; then

M = γQ (M),

We may write Wick’s theorem in the form

M= : axi :

ϑi ϑi

axi .

I ⊂[1,n] i∈I i∈[1,n]\I

Φ T = Ψ,

+ m T T

a Φ = |m = Ψ a m = m|.

m

Ψ a m a + Φ = m|m = m!δm,m .

1 + m

η(m) = √ a Φ.

m!

They are orthonormal in that

η(m)|η m = δm,m .

vanish for |m| sufficiently large. Extend the form m|m to a sesquilinear form on

K (M(X)). Consider the elements of the form

1

|f = f (m)|m

m

m!

1.7 Finite Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators 21

1

f | = f (m)m|;

m

m!

then

1

f |g = f (m)g(m).

m

m!

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · · .

n

If ξ = (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ X n , then the multiset ξ • = κξ = x=1 1xi . We set

+

,

|ξ = |κξ , ξ | = κξ |.

We have

+

ay |x1 , . . . , xn = |y, x1 , . . . , xn

ay |x1 , . . . , xn = δy,x1 |x2 , . . . , xn + δy,x2 |x1 , x3 , . . . , xn

+ · · · + δy,xn |x1 , . . . , xn−1 .

on X n for n sufficiently big. If f ∈ Ks (X), then there exists a unique function

f˜ ∈ K (M(X)) with f = f˜ ◦ κ. We obtain

∞

1

|f = |f˜ = f (ξ )|ξ ,

n!

n=0 n ξ ∈X

∞

1

f |g = f˜|g̃ = f (ξ )g(ξ ).

n!

n=0 nξ ∈X

+

ax f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = δx,x1 f (x2 , . . . , xn ) + δx,x2 f (x1 , x3 , . . . , xn )

+ · · · + δx,xn f (x1 , . . . , xn−1 ).

Then

∞

1

ax |f = f (ξ )ax |ξ = |ax f ,

n!

n=0 n ξ ∈X

22 1 Weyl Algebras

∞

1

ax+ |f = f (ξ )a + |ξ = ax+ f .

n!

n=0 n ξ ∈X

Proof We have

1

ax |f = f (x1 , . . . , xn )ax |x1 , . . . , xn

n

n! x ,...,x

1 n

1

= f (x1 , . . . , xn ) δx,x1 |x2 , . . . , xn + · · · + δx,xn |x1 , . . . , xn−1

n

n! x ,...,x

1 n

n

= f (x, x2 , . . . , xn )|x2 , . . . , xn = |ax f .

n

n! x ,...,x

2 n

axα = axc ; ax+α = ax+c ; |xα = ax+α Φ.

c∈α c∈α

For c ∈

/ α we have

ax+c |xα = |xα+c ,

where we have used the shorthand α + c = α + {c}. We obtain for xc ∈ X

axc |xα = δxb ,xc |xα\b

b∈α

#αn = n, then, recalling Δα = 1/(#α)!, we have

|f = (Δα)f (xα )|xα ,

α

f |g = (Δα)f (xα )g(xα ).

α

and for xc ∈ X

+

axc f (xα ) = δxc ,xb f (xα\c ).

b∈α

1.7 Finite Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators 23

a(g) = g(x)ax ; a + (g) = g(x)ax+ .

x∈X x∈X

a(g)f (xα ) = g(xc )f (xα+c ),

xc ∈X

+

a (g)f (xα ) = g(xc )f (xα\c ).

c∈α

One has also for the commutator

a(g), a + (h) = g|h .

Chapter 2

Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation

Operators

Abstract We define first the operators a(ϕ) and a + (ϕ) on the usual Fock space.

Then we exhibit a generalization of the sum-integral lemma to measures. We intro-

duce creation and annihilation operators on locally compact spaces, and use these

notions to define creation and annihilation operators localized at points.

There are many ways to generalize function spaces on finite sets to function spaces

on infinite sets. The usual way to generalize creation and annihilation operators

employs Hilbert and Fock spaces. Assume we have a measurable space X and a

measure λ on X. We consider the Hilbert space L2 (X, λ) and a sequence of Hilbert

spaces, for n = 1, 2, . . . ,

L(n) = L2s X n , λ⊗n

of symmetric square-integrable functions on X n , with L(0) = C. The Fock space

for X is defined as

∞

Γ (X, λ) = L(n).

n=0

∞

1

f |g λ = f 0 g0 + λ(dx1 ) · · · λ(dxn )f n (x1 , . . . , xn )gn (x1 , . . . , xn )

n!

n=1

∞

1 2

f 2Γ = |f0 | +

2

λ(dx1 ) · · · λ(dxn )fn (x1 , . . . , xn )

n!

n=1

and if f Γ < ∞. We define the subspace Γfin ⊂ Γ of those f such that fn = 0 for

n sufficiently large.

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_2,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

26 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · ·

∞

1

ê(λ)(f ) = f (∅) + λ(dx1 ) · · · λ(dxn )fn (x1 , . . . , xn ).

n!

n=1

L2s X, ê(λ) = Γ (X, λ).

As the values of a function at a given point are generally not defined, we cannot

define ax and ax+ for a given x ∈ X. But the definitions at the end of Sect. 1.7 can

be generalized. Define for f ∈ L(n + 1) and g ∈ L(1)

a(g)f (x1 , . . . xn ) = λ(dx0 )g(x0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

+

a (g)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = g(xc )f (x[1,n]\{c} ).

c∈[1,n]

√

a(g) ≤ n + 1gΓ f Γ ,

Γ

+ √

a (g) ≤ ngΓ f Γ

Γ

with, of course,

2

g2Γ = λ(dx)g(x) .

The mappings a(g) and a + (g) can be extended to operators Γfin (X, λ) → Γfin (X, λ),

and one has

f |a(g)h = a + (g)f |h

and the commutator

a(f ), a + (g) = λ(dx)f (x)g(x).

In this work we will mainly use another way of generalizing the creation and anni-

hilation operators on finite sets. Instead of L2 (X, λ) we will deal with the pairs of

2.2 The Sum-Integral Lemma for Measures 27

ation described in the last section, we can easily define white noise operators. We

have at our disposal the powerful tools of classical measure theory, and may use the

positivity of the commutation relations.

This paper is related to the theory of kernels, first used in quantum probability

by Maassen [31] and Meyer [34]. The theory of kernels, however, is well known in

quantum field theory. Quantum stochastic processes form, to some extent, a quan-

tum field theory in one space coordinate and one time coordinate. Our approach is

dual to that of Maassen and Meyer. We introduce the field operators directly and

work with them.

The sum-integral lemma is the basic tool of our analysis. It has been well known

for diffuse measures for a long time, i.e., for measures where the points have mea-

sure 0 [33]. Our lemma is much more general; it holds for all measures.

We shall employ Bourbaki’s measure theory. It is a theory of measures on locally

compact spaces. If S is a locally compact space, denote by K (S) the space of

complex-valued continuous functions on S with compact support, and by M (S)

the space of complex measures on S. A complex measure is a linear functional

μ : K (S) → C, such that for any compact K ⊂ S, there exists a constant CK such

that |μ(f )| ≤ CK maxx∈S |f (x)| for all f ∈ K (S) with support in K. As in other

measure theories the set of integrable functions can be extended from functions in

K (S) to much more general functions. All the usual theorems, like the theorem of

Lebesgue, are valid. We shall use the vague convergence of measures, which is the

weak convergence over K (S), i.e. μι → μ if μι (f ) → μ(f ) for all f ∈ K (S).

In order to avoid unnecessary complications, we shall only consider locally com-

pact spaces which are countable at infinity, i.e., which are a union of countably many

compact subsets. Assume now that X is a locally compact space, provide X n with

the product topology, and the set

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · ·

with that topology where the X n are both open and closed, and where the restrictions

to X n coincide with the natural topology of X n . Then X is locally compact as well,

any compact set is contained in a finite union of the X n , and its intersections with

the X n are compact.

In our case, the space X mostly will be R. But we shall encounter R × S2 and

generalizations of R.

If μ is a complex measure on X, we write

μ = μ0 + μ1 + μ2 + · · ·

Ψ (f ) = f (∅).

the notation

μ(dxA ) = μn (dxA(1) , . . . , dxA(n) ).

28 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

of w. If α is a set without prescribed order and f is symmetric, then f (xα ) is well

defined. A measure on X n is symmetric, if for all f ∈ K (X n ) and all permutations

σ of [1, n], one has μ(f ) = μ(σf ) with (σf )(w) = f (σ w) for all w ∈ X n . A mea-

sure on X is symmetric if all its restrictions to X n are symmetric. We then use the

notation μ(dxα ).

Like a function, a measure μ has an absolute value |μ|. A measure μ is bounded,

if the measure of the total space with respect to |μ| is finite.

If w ∈ X, w = (x1 , . . . , xn ), then we set

1 1

Δw = = .

#w! n!

Theorem 2.2.1 (Sum-integral lemma for measures) Let there be given a measure

μ(dw1 , . . . , dwk )

on

Xk = X n1 × · · · X nk ,

n1 ,...,nk

μ= μn1 ,...,nk

n1 ,...,nk

1

Δw1 · · · Δwk μ(dw1 , . . . , dwk ) = μn ,...,nk (dw1 , . . . , dwk )

n1 ! · · · nk ! 1

is a bounded measure on Xk . Then

··· Δw1 · · · Δwk μ(dw1 , . . . , dwk ) = Δw ν(dw)

Xk X

where ν is a measure on X, and (1/n!)νn is a bounded measure, in which νn is

the restriction of ν to X n and

νn (dx1 , . . . , dxn ) = μ#β1 ,...,#βk (dxβ1 , . . . , dxβk ),

β1 +···+βk =[1,n]

Proof

··· Δw1 · · · Δwk μ(dw1 , . . . , dwk )

Xk

1

= ··· μn ,...,nk (dxα1 , . . . , dxαn )

n1 ,...,nk X n1 X nk n1 ! · · · nk ! 1

2.2 The Sum-Integral Lemma for Measures 29

α1 = [1, n1 ],

α2 = [n1 + 1, n1 + n2 ], ..., αk = [n1 + · · · nk−1 + 1, n1 + · · · + nk ].

Fix n1 , . . . , nk and put n = n1 + · · · nk . Then for the summand in the above formula

we have

··· μn1 ,...,nk (dxα1 , . . . , dxαk )

X n1 X nk

1

= ··· μn1 ,...,nk (dxσ (α1 ) , . . . , dxσ (αk ) )

n! σ X n1 X nk

where the sum runs over all permutations of n elements. The subsets σ (αi ) = βi

have the property

that

σ (αi ) = βi for i = 1, . . . , k.

Hence the last integral expression equals

n1 ! · · · n k !

· · · μn1 ,...,nk (dxβ1 , . . . , dxβk ),

n!

β1 ,...,βk

1

··· μn ,...,nk (dxα1 , . . . , dxαn )

n1 ,...,nk X n1 n1 ! · · · nk ! 1

X nk

1

= · · · μn1 ,...,nk (dxβ1 , . . . , dxβk ).

n

n!

β1 ,...,βk

similar situations.

prescribed order and μ is a symmetric measure then

1

μ(dw)Δw = μ(dxα )Δα = μ(dxα ).

Xn Xα n! Xα

30 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

For a sequence α = (α0 , α1 , . . .), with #αn = n, of sets without prescribed ordering

we define for a symmetric measure μ on X

1

Δwμ(dw) = μ(dxαn )

X n

n! Xαn

Δwμ(dw) = μ(dxα )Δα = μ(dxα )Δα.

X Xα α

quences of finite sets, with #αi,n = n and αn,i ∩ αn ,j = ∅ for i = j , and β =

(β0 , β1 , . . .), with #βn = n and the βj disjoint from the αi , then define

We have

··· Δα1 · · · Δαk μ(dxα1 , . . . , dxαk ) = Δβν(dxβ )

α1 αk β

with

ν(dxβ ) = μ(dxβ1 , . . . , dxβk ),

β1 +···+βk =β

Δwμ(dw) = Δ(α)μ(dxα ).

X α

Later we will often skip the Δα completely and write for the last expression simply

μ(dxα )

α

μ(α).

α

··· μ(dxα1 , . . . , dxαk ) = μ(dxα1 , . . . , dxαk )

α1 αk α α +···+α =α

1 n

2.3 Creation and Annihilation Operators on Locally Compact Spaces 31

or by neglecting the dx

··· μ(α1 , . . . , αk ) = μ(α1 , . . . , αk ).

α1 αk α α +···+α =α

1 k

If X = R and

R = {∅} + R + R2 + · · ·

and if λ is the Lebesgue measure

e(λ)(dxα )f (xα )Δα = dx1 · · · dxn f (x1 , . . . , xn ).

α n x1 <···<xn

dωf (ω) = dx1 · · · dxn f (x1 , . . . , xn ),

n x1 <···<xn

(ω1 , . . . , ωn ) → ω1 + · · · + ωn

is defined where the ωi are pairwise disjoint, i.e. Lebesgue almost everywhere. The

usual sum-integral lemma is

· · · dω1 · · · dωk f (ω1 , . . . , ωk ) = dω f (ω).

ω1 +···+ωk =ω

It can be easily derived from the sum-integral lemma for measures, as multisets with

multiple points have Lebesgue measure 0.

Spaces

We use the duality between measures and continuous functions of compact support.

We define creation and annihilation operators for symmetric functions and measures

on X. Assume given a function ϕ ∈ K (X), a function f ∈ Ks (X), the space of

symmetric continuous functions on X of compact support, a measure ν ∈ M (X),

and a measure μ ∈ Ms (X), the space of symmetric measures on X. We define

a(ν)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = ν(dx0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn )

32 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

or in another notation, where α + c = α + {c} means that the point c is added to the

set α, and similarly using α \ c = α \ {c}, we can continue with

a(ν)f (xα ) = ν(dxc )f (xα+c ),

a + (ϕ)f (xα ) = ϕ(xc )f (xα\c ),

c∈α

+

a (ν)μ (dxα ) = ν(dxc )μ(dxα\c ),

c∈α

a(ϕ)μ (dxα ) = ϕ(xc )μ(dxα+c ).

then

a(ν)Φ = 0.

Similarly if Ψ is the measure defined by

Ψ (f ) = Ψ |f = f (∅),

then

a(ϕ)Ψ = 0.

We have therefore

Ψ |Φ = 1.

We define the mapping

μ ∈ M (X) → μ(Φ)

and use the notation for it

One obtains

Ψ |a(ν)a + (ϕ)Φ = ν(dx)ϕ(x) = ν|ϕ

X

+

Φ|a(ϕ)a (ν)Ψ = ν(dx)ϕ(x) = ϕ|ν

X

a(ν), a + (ϕ) = ν(dx)ϕ(x) = ν|ϕ ,

2.3 Creation and Annihilation Operators on Locally Compact Spaces 33

a(ϕ), a + (ν) = ν(dx)ϕ(x) = ϕ|ν .

We define

μ|f = Δw μ(dw)f (w) = Δα μ(dxα )f (xα ),

X α

f |μ = μ|f .

a + (ν)μ|f = μ|a(ν)f ,

a(ϕ)μ|f = μ|a(ϕ)+ f

or

Δw a + (ν)μ (dw)f (w) = Δw μ(dw) a(ν)f (w),

Δw a(ϕ)μ (dw)f (w) = Δw μ(dw) a + (ϕ)f (w).

Proof We prove only one of the equations by using the sum-integral lemma

Δβ a + (ν)μ (dxβ )f (xβ ) = Δβ ν(dxc )μ(dxβ\c )f (xβ ).

β β c∈β

Introduce the sequence consisting of {c} alone, and the sequence α = (α0 , α1 , . . .),

by putting αn−1 = βn \ c. In this way the integral becomes

Δα ν(dxc )μ(dxα )f (xα+c ) = μ|a(ν)f .

α c

+ (ϕ)

e(ϕ) = Φ + ϕ + ϕ ⊗2 + · · · = ea Φ,

a + (ν)

e(ν) = Ψ + ν + ν ⊗2 + · · · = e Ψ.

e(ν)(dxα ) = ν(dxa1 ) · · · ν(dxan ).

34 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

We consider the function

ε : x ∈ X → εx ∈ M (X), εx (dy)ϕ(y) = ϕ(x).

εx1 (dy)μ(dx1 , dx2 , . . . , dxn ) = μ(dy, dx2 , . . . , dxn ),

x1

where the subscript variable x1 on the integral indicates integration over the range

X of that variable.

ϕ(y)εx1 (dy)μ(dx1 , dx2 , . . . , dxn ) = ϕ(x1 )μ(dx1 , dx2 , . . . , dxn )

y x1 x1

= ϕ(y)μ(dy, dx2 , . . . , dxn ).

y

a(x)f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = εx (dx0 )f (x0 , x1 , . . . , xn ) = f (x, x1 , . . . , xn ).

x0

If μ ∈ Ms (X) then

a + (εx )μ(dxα ) = εx (dxc )μ(dxα\c ).

c∈α

If ν is a measure on X, then

a(ν) = ν(dx)a(x).

We will mostly use the symbol a + (dx) for a mapping from Ks (X) into the mea-

sures on X, which we will now introduce and explain.

If S is a locally compact space, μ a measure on S, and f a Borel function, we

define the product f μ by the formula

(f μ)(ds)ϕ(s) = μ(ds)f (s)ϕ(s)

2.4 Introduction of Point Measures 35

with target the space of measures on T . It can be considered as a function

f : S × K (T ) → C

and we write it

f = f (s, dt).

We extend the notion of the creation operator to functions f = f (x, dy) : X →

M (X), where using x indicates the variable and the dy reminds us that the value is

a measure, and define for g ∈ Ks (X)

+

a (f )g (xα , dy) = f (xc , dy)g(xα\c ).

c∈α

+

a (dy)g (xα ) = a + ε(dy) g (xα ) = εxc (dy)g(xα\c ).

c∈α

a + (ε) = a + (ε)(dy).

a (ϕ)f = a + (dx)ϕ(x).

+

a(εx ), a(εy ) = 0,

+

a (ε)(dx), a + (ε)(dy) = 0,

a(εx ), a + (ε)(dy) = εx (dy).

+

a (ε)gy (xα , dy) = εxc (dy)gy (xα\c ).

c∈α

In this equation the product of the measure εxc (dy) with the function gy appears.

A special case arises if gy = a(εy )f .

36 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

Proposition 2.4.1

+

a (ε)a(εy )f (xα , dy) = εxc (dy)f (xα ).

c∈α

Proof

+

a (ε)a(εy )f (xα , dy) = εxc (dy) a(εy )f (xα\c )

c∈α

= εxc (dy)f xα\c + {y} = εxc (dy)f xα\c + {xc }

c∈α c∈α

= εxc (dy)f (xα )

c∈α

as

ε(x, dy)g(y) = ε(x, dy)g(x).

So

n(dy) = a + (ε)(dy)a(εy )

is the operator analogous to the number operator ax+ ax in the case of finitely many

x considered in Sect. 1.7.

We single out a positive measure λ on X, and introduce in Ks (X) the positive

sesquilinear form considered already in Sect. 1.7,

f |g λ = Δα e(λ)(dxα )f (xα )g(xα ) = f e(λ)|g = f |g e(λ) ,

α

e(λ) = Ψ + λ + λ⊗2 + · · · .

f |a(ν)g λ = a + (ν)e(λ)f |g .

+

a (ϕ)f |g λ = f |a(ϕλ)g λ .

If μ is a symmetric measure on X, one has

a(ε)(dxc )μ (dxα ) = μ(dxα+c )

as

a(ε)(dy)μ (dxα ) = εxc (dy)μ(dxα+c ) = μ(dxα , dy).

xc

2.4 Introduction of Point Measures 37

We can calculate

μ|a + ε(dy) f = a ε(dy) μ|f .

f |a + ε(dy) g λ = λ(dy) a ε(y) f |g λ ,

f |n(dy)g λ = f |Ng λ

y

Proof

f |a + ε(dxc ) g λ = a ε(dxc ) f e(λ)|g = e(λ)f (dxα+c )g(xα )Δ(α)

= λ(dxc ) f (xα+c ) e(λ) (dxα )g(xα )Δ(α)

= λ(dxc ) a(xc )f |g λ .

Hence

f |a + ε(dy) g λ = λ(dy) a ε(y) f |g λ .

One obtains, from the definition of n

f |n(dy)g λ = f |a + ε(dy) a(εy )g λ = λ(dy) a(εy )f |a(εy )g λ

and

λ(dy) a(εy )f |a(εy )g λ

y

∞

= (1/n!) λ(dy) λ(dx1 ) · · · λ(dxn )f (y, x1 , . . . , xn )g(y, x1 , . . . , xn )

n=0

= f |Ng λ .

for f ∈ V , and f | for the semilinear functional g = |g → f |g . If c ∈ C, then

cf | = cf |. Given an operator A : V → V , we define the operator A† operating on

f | to the left by

f |A† = Af |.

38 2 Continuous Sets of Creation and Annihilation Operators

There might be, or there might not be, an operator A+ acting on |g to the right with

A† = A+ or Af |g = f |A† g = f |A+ g .

We apply this definition to Ks (X) provided with the scalar product · | · λ and, as

a corollary of Proposition 2.4.2, we have

a + ε(dy) = a † (εy )λ(dy).

x ∈ X. We compare it to the δ-function on R, as used in physical literature. The

δ-function has three different meanings, depending on the differentials with which

it is multiplied:

δ(x − y)dx = εy (dx),

δ(x − y)dx dy = Λ(dx, dy),

where

Λ(dx, dy)f (x, y) = dxf (x, x).

Recall

R = {∅} + R + R2 + · · · ,

use for λ the Lebesgue measure, treat the δ-function formally as an ordinary func-

tion, and put δx (y) = δ(x − y); then

+

a (δx )f (xα ) = δ(x − xc )f (xα\c ),

c∈α

a(δxc )f (xα ) = dxb δ(xc − xb )f (xα+b ) = f (xα+c ).

f |a + (δx )g λ = a(δx )f |g λ .

there is no difference between a + and a † . But the author hopes that the mathematics

has become clearer through the use of the ε-measures.

In some calculations we use the terminology of Laurent Schwartz and write

ε0 (dx) = δ(x)dx.

Chapter 3

One-Parameter Groups

Abstract In the first section, starting from the resolvent equation we study strongly

continuous one-parameter groups, their resolvents and their generators. In the sec-

ond section, we introduce the spectral Schwartz distribution.

We follow, for quite a while, the book of Hille and Phillips [24]. Assume we have a

Banach space V . Denote by L(V ) the space of all bounded linear operators from V

to V provided with the usual operator norm. If a ∈ L(V ) the resolvent set of a is

ρ(z) = z ∈ C : (z − a)−1 exists ,

where z − a stands for z1 − a, as usual. The set ρ(z) is open. The function

Approaching matters the other way round, assume we have an open set G ⊂ C

and a function R(z) : G → L(V ) satisfying the resolvent equation. Such a function

is called a pseudoresolvent; the resolvent equation implies that the R(z), z ∈ G,

commute. From

1 + (z2 − z1 )R(z1 ) R(z2 ) = R(z1 )

one concludes, that for |z2 − z1 | R(z1 ) < 1 the inverse of (1 + (z2 − z1 )R(z1 ))

exists and

−1

R(z2 ) = 1 + (z2 − z1 )R(z1 ) R(z1 ).

Hence R(z) is holomorphic in G.

D = R(z)V

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_3,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

40 3 One-Parameter Groups

injective for all z ∈ G, and there exists a mapping a : D → V such that

(z − a)R(z)f = f for f ∈ V ,

R(z)(z − a)f = f for f ∈ D,

or

R(z) = (z − a)−1 ;

furthermore,

restriction to R(z)V0 , where z is an element of the resolvent set.

f = R(z0 )g = 1 + (z − z0 )R(z0 ) R(z)g,

inverse. Define a = z0 − R(z0 )−1 , then, for f ∈ D,

R(z)(z − a)f = R(z) z − z0 + R(z0 )−1 f

= R(z) 1 + (z − z0 )R(z0 ) R(z0 )−1 f

= R(z) + (z − z0 )R(z)R(z0 ) R(z0 )−1 f = f.

The graph of a is the subset

G = (f, af ) : f ∈ D .

We have to show, that G is closed. Assume we have a sequence (fn , afn ) converging

in V × V to (f, h). Then we may take gn so that fn = R(z)gn , and

(z − a)fn = (z − a)R(z)gn = gn → zf − h = g

af = aR(z)g = −g + zR(z)g = −g + zf = h.

gn → g. Hence R(z)gn → R(z)g and

3.1 Resolvent and Generator 41

a function R(z) defined on an open set G ⊂ C such that R(z) : V → D, for z ∈ G,

and

(z − a)R(z)f = f for f ∈ V ,

R(z)(z − a)f = f for f ∈ D.

Proof We have

= R(z1 ) − R(z2 ).

If the assumptions of the last proposition are fulfilled, we call R(z) the resolvent

of the operator a.

A strongly continuous one-parameter group in L(V ) is a family T (t), t ∈ R, of

operators in L(V ) such that

T (0) = 1,

T (s + t) = T (s)T (t) for s, t ∈ R,

t → T (t)f

is norm continuous in V . Furthermore, we assume that there exists a constant r ≥ 0

such that, for t ∈ R,

T (t) ≤ const er|t| .

From now on, all one-parameter groups T (t) will be assumed to be strongly contin-

uous and to satisfy the bound on growth given just above.

Define, as we now are sure we can,

∞

−i eizt T (t)dt for Im z > r,

R(z) = 0 0 izt

i −∞ e T (t)dt for Im z < r.

t → T (t)f norm continuous for f ∈ V , and T (t) ≤ const ert ; then T (t) is a one-

parameter group if and only if R(z) satisfies the resolvent equation for | Im z| > r.

∞ ∞

−(z2 − z1 ) eiz1 tt +iz2 t2 T (t1 + t2 ) − T (t1 )T (t2 ) dt1 dt2

0 0

42 3 One-Parameter Groups

∞ t

= −(z2 − z1 ) dt dt1 eiz1 t1 +iz2 (t−t1 ) T (t) − (z2 − z1 )R(z1 )R(z2 )

0 0

∞ 0

(z2 − z1 ) eiz1 tt +iz2 t2 T (t1 + t2 ) − T (t1 )T (t2 ) dt1 dt2

0 −∞

∞ ∞

= (z2 − z1 ) dt dt1 eiz1 t1 +iz2 (t−t1 ) T (t)

0 t

0 t

+ (z2 − z1 ) dt dt2 eiz1 (t−t2 )+iz2 t2 T (t) − (z2 − z1 )R(z1 )R(z2 )

−∞ −∞

We have, for y > r,

∞

iy R(iy) = y dt e−yt T (t) = dt Y (t)e−yt T (t),

0

yY (t)e−yt → δ(t)

and f ∈ V

iy R(iy)f → f

in norm.

Proposition 3.1.4 If R(z) is the resolvent of a one-parameter group, then the set

D = R(z)V is dense in V , and, furthermore, the mapping R(z) : V → D is injective.

Proof That the set D = R(z)V is dense in V follows directly from the preceding

lemma. For the second assertion we have to prove

R(z)f = 0 ⇒ f = 0.

3.1 Resolvent and Generator 43

f = lim iy R(iy)f = 0.

y↑∞

T (t) − 1

DS = f ∈ V : lim f exists

t→0 t

and, for f ∈ DS ,

T (t) − 1

Sf = lim f.

t→0 t

Proposition 3.1.2. We have DS = R(z)V = D and

S = (−i) 1 − R(z)−1 = −ia.

∞ ∞

(1/s) T (s) − 1 R(z) = 1/(is) e T (t + s)dt −

izt izt

e T (t)dt

0 0

∞

−izs

s

= 1/(is) e − 1 eizt T (t)dt − izt

e T (t)dt .

s 0

For f ∈ V

(1/s) T (s) − 1 R(z)f → −izR(z)f + if.

Hence R(z)f ∈ DS , and

Sf = −izR(z)f + if = −iaf.

(1/s) T (s) − 1 R(z)f = R(z)(1/s) T (s) − 1 f → −iR(z)f + if = R(z)Sf

Assume now that V is Hilbert space with scalar product (f |g). Denote the adjoint

of a bounded operator K by K ∗ .

Proposition 3.1.6 With the current definition of R(z), the one-parameter group

T (t) is unitary if and only if

R(z)∗ = R(z).

In this case is T (t) = 1.

44 3 One-Parameter Groups

∞

∗

R(z) = i e−izt T (t)∗ dt,

0

0 ∞

R(z) = i e T (t)dt = i

izt

e−izt T (−t)dt.

−∞ 0

parameter group U (t), we call a the Hamiltonian of the group and denote it by H .

Hilbert space V ; assume z, z ∈ G, Im z = 0, that R(z)∗ = R(z) and R(z) is injec-

tive, and that D = R(z)V is dense in V . Then

a = H = z − R(z)−1 ,

H : D = R(z)V → V is selfadjoint,

is selfadjoint.

for f, g ∈ D, or

R(z)h|H R(z)k = H R(z)h|R(z)k ,

for h, k ∈ V . This can be done by a straightforward calculation, as

h|R(z)H R(z)k = h| −1 + zR(z) R(z)k = −1 + zR(z) h|k .

We still have to prove that the domain of the adjoint is D. The domain DH ∗ of the

adjoint H ∗ , which is usually unbounded, is the set of all f ∈ V such that there exists

a g ∈ V with

(H h|f ) = (h|g)

for all h ∈ D. So

H R(z)k|f = R(z)k|g

3.1 Resolvent and Generator 45

for all k ∈ V , or

−1 + zR(z) k|f = k| −1 + zR(z) f = k|R(z)g .

Therefore

−f + zR(z)f = R(z)g

and f ∈ D, and thus DH ∗ ⊂ D. The symmetry of H , and that D is dense in V ,

implies that DH ∗ ⊃ D.

Define

U = 1 + (z − z)R(z).

Then

U U ∗ = U ∗ U = 1,

U is unitary and U = 1. So

(U − ζ )−1

exists for ζ ∈ C, |ζ | = 1, as the corresponding power series converge. We have for

λ = z

z−λ z−z

U− = 1 + (z − z)R(z) − 1 +

z−λ z−λ

z−z z−z

= (z − λ)R(z) − 1 = (H − λ)R(z)

z−λ z−λ

and

z − λ

z − λ = 1 ⇐⇒ Im λ = 0.

group, then its generator is S = −iH and the Hamiltonian H is selfadjoint.

We will have to study, in Chaps. 8 and 9, the following situation. Let there be a

unitary group U (t) and a dense subspace V0 ⊂ V . Assume given a subspace D0 ⊂ V

and z, z in the resolvent set of the Hamiltonian, and furthermore that R(z)V0 and

R(z)V0 are contained in D0 . Let there be a symmetric operator H0 : D0 → V , i.e.,

for f, g ∈ D0 ,

(f |H0 g) = (H0 g|f )

46 3 One-Parameter Groups

H0 R(z)ξ = −ξ + zR(z)ξ,

H0 R(z)ξ = −ξ + zR(z)ξ.

Proposition 3.1.9 With the definitions in the previous paragraph, the subspace D0

is dense in V , D0 ⊂ D, and

H0 = H D0 ,

and H is the closure of H0 .

Proof We know already by Propositions 3.1.1 and 3.1.4, that R(z)V0 , and hence D0 ,

is dense in V , and also that H is the closure of its restriction to R(z)V0 . Consider

the matrix elements, for ξ ∈ V0 and f ∈ D0 ,

ξ |R(z)H0 f = R(z)ξ |H0 f .

Now R(z)ξ is in D0 , and using the symmetry of H0 the last expression equals

H0 R(z)ξ |f = −ξ + zR(z)ξ |f = ξ |−f + zR(z)f .

As V0 is dense in V , we obtain

R(z)H0 f = −f + zR(z)f.

So

f = zR(z)f − R(z)H0 f ∈ R(z)V = D

and

(z − H )f = zf − H0 f

and

Hf = H0 f.

derivative, set

df 1 ∂f ∂f df 1 ∂f ∂f

∂f = = −i , ∂f = = +i .

dz 2 ∂x ∂y dz 2 ∂x ∂y

3.2 The Spectral Schwartz Distribution 47

defines these derivatives for Schwartz distributions [37]. The function z → 1/z is

locally integrable, and one obtains

∂(1/z) = πδ(z),

where δ(z) is the δ-function in the complex plane. Assume we are given an open set

G ⊂ C and a function f : G \ R → C, which is holomorphic and is the restriction for

z = x + iy ∈ G, y > 0 of a continuous function on z ∈ G, y ≥ 0, and for z ∈ G, y < 0

it is the restriction of a continuous function on z ∈ G, y ≤ 0. This is equivalent to

the statement, that the limit

ε↓0

∂f (x + iy) = (i/2) f (x + i0) − f (x − i0) δ(y). (∗)

compact support, and the space of these is usually denoted Cc∞ , so we say we have

a Cc∞ -function.

In the symmetrical form of the Dirac notation for spaces in duality, one uses

two verticals in the notation, so that for instance below we write (f |R(z)|g) where

we could have just written as before (f |R(z)g). This emphasizes the duality and

clarifies the calculations we make.

Proposition 3.2.1 Assume given a function R(z) : G → L(V ), defined and obeying

the resolvent equation almost everywhere, and a subspace V0 ⊂ V such that z →

(f |R(z)|g) is locally integrable for all f, g ∈ V0 ; then

is also locally integrable, and for the Schwartz derivatives one has the formula

Proof The resolvent equation has as a consequence that z1 , z2 → (f |R(z1 )R(z2 )|g)

is locally integrable, as e.g.,

1

z1 , z2 → (f |R(z1 )|g)

z2 − z1

is locally integrable.

Given two test functions ϕ1 , ϕ2 , then

dz1 dz2 ∂ 1 ∂ 2 (f |R(z1 )R(z2 )|g) ϕ1 (z1 )ϕ2 (z2 )

48 3 One-Parameter Groups

1

= dz1 dz2 (f | R(z1 ) − R(z2 ) |g)∂ 1 ϕ1 (z1 )∂ 2 ϕ2 (z2 ),

z2 − z1

and, looking at the first summand on the right-hand side and integrating by parts

over z2 , we have

1

dz1 dz2 (f |R(z1 )|g)∂ 1 ϕ1 (z1 )∂ 2 ϕ2 (z2 )

z2 − z1

= −π dz(f |R(z)|g)∂ϕ1 (z)ϕ2 (z).

For the second summand we have a similar calculation with a result differing in

overall sign, and we obtain

dz1 dz2 ∂ 1 ∂ 2 (f |R(z1 )R(z2 )|g) ϕ1 (z1 )ϕ2 (z2 )

= −π dz(f |R(z)|g)∂ ϕ1 (z)ϕ2 (z)

= dz1 dz2 πδ(z1 − z2 )∂(f |R(z1 )|g)ϕ1 (z1 )ϕ2 (z2 ).

M = (1/π)∂R

dz1 dz2 (f |M(z1 )M(z2 )|g)ϕ1 (z1 )ϕ2 (z2 ) = dz(f |M(z)|g)ϕ1 (z)ϕ2 (z).

M(z1 )M(z2 ) = δ(z1 − z2 )M(z1 )

or

M(ϕ1 )M(ϕ2 ) = M(ϕ1 ϕ2 ).

Proposition 3.2.2 Under the assumptions of the last proposition and under the

additional assumption, that R(z) is injective, denote again by a the operator defined

by the resolvent. Then we have

aM(z) = zM(z)

3.2 The Spectral Schwartz Distribution 49

or more precisely

(f |aM(z)|g) = z(f |M(z)|g).

Proof We have

− dz(f |aR(z)|g)∂(ϕ(z) = − dz(f | −1 + zR(z)|g ∂(ϕ(z)

= dzzϕ(z)∂(f |R(z)|g)

as

∂z = 0.

we have a matrix A with the resolvent

1 1

R(z) = = pi

z−A z − λi

i

M(z) = (1/π)∂R(z) = δ(z − λi )pi .

i

M(ϕ1 )M(ϕ2 ) = dz1 dz2 M(z1 )M(z2 )ϕ(z1 )ϕ(z2 ) = M(ϕ1 ϕ2 ).

The last equation also holds if A is nilpotent, e.g., A2 = 0. Then one has to take

1 1

R(z) = + AP 2 ,

z z

where P denotes the principal value. Then

values in a Hilbert space V , and assume z, z ∈ G, Im z = 0, R(z)∗ = R(z), and R(z)

injective, and that D = R(z)V is dense in V . Then R(z) can be extended to the set

of all z with Im z = 0.

1

(f |μ(x)|g) = lim (f | R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)|g

ε↓0 2πi

50 3 One-Parameter Groups

(f |μ(x)|f )

is a measure ≥ 0, and

(f |μ(x)|f ) has continuous density ≥ 0 with respect to Lebesgue measure, and is

given by

1

(f |μ(x)|f ) = (f | R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)|f .

2πi

Proof We write z = x +iy = (x, y) and use both notations. We use the abbreviations

(f |R(z)|f ) = F (z) and (f |M(z)|f ) = G(z). The other matrix elements can be

obtained by polarization. The distribution

1

G(z) = ∂F (z)

π

has as support the real line, the function F (z) is holomorphic in Im z = 0 and locally

integrable. If ϕ is test function, we define

ϕ1 = sup ϕ(z) + ∂x ϕ(z) + ∂y ϕ(z) .

As

1

G(z)ϕ(z) dz = − F (z)∂ϕ(z) dz

π

we have that for any compact subset K of C there exists a constant CK such that

G(z)ϕ(z)dz ≤ CK ϕ1 .

0 ≤ ρ(y) ≤ 1,

1 for 0 < |y| < 1/2,

ρ(y) =

0 for |y| > 1.

2

y ψ(z)ρ(y/ε) = O(ε)

1

for ε ↓ 0. Hence

dz G(z)y 2 ψ(y) = 0, (i)

3.2 The Spectral Schwartz Distribution 51

because

y 2 ψ(z) 1 − ρ(y/ε)

has its support in C \ R, and we have

dz G(z)y 2 ψ(y) = dz G(z)y 2 ψ(y)ρ(y/ε) ≤ CK y 2 ψ(z)ρ(y/ε) = O(ε),

1

Choose a test function ϕ and r so large that the support of ϕ is in the strip

{|y| < r}. Then

dz ϕ(z)G(z) = dzϕ(z)ρ(y/r)G(z)

= dz ϕ(x, 0) + ∂y ϕ(x, 0)y + y 2 ψ(z) ρ(y/r)G(z).

dx G0 (x)χ(x) = dz G(z)χ(x)ρ(y/r),

dx G1 (x)χ(x) = dz G(z)χ(x)yρ(y/r),

where these expressions are independent of r, provided that the support of ϕ is in the

strip {|y| < r}. Equation (ii) is a special case of a theorem due to L. Schwartz [37].

We calculate

dz(f |R(z)|f )∂ϕ(z) = dxdy(f |R(x + iy)|f )(1/2)(∂x + i∂y )ϕ(x, y).

Now

(f |R(x + iy)|f ) = (f |R(x + iy)∗ |f ) = (f |R(x − iy)|f )

and we obtain

dxdy(f |R(x − iy)|f )(1/2)(∂x − i∂y )ϕ(x, y)

= dx dy(f |R(x + iy)|f )(1/2)(∂x + i∂y )ϕ(x, −y)

= dz(f |R(z)|f )∂ ϕ̃(z)

52 3 One-Parameter Groups

with

ϕ̃(z) = ϕ(z) = ϕ(x, −y).

We continue with the estimate

+

0 ≤ (f | dz1 R(z1 )∂ϕ(z1 ) dz2 R(z2 )∂ϕ(z2 ) |f )

= dz1 dz2 (f |R(z1 )R(z2 )|f )∂ ϕ̃(z1 )∂ϕ(z2 )

= −π dz(f |R(z)|f )∂ ϕ̃(z)ϕ(z) .

Hence

dz(f |M(z)|f )ϕ̃(z)ϕ(z) = dzG(z)ϕ̃(z)ϕ(z) ≥ 0. (iii)

2

0 ≤ dxG0 (x) ϕ(x, 0) + dxG1 (x) −∂y ϕ(x, 0)ϕ(x, 0) + ϕ(x, 0)∂y ϕ(x, 0) .

As ∂y (ϕ(x, 0)) can be chosen arbitrarily, we conclude that G1 = 0, and, again using

L. Schwartz [37], that G0 = (f |μ|f ) is a measure ≥ 0.

We have

1

dx G0 (x)χ(x) = dzG(z)χ(x)ρ(y/r) = − dz F (z)∂χ(x)ρ(y/r)

π

1

= − lim dz F (z)∂χ(x)ρ(y/r)

π ε↓0 |y|>ε

i

= lim dx F (x + iε) − F (x − iε) χ(x).

2π ε↓0

This is the equation for μ in the proposition. If F (x ± i0) exists in the usual sense

locally uniformly, then it is continous and we have by Eq. (∗) at the beginning of

the section, that

1

(f |μ(x)|f ) = (f | R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)|f .

2πi

Hence (f |μ(x)|f ) is a continuous function ≥ 0 , identified with the measure whose

density it is.

is a test function, then

ψ = dζ ϕ(ζ )/(z − ζ )

3.2 The Spectral Schwartz Distribution 53

dx(f |μ(x)|f )/(z − x) = (f |R(z)|f ).

Proof We have

dx(f |μ(x)|f )ψ(x) = dζ ϕ(ζ ) dx f |μ(x)f /(ζ − x)

and

1

= (f |M(ζ )|f )ψ(ζ )dζ = − dζ (f |R(ζ )|f )∂ ζ ψ(ζ )

π

= dζ (f |R(ζ )|f )ϕ(ζ ).

Remark 3.2.2 Compare this result with the formula of the spectral theorem

(f |1/(z − H )|f ) = (f |R(z)|f ) = (f |dEx |f )1/(z − x)

ωf (ω). The resolvent

RΩ (z) = (z − Ω)−1

is holomorphic off the real line. The domain of Ω is the space D = RΩ (z)L2 , the

space of all L2 functions f such that Ωf is square integrable. Here we have defined

Ωf for all functions in a natural way. The corresponding strongly continuous one-

parameter group is

U (t) = e−iΩt , U (t)f (ω) = e−iωt f (ω).

For f, g ∈ Cc1

(f |RΩ (x ± i0)|g) = dωf (ω)g(ω)P/(x − ω) ∓ iπf (x)g(x).

So

(f |μ(x)|g) = f (x)g(x).

54 3 One-Parameter Groups

We have

1 1

RΩ (z) = dx μ(x) = dx |δx )(δx |,

z−x z−x

and

Ω|δx ) = x|δx ).

The eigenvectors δx form a generalized orthonormal basis, i.e.,

(δx |δy ) = δ(x − y), dx|δx )(δx | = 1.

directly and follows from Proposition 3.2.1. The

second equation says that dxμ(x) = 1.

Chapter 4

Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation

Processes

Abstract We consider in this chapter four examples which can be treated without

much apparatus. Three of them are of physical interest. We do not need the full

Fock space but only its one-particle and zero-particle subspaces. We calculate the

time development explicitly and give the Hamiltonian. We obtain its spectral de-

composition with the help of generalized eigenvectors.using a method, which has

been applied in the study of radiative transfer by Gariy V. Efimov and the author in

J. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 53, 59–74 (1953).

The formula in the theorem below is an important tool in our discussions. I know it

as Krein’s formula, and we’ll call it that. If M is a quadratic matrix, its resolvent

1

R(z) = (z − M)−1 =

z−M

M, its residues at the poles are the projectors onto the eigenspaces, and the Lau-

rent expansions at the poles give the principal eigenvectors often called generalized

eigenvectors. We shall use the term generalized eigenvectors in another sense below.

We allow fractions for non-commutative quantities, if the numerator and denomina-

tor commute.

0 L

H= ,

G K

1 0 0 1

R(z) = = + C −1 (1, LRK )

z−H 0 RK RK G

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_4,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

56 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

with

1

RK = RK (z) =

z−K

and

C = C(z) = z − LRK (z)G.

H R(z) = −1 + zR(z).

Now

0 LRK LRK G

HR = + C −1 (1, LRK ).

0 KRK G + KRK G

Use

∞

−i dt e−iH t+izt for Im z > 0,

R(z) = 0 0

i −∞ dt e−iH t+izt for Im z < 0.

Set

(L f )(z) = dt eiz t f (t).

Then

−i(L U Y )(z) for Im z > 0,

R(z) =

i(L U Y̌ )(z) for Im z < 0.

1 = L δ, z = iL δ .

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 57

−i(L ZY )(z) for Im z > 0,

C −1 (z) =

i(L Z Y̌ )(z) for Im z < 0.

The equation

(z − LRK G)C −1 = 1

becomes, since convolution is mapped into ordinary multiplication by the Laplace

transform, a pair of formulas, one for positive t and one for negative t, namely

δ + LUK Y G ∗ ZY = δ,

t

Z =− dt1 LUK (t − t1 )GZ(t1 ), Z(0) = 1, Z(t) = 0 for t < 0

0

and

−δ + LUK Y̌ G ∗ Z Y̌ = δ,

0

Z = dt1 LUK (t − t1 )GZ(t1 ), Z(0) = 1, Z(t) = 0 for t > 0.

t

0 0 δ

UY = + ∗ ZY ∗ (δ, −iLUK Y )

0 UK Y −iUK Y G

upon canceling one of the factors of −i that occurs throughout, and for t < 0 simi-

larly becomes

0 0 δ

U Y̌ = + ∗ Z Y̌ ∗ (δ, iLUK Y̌ ).

0 UK Y̌ iUK Y̌ G

The two-level atom in a heat bath of oscillators is equivalent to the harmonic oscil-

lator in a heat bath of oscillators. The heat bath causes transitions from the upper to

the lower level. The oscillator is being damped [40].

In quantum mechanics a harmonic oscillator with frequency ω is described by

two operators a and a + with the commutation relation [a, a + ] = 1. So they generate

a Weyl algebra. Their representation has been described in Sect. 1.7. We have a

58 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

with the elements

∞

f= (1/n!)fn |n

n=0

n|n = n! δn,n

hence

∞

f |g = (1/n!)fn gn .

n=0

Our notation differs from the one common in quantum mechanics. The vectors |n

are usually normalized with the factor (n!)−1/2 . The Hamiltonian is

H = ω a + a.

e−iH t |n = e−inωt |n .

One obtains

creation and annihilation operators aλ , aλ+ , λ ∈ Λ. The representation space is a pre-

Hilbert space spanned by the vectors |m = (a + )m |0 , where m runs through all

multisets of Λ. The Hamiltonian is

H0 = ωλ aλ+ aλ

λ∈Λ

and

e−iH0 t |m = exp −i mλ ωλ t |m

λ∈Λ

for m = λ∈Λ mλ 1λ . We have

space spanned by |+ and |− . The Hamiltonian is given by

Hatom |+ = ω0 |+ , Hatom |− = 0

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 59

Hatom = ω0 E++ .

Hamiltonian is, with coupling constants gλ and hλ ,

= ωλ aλ+ aλ + ω0 E++

λ∈Λ

+ gλ aλ E+− + g λ aλ+ E−+ + hλ aλ E−+ + hλ aλ+ E+− .

λ∈Λ

Hint (t) = exp i(H0 + Hatom )t Hint exp −i(H0 + Hatom )t

= gλ aλ E+− ei(−ωλ +ω0 )t + g λ aλ+ E−+ e−i(−ωλ +ω0 )t

λ∈Λ

+ hλ aλ E−+ ei(−ωλ −ω0 )t + hλ aλ+ E+− ei(+ωλ +ω0 )t .

Assume now |ωλ − ω0 | # ω0 , then the terms including hλ vary rapidly and can be

neglected. This is the so-called rotating wave approximation. Define ωλ = ωλ − ω0 ,

then

Htot = ω0 aλ+ aλ + E++ + ωλ aλ+ aλ + gλ aλ E+− + g λ aλ+ E−+ .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

The expression λ∈Λ aλ+ aλ + E++ is the operator corresponding to the number of

excitations in the system. It commutes with Htot and gives a background contribu-

tion, which is neglected in the dynamics that are being calculated. So we take a

simplified total Hamiltonian

Htot = ωλ aλ+ aλ + gλ aλ E+− + g λ aλ+ E−+ .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

Hint (t) = gλ aλ e−iωλ t E+− + g λ aλ+ eiωλ t E−+ .

λ∈Λ

Define

F (t) = gλ aλ e−iωλ t ;

λ∈Λ

60 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

F (t), F + t = |gλ |2 e−iωλ (t−t ) .

λ∈Λ

We obtain

Hint (t) = F (t)E+− + F + (t)E−+ .

Assume, that the number of excitations is 1, then we have only to consider the

states

|+ ⊗ |0 , |− ⊗ |1λ , for λ ∈ Λ,

and we can represent Htot by the matrix H in the space C ⊕ CΛ

0 g|

H= ,

|g Ω

where |g is the column vector in CΛ with the elements gλ and g| is the row vector

with the entries g λ ; also Ω is the Λ × Λ-matrix with entries ωλ δλ,λ .

If we assume continuous sets of frequencies, and make the rotating wave approx-

imation, we arrive by analogy at

+

= ω0 a (dω)a(ω) + E++

+ ωa + (dω)a(ω) + g(ω)a(ω)dωE+− + ωg(ω)a + (dω)E−+ .

The term

a + (dω)a(ω) + E++

representation we obtain

−iωt

Hint (t) = dω g(ω)a(ω)e E+− + g(ω)a + (dω)eiωt E−+

= F (t)E+− + F + (t)E−+

where

F (t) = dω g(ω)aλ e−iωt

2

F (t), F + t = 0|F (t)F + t |0 = dωg(ω) e−iω(t−t ) .

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 61

Under these assumption, we may write Htot in the form of a matrix over C ⊕ DΩ ,

where Ω is the multiplication operator acting on functions on R, and DΩ is its

domain, so that

0 g|

Hg = = ΩE−− + E+− g| + E−+ |g

|g Ω

with

|g = g(ω) ω∈R ∈ L2 (R).

We want to change g in such a way, that

F (t), F + t = 0|F (t)F + t |0 = 2πδ t − t ;

this means that g approaches 1. This is the so-called singular coupling limit.

There are other physical situations, which yield the same mathematical problem.

Consider a harmonic oscillator with frequency ω0 in a heat bath of oscillators. De-

scribe the oscillators by the creation and annihilation operators b+ , b. Then Hamil-

tonian of the damped oscillator in the rotating wave approximation is

Htot = H0 + Hosc + Hint = ωλ aλ+ aλ + ω0 b+ b + gλ aλ b+ + g λ aλ+ b .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

aλ+ aλ + b+ b.

λ∈Λ

Htot = ωλ aλ+ aλ + gλ aλ b+ + g λ aλ+ b .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

an operator,

ηt (A) = exp(−iHtot )A exp(+iHtot ).

Then

d ηt (b) 0 g| ηt (b)

= .

dt ηt (aλ )

|g Ω λ,λ ηt (aλ )

λ

Continue as before.

H = C ⊕ L2 (R)

62 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

(c, f )| c , g = cc + dxf (x)g(x).

by the matrix

0 g|

Hg = ,

|g Ω

where g ∈ L2 and Ω is the multiplication operator considered already at the end of

Sect. 3.2.

1 0 0 1 1

= Rg (z) = + 1, g|RΩ (z)

z − Hg 0 RΩ (z) RΩ (z)|g Cg (z)

with

|g(ω)|2

Cg (z) = z − g|RΩ (z)|g = z − dω.

z−ω

The resolvent is defined for Im z = 0 and we have the equation

Rg (z)+ = Rg (z).

Proof One checks immediately that R(z) is defined for Im z = 0, that R(z)+ =

R(z), and that R(z) maps H into the domain C ⊕ DΩ of Hg . By the same calcula-

tions as the ones we were using for Krein’s formula in the matrix case, we establish

that

(z − Hg )Rg (z) = 1,

Rg (z)(z − Hg ) = 1.

and by the bra-vector E| the linear functional

f ∈ L1 (R) → E|f = dx f (x) ∈ C,

f ∈ L1 (R) → f |E = dx f (x) = E|f ∈ C.

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 63

of square-integrable functions, converging to E pointwise, uniformly bounded by

some constant function, with the property

gn (ω) = gn (−ω).

Then, for fixed z with Im z = 0, the resolvents Rgn (z) converge in operator norm to

0 0 1 1

R(z) = + 1, E|RΩ (z) .

0 RΩ (z) RΩ (z)|E C(z)

The function

C(z) = z + iπσ (z)

with

1 for Im z > 0,

σ (z) =

−1 for Im z < 0

is holomorphic in the upper and lower half-planes and continuous at the boundaries.

We extend the operator RΩ (z) = (z − Ω)−1 to all functions on the real line. So for

f ∈ L2

f |RΩ (z)|E = E|RΩ (z)|f = f (ω)/(z − ω) dω.

norm, the function R(z) fulfills the resolvent equation. Furthermore R(z)+ = R(z),

which could be seen immediately directly.

We want now to discuss existence and the shape of the Hamiltonian of R(z).

We fix a number z ∈ C, Im z = 0. The domain of the Hamiltonian can be directly

determined by the resolvent with the help of the formula

D = R(z)H.

Hence

0 1 ˜

D= f = +c : f ∈ L ,c ∈ C .

2

RΩ (z)f˜ RΩ E

One concludes at first, that the obvious guess for H is wrong:

0 E|

H =

|E Ω

as, e.g.,

dω

E|RΩ E =

z−ω

is not defined.

64 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

E = f : f = f˜ + cE with f˜ ∈ L2 (R), c ∈ C .

L = RΩ (z)E = f = RΩ (z)(cE + f˜) : f˜ ∈ L2

1

f (ω) = c + f˜(ω) .

z−ω

The space L is independent of the chosen z as

RΩ (z0 )(cE + f˜) = RΩ (z) 1 + (z − z0 )RΩ (z0 ) (cE + f˜)

Denote by L∗ the algebraic dual of L, i.e. the set of all linear functionals

L → C, and by L† the set of all semilinear functionals L → C. A semilinear

ϕ is additive and ϕ(cf ) = cϕ(f ) for f ∈ C. By the scalar product

functional

g|f = dω g(ω)f (ω) we associate to any f ∈ L2 a semilinear functional ϕ on L,

ϕ(ξ ) = ξ |f .

L ⊂ L2 ⊂ L † .

Define the functionals Ê| ∈ L∗ , and also |Ê ∈ L† , for f of the form given above,

by

r

1 ˜

Ê|f = lim f (ω)dω = −iπcσ (z) + f (ω)dω

r→∞ −r z−ω

and

f |Ê = Ê|f .

Define the operator

Ω̂ : L → L† ,

r

g|Ω̂f = lim dω g(ω)ωf (ω),

r→∞ −r

Ωf = −cE − f˜ + zf.

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 65

We have, in particular,

Ĥ :C ⊕ L → C ⊕ L† ,

0 Ê|

Ĥ = .

|Ê Ω̂

if

ξ ∈D

i.e.

c

ξ=

RΩ (z)(cE + f˜)

with c ∈ C, f˜ ∈ L2 . We have

Ĥ R(z)f = −f + zR(z)f.

Proof Assume

c c

ξ= = .

f RΩ (z)(cE + f˜)

We obtain

c Ê|f

Ĥ = .

f c Ê| − cÊ| − f˜ + zf

Hence

Ĥ ξ ∈ H ⇔ ξ ∈ D.

Using the same calculations as in the matrix case in Sect. 4.1, namely Krein’s for-

mula, one obtains

Ĥ R(z)f = −f + zR(z)f.

From there one concludes, that R(z) is injective. By Proposition 3.1.1, it gives rise

to a Hamiltonian H , which is selfadjoint. It is the restriction of Ĥ to D.

66 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

Remark 4.2.1 By direct calculation one establishes, that Ĥ is symmetric, i.e. that

for f, g ∈ L.

The function R(z) is determined by a function U (t) for t ∈ R whose values are

operators on H:

−i(L U Y )(z) for Im z > 0,

R(z) =

i(L U Y̌ )(z) for Im z < 0.

Hence, for t > 0,

0 0 δ

UY = + ∗ ZY ∗ δ, −iE|UΩ Y

0 UΩ Y −iUΩ Y |E

0 0 δ

U Y̌ = + ∗ Z Y̌ ∗ δ, iE|UΩ Y̌

0 UΩ Y̌ iUΩ Y̌ |E

with

Z = e−π|t| .

Writing the convolutions in an explicit way we have, for t > 0,

U00 U01

U (t) =

U10 U11

with

U00 = e−πt ,

t

U01 = −i dt1 e−π(t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ,

0

t

U10 = −i dt1 e−iΩ(t−t1 ) |E e−πt1 ,

0

−iΩt

U11 = e − dt1 dt2 e−iΩ(t−t2 ) |E e−π(t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 .

0<t1 <t2 <t

√

Lemma 4.2.1 The operator U (t) depends continuously on t, and U (t) = O( t)

for t → ∞.

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 67

Proof We prove the lemma for t > 0. The proof for t < 0 is similar. It suffices to

show the assertion for the Uik . It is clear for U00 .

t 1 −πt

U10 (t)(ω) = −i dt1 e−iω(t−t1 ) e−πt1 = −i e − e−iωt .

0 iω − π

Then

2 4

U10 (t)2 = dω U10 (t)(ω) ≤ dω

π 2 + ω2

is bounded. The function U10 (t)(ω) is continuous in L2 -norm by the theorem of

Lebesgue, as it is a continuous function bounded by a fixed L2 -function. We have

U01 (t)|f = dω U10 (t)(ω)f (ω)

and one obtains the desired result from that for U10 . The continuity and norm bound

are trivial for e−iΩt . For the second term of U11 we have to consider

−iω(t−t2 ) −π(t2 −t1 )

F (t)(ω) = − dt1 dt2 e e dω1 e−iω1 t1 f (ω1 )

0<t1 <t2 <t

t

= −i dt1 U10 (t − t1 )(ω)f˜(t1 )

0

with

f˜(t1 ) = dω1 e−iω1 t1 f (ω1 ).

We calculate

2 t 2 t 2

F (t)2 = dωF (t)(ω) ≤ dω dt1 U10 (t − t1 )(ω) dt1 f˜(t1 )

0 0

4t ∞ 2 8πt

≤ dω 2 dt1 f˜(t1 ) = dω 2 f 2 .

π + ω2 −∞ π + ω2

Theorem 4.2.2 The U (t) form a one-parameter unitary strongly continuous group

generated by −iH , where H : D → H is defined by Theorem 4.2.1.

Physical Interpretation The term U00 (t) is the probability amplitude that the atom

started at t = 0 in the upper state and stayed there until the time t. So the probability

that the atom is at time t in the upper state is e−2πt . Then U10 (t)(ω) gives the prob-

ability amplitude that the atom is at time t = 0 in the upper state, and jumps at time

t to the lower state, emitting a photon of frequency ω. The asymptotic frequency

68 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

distribution for t → ∞ is

2 1

lim U10 (t)(ω) = ,

t→∞ π 2 + ω2

the well-known Lorentz or Cauchy distribution. U01 (t)(ω) is the probability ampli-

tude that at time 0 the atom is in the lower state, and a photon of frequency ω is

absorbed between the times 0 and t. The matrix element

−iωt

(ω |U11 (t)|ω) = e δ ω −ω − dt1 dt2 e−iω (t−t2 ) e−π(t2 −t1 ) e−iωt1

0<t1 <t2 <t

unperturbed, or is absorbed and reemitted with frequency ω .

times labelled τ . This is used in quantum stochastic differential equations and makes

them similar to classical stochastic differential equations. In addition, it gives some

insight into the physical situation. Introduce

ψω ω = δ ω − ω , ϕτ (ω) = (2π)−1/2 eiωτ .

Then

Define

F f (τ ) = (2π)−1/2 dω e−iωτ f (ω) = (ϕτ |f ).

Calculate

F e−iΩt f = F f (t + τ ) = Θ(t)F f (τ ),

where

Θ(t)g (τ ) = g(t + τ )

is the right shift. So

F e−iΩt = Θ(t)F .

One finds

F E(τ ) = (2π)−1/2 δ(τ ).

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 69

Define

∞

−1 −i 0 dt eizt Θ(t), for Im z > 0,

RΘ (z) = F RΩ (z)F = 0

i −∞ dt eizt Θ(t), for Im z < 0.

Then RΘ (z)L2 is the Sobolev space of those functions on R which are L2 and the

Schwartz derivatives of which are L2 as well. For Im z > 0, one has

F RΩ (z)E (τ ) = RΘ (z)(2π)−1/2 δ (τ ) = −i(2π)−1/2 1{τ < 0}e−izτ .

The space

F L = RΘ (z)(f + cδ) : f ∈ L2 , c ∈ C

consists of functions which are L2 , the derivatives of which are L2 on R \ {0}, and

which have a jump at 0, and where the left and right limits exist. Define

δ̂, f = (1/2) f (0+) − f (0−) ,

ˆ = ∂c f + f (0+) − f (0−) δ̂

∂f

√

0 2πδ̂|

F Ĥ F −1 = √ .

2π|δ̂ i∂ˆ

Recall

U00 = e−πt ,

t

U01 = −i dt1 e−π(t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ,

0

t

U10 = −i dt1 e−iΩ(t−t1 ) |E e−πt1 ,

0

U11 = e−iΩt − dt1 dt2 e−iΩ(t−t2 ) |E e−π(t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 .

0<t1 <t2 <t

Factorize

1 0

U (t) = V (t).

0 UΩ (t)

So V (t) is an interaction representation of U (t). We have

t

V01 (t) = −i dt1 e−π(t−t1 ) E|e−Ωt1 ,

0

70 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

t

V10 (t) = −i dt1 eiΩt1 |E e−πt1 ,

0

V11 (t) = 1 − dt1 dt2 eiΩt2 |E e−π(t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 .

0<t1 <t2 <t

We obtain in τ -representation

t

V01 (t)|τ = −i(2π)1/2 dt1 e−π(t−t1 ) δ(τ − t1 ),

0

t

τ |V10 (t) = −i(2π)1/2 dt1 δ(t1 − τ )e−πt1 ,

0

(τ2 |V11 (t)|τ1 ) = δ(τ1 − τ2 ) − 2π dt1 dt2 δ(τ2 − t2 )e−π(t2 −t1 ) δ(t1 − τ1 ).

0<t1 <t2 <t

So V11 (t) corresponds to the case that at time 0 the atom stays in the upper level

and no emission occurs. Then (V01 (t)|τ ) is the probability amplitude for the case

that between 0 and t at time τ a photon, with the label τ , is absorbed, and (τ |V10 (t))

is the probability amplitude that at time τ between 0 and t a photon, with label τ , is

emitted. Finally (τ2 |V11 (t)|τ1 ) is the probability amplitude that at time τ1 a photon

with label τ1 is absorbed, and at time τ2 > τ1 a photon with label τ2 is emitted, all

with 0 < τ1 < τ2 < t, or that the photon passes undisturbed.

Remark that V (t) is related to the solution of the quantum stochastic differential

equation

√ √

(d/dt)U (t) = −i 2π a † (t)E−+ U (t) − i 2πE+− U (t)a(t) − πE++ U (t).

Here, as in Sect. 4.2.1, E±± are the matrix units of two-dimensional matrices. The

differential equation leaves the number of excitations

a + (dω)a(ω) + E++

invariant, and V (t) is the restriction of U (t) to the subspace of one excitation. Quan-

tum stochastic differential equations will be discussed below in Chap. 8.

1 P

= ∓ iπδ(x).

x ± i0 x

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 71

ε

P f (x) f (x) − f (0)1{|x| ≤ 1}

dx f (x) = lim dx = dx .

x ε→0 −ε x x

The equation means that, for f ∈ Cc1 , the space of once continuously differentiable

functions with compact support,

f (x) P

lim dx = dxf (x) ∓ iπδ(x) .

ε↓0 x ± iε x

We continue with the observations

1 P

= ∓ iπδ(x − ω)

x ± i0 − ω x − ω

and

1 P P

RΩ (x ± i0) = = ∓ iπδ(x − Ω) = ∓ iπ|δx δx |

x ± i0 − Ω x−Ω x−Ω

as, for f, g ∈ Cc1 ,

P

f |RΩ (x ± i0)|g = dωf (ω) g(ω) ∓ iπf (x)g(x).

x −ω

P

E|R(x ± i0)f = dω f (ω) ∓ iπf (x),

x −ω

P

f |R(x ± i0)E = dω f (ω) ∓ iπf (x).

x −ω

c

H0 = : c ∈ C, f ∈ Cc (R) .

1

f

Recall the spectral Schwartz distribution and the formulae of Sect. 3.2:

∂R(z) = πM(z),

M(x + iy) = μ(x)δ(y),

1

μ(x) = R(x − i0) − R(x + i0) .

2πi

Proposition 4.2.2 For ξ1 , ξ2 ∈ H0 we have

ξ1 |1/(2πi) R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)|ξ2 = ξ1 |μ(x)|ξ2 = ξ1 |αx αx |ξ2

72 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

with

1 1

|αx = √ P .

x2 + π 2 x|δx + x−Ω |E

0 0 1 1

R(z) = + 1, E|RΩ (z) .

0 RΩ (z) RΩ (z)|E z + iπσ (z)

Write

1

= a ∓ iπb

RΩ (x ± i0)|E

with

1 0

a= P , b=

x−Ω |E

|δx

and

a + = 1, P b+ = 0, δx | .

E| x−Ω ,

Then

1

R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)

2πi

+ 1 1 + +

1 + +

= bb + (a + iπb) a + iπb − (a − iπb) a − iπb

2πi x − iπ x + iπ

1 + +

= (a + xb) a + xb = |αx αx |.

x2 + π 2

The first term comes directly from the equations for RΩ (x ±0) given recently above.

The rest of the equation requires arithmetic and the definition of |αx .

E0 = cE + f : c ∈ C, f ∈ C 1 ∩ L2

P

Lx = R(x ± i0)E0 = f = c1 g + c2 δ(x − Ω)g : g ∈ E0 .

±

x−Ω

r

Ê|f = lim dωf (ω).

r→∞ −r

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 73

As

P r P

Ê E = lim dω =0

x −Ω r→∞ −r x −ω

r

Ê|δ(x − Ω)E = lim dω δ(x − ω) = 1

r→∞ −r

we obtain

Ê|RΩ (x ± i0)|E = E|RΩ (x ± i0)|Ê = ∓iπ.

As RΩ (x ± i0)|Ê = RΩ (x ± i0)|E , we have

Define

L0 = R(z)E0 .

Extend the operator Ω̂ in the same way as in Sect. 4.2.2 and obtain an operator

Ω̂ : Lx → L†0 ;

P P P P

Ω̂ |E = −|Ê + x |E , E| Ω̂ = −Ê| + xE| .

x−Ω x−Ω x−Ω x−Ω

Use these equations and obtain

Ĥ |αx = x|αx .

p. 105]) “Let A be an operator in a linear topological space Φ. A linear functional

F on Φ such that

F (Aϕ) = λF (ϕ)

for all ϕ ∈ Φ is called a generalized eigenvector corresponding to λ.” We can adapt

this definition to our situation.

1

αx |R(z)ξ = αx |ξ .

z−x

74 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

of Gelfand-Vilenkin.

If ξ in the domain of H is of the form

1 0

ξ =c +

RΩ (z)E f

αx |H |ξ = xH |ξ .

Vilenkin.

Proof The proof is carried out by straightforward calculation using the equation

P 1 P 1

E| |E = Ê| |E

x −Ω z−Ω x −Ω z−Ω

1 P 1 1

= Ê| − |E = iσ (z)π.

z−x x −Ω z−Ω z−x

Recollect σ (z) is the sign of the imaginary part of z.

As

P d log |x|

=

x dx

in the sense of Schwartz distributions, and since log |x| is locally integrable, the

function

P

x → dyf (y) = dyf (y) log |x − y|

(x − y)

is continuous for f ∈ Cc1 and is continuously differentiable for f ∈ Cc2 .

P P 1 P P

= − + π 2 δ(x − ω)δ(y − ω),

x −ω y −ω y −x x −ω y −ω

P P

ω → dxf (x) , ω → dyg(y)

x −ω y −ω

are square integrable, and

1 P P

(x, y) → dω h(ω) − dω h(ω)

y−x x −ω y −ω

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 75

is continuous, and

P P

dx dy dω f (x)g(y)h(ω)

x −ω y −ω

1 P P

= dx dy f (x)g(y) dω h(ω) −

y−x x −ω y −ω

+ π 2 dω f (ω)g(ω)h(ω).

Proof We calculate

1 P P

dx dyf (x)g(y) dω h(ω) −

y −x x −ω y −ω

= lim dx dy f (x)g(y)

ε→0

1 x −ω y −ω

× dω h(ω) −

y −x (x − ω)2 + ε 2 (y − ω)2 + ε 2

(x − ω)(y − ω) − ε 2

= lim dx dy dω f (x)g(y)h(ω)

ε→0 ((x − ω)2 + ε 2 )((y − ω)2 + ε 2 )

P P

= dx dy dωf (x)g(y)h(ω) − π 2 dω f (ω)g(ω)h(ω).

x −ω y −ω

Here, at the end, we have employed the well-known limits

x −ω P

lim = ,

ε→0 (x − ω)2 + ε 2 x − ω

ε

lim = πδ(x − ω).

ε↓0 (x − ω)2 + ε 2

P P

dω = π 2 δ(x − y)

x −ω y −ω

P P

dx dy dωf (x)g(y) = π 2 dωf (ω)g(ω).

x −ω y −ω

Proof We show the first expression on the right-hand side in the preceding lemma

goes to 0. Replace the function h in the lemma by hε , with hε (ω) = h(εω) and

h(ω) = 1/(1 + ω2 ). Then

1 P P

dω hε (ω) −

y −x x−ω y−ω

76 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

1 |x − ω|

= dω εh (εω) log

y −x |y − ω|

1 |x − ω/ε| 1 |1 − εx/ω|

= dω h (ω) log = dω h (ω) log

y −x |y − ω/ε| y − x |1 − εy/ω|

∼ ε dω h (ω)/ω

for ε → 0 and

dω h (ω)/ω < ∞.

support. From there one obtains the result.

Remark 4.2.2 The equation of the last lemma is well known. The equation is the

basis of the Hilbert transform.

dx f (x)αx ∈ H = C ⊕ L2 (R)

dx f (x)αx dy g(y)αy = f (x)g(y)δ(x − y)

= dω f (ω)g(ω) = f |g L2 .

Proof Calculate

dx f (x)αx dy g(y)αy

1

= dx f (x) √ 1, xδx (Ω) + P/(x − Ω)1

x2 + π 2

1 1

dy g(y)

y 2 + π 2 (1, yδy (Ω) + P/(y − Ω)1

1 1

= dω dxdy f (x)g(y) √

x2 + π 2 y2 + π 2

4.2 A Two-Level Atom Coupled to a Heat Bath of Oscillators 77

P P

× 1 + xδ(x − ω) + yδ(y − ω) + .

x−ω y −ω

Interchange the order of integration, use the properties of the δ-function and the

P-function, and the preceding lemma, to get

= dxdy f (x)g(y)δ(x − y) = (f |g).

Corollary 4.2.1 For the spectral Schwartz distribution we have the formula

c

More precisely, if ξ = f , c ∈ C, f ∈ Cc2 , g ∈ Cc2 , then

dx g(x)μ(x)|ξ = dx g(x)|αx αx |ξ

belongs to L2 , and

dx1 g1 (x1 )μ(x1 ) dx2 g2 (x2 )μ(x2 ) = dx g1 (x)g2 (x)μ(x).

x → αx |ξ

is a bounded C 2 function.

Remark 4.2.3 Compare the last formula to the result holding for spectral families

(Ex , x ∈ R) namely

dEx1 g1 (x1 ) dEx2 g2 (x2 ) = dEx g1 (x)g2 (x)

dx |αx αx | = 1,

c

or more precisely for ξ = f , f ∈ Cc ,

1

x → ξ |αx ∈ L2

78 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

c c

and, for ξ = f , η = g , f, g ∈ Cc , one has

1

d xξ |αx αx |η = ξ |η .

1

R(z) = dx |αx αx |,

z−x

or more precisely with ξ, η as above

1

ξ |R(z)|η = dx ξ |αx αx |η .

z−x

0 0 1 1

R(z) = + 1, E|RΩ (z)

0 RΩ (z) RΩ (z)|E z + iσ (z)

By deforming the boundary one obtains that

r

dx ξ |R(x ± i0)|η = ∓ dz ξ |R(z)|η ,

−r Γ±

where Γ± is the semicircle of radius r joining −r and r in the upper, resp. lower,

half-plane. Then

r r

1

dx ξ |αx αx |η = dx ξ | R(x − i0) − R(x + i0) |η

−r 2πi −r

1

= dzξ |R(z)|η ,

2πi Γ

where Γ is the circle of radius r. As f and g are of compact support

1

ξ |R(z)|η = f |g + O z−2

z

and one obtains the first assertion by taking r → ∞.

Assume, e.g., Im z > 0 and put F (z) = ξ |R(z)|η , then

1 F (ζ )

F (z) = dζ ,

2πi γ ζ − z

where γ is a small circle in the upper half-plane encircling z. By blowing γ up so it

consists of the interval [−r, r] and the semi-circle Γ+ one arrives at

r

1 F (ζ ) F (x + i0)

F (z) = dζ + dx .

2πi Γ+ ζ − z −r x −z

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation 79

r

1 F (ζ ) F (x − i0)

0= dζ − dx .

2πi Γ− ζ − z −r x −z

So

1 F (ζ ) r F (x + i0) − F (x − i0)

F (z) = dζ + dx .

2πi Γ ζ −z −r x−z

As F (ζ ) = O(ζ −2 ), we take r → ∞ and obtain the second assertion.

We discuss a two-level atom with transition frequency ω0 . The levels are supposed

not degenerate, and have the wave functions ψ1 (x) for the upper level and ψ0 (x) for

the lower level. We shall use relativistic units with = 1 and the velocity of light

c = 1. In these units the square of charge of the electron is e2 = 1/137.

The radiation field is a system of independent oscillators labelled by λ ∈ Λ

! "

Λ = m = (m1 , m2 , m3 ) ∈ Z3 , |mi | ≤ M × {1, 2}.

Associate to k ∈ R3 two unit vectors e1 (k), e2 (k) such that the three vectors

k/|k|, e1 (k), e2 (k) form a right-handed coordinate system (a trihedron) in R3 .

Choose a large number L > 0, and define

2π 2π

kλ = km,j = m, ωλ = |kλ | = |m|, eλ = ej (kλ ).

L L

We have to consider the finite system of oscillators, labelled by λ ∈ Λ with fre-

quencies ωλ , given by the creation and annihilation operators aλ , aλ+ , λ ∈ Λ. The

representation space is a pre-Hilbert space spanned by the vectors |m = (a + )m |0 ,

where m runs through all multisets of Λ. The Hamiltonian is

Hrad = Hλ = ωλ aλ+ aλ .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

Use the notation E10 = |ψ1 ψ0 | etc., then in rotating wave approximation

Htot = Hrad + Hatom + Hint = ωλ aλ+ aλ + ω0 E11 + gλ aλ E10 + g λ aλ+ E01 .

λ∈Λ λ

80 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

One has

#

e 2π −3/2

gλ = − L ψ1 |p.eλ exp (ikλ .x)|ψ0 ,

me ωλ

where e is the electron charge and me the electron mass. p is the momentum oper-

ator p = (p1 , p2 , p3 ); pi = −id/dxi . If a is an estimate of the atomic radius. Then

frequency ω0 ≈ e2 /a, so

aω0 ≈ e2 = 1/137.

The function exp (ikλ .x) is approximately constantly 1 until frequencies of the order

1/a. We mutilate gλ

e

gλ = − 2π/ωλ L−3/2 ψ1 |p.eλ |ψ0 c(ωλ − ω0 ),

me

where 0 ≤ c(ω) ≤ 1 and c(ω) = 1 for |ω1 | # ω0 and is 0 for |ω| > ω1 . To justify

this mutilation is outside the scope of this work. Using the relation

and ωλ ≈ ω0 we arrive at

Introduce

! "

Λ = m = (m1 , m2 , m3 ) ∈ Z3 , |mi | ≤ M × {1, 2, 3}.

We imbed CΛ into CΛ . If eλ = em,j , resp. em,i are the standard basis vectors of

CΛ , resp. CΛ , we map

em,j → (em,j )i em,i .

j =1,2

This means, if we consider the elements of CΛ as vector fields, we affix to the point

m the vectors em,j . Similar we define annihilation and creation operators bm,i and

+

bm.i for (m, i) ∈ Λ . We express the annihilation and creation operators indexed by

Λ in terms of those of indexed by Λ ,

+ +

am,j = (em,j )i bm,i , am,j = (em,j )i bm,i .

j =1,2 j =1,2

Denote by Π(m) the orthogonal projector onto the plane perpendicular to m, then

Π(m)il = (em,j )i (em,j )l = δil − mi ml /|m|2 .

j =1,2

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation 81

+

Hrad = ωm Π(m)il bm,i bm,l ,

m i,l

Hint = e 2πω0 L−3/2 c(ωm − ω0 )Π(m)i,l iE10 (ψ1 |x|ψ0 )i bm,l

m,i,l

+

− iE01 (ψ0 |x|ψ1 )i bm,l .

X = R3 × {1, 2, 3}.

Define the cube

Cm = k = (k1 , k2 , k3 ) : ki − (km )i < π/L

bm,i = C −1/2 dk1Cm (k)a(k, i) = C −1/2 a(Cm,i ).

f |Hrad |f = ωm Π(m)il C −1 a(Cm,i )f a(Cm,l )|f

m,i,l

≈ ωm Π(m)il C a(km,i )f a(km,l )|f

m,i,l

≈ dk Π(k)il |k| a(k, i)f a(k, l)|f

i,l

and finally

Hrad = dk|k| Π(k)i,l a † (k, i)a(k, l),

i,l

√

Hint = dk e ω0 /(2π)c |k| − ω0 Π(k)i,l

i,l

× −iE10 (ψ1 |x|ψ0 )i a(k, l) + iE01 (ψ0 |x|ψ1 )i a(k, l)† .

The quantity

N= dk Π(k)i,l a † (k, i)a(k, l) + E11

i,l

82 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

is the operator for the total number of excitations and commutes with Htot . As it

gives only a trivial contribution we just consider Htot − ω0 N and call it Htot once

more. So

Htot = dk |k| − ω0 Π(k)i,l a + (k, i)a(k, l) + Hint .

i,l

k = (ω + ω0 )n, dk = (ω + ω0 )2 dω dn.

Here n ∈ S and dn is the surface element on the sphere S normalized such that

2 2

ω for |ω| < ω1 . As we assumed ω1 # ω0 ,

dk = ω02 dω dn,

and we may allow ω to go from −∞ to +∞. So for the radiation our basic space X

becomes

Xrad = R × S2 × {1, 2, 3},

where ω ∈ R is the frequency, n ∈ S2 the direction, and i corresponding to ei in the

standard basis of R3 is the polarization. Remark that we have introduced a superflu-

ous direction of polarization, the direction of n. We have

Htot = dω dn ω02 ω Π(n)i,l a † (ω, n, i)a(ω, n, l)

i,l

√

+ dω dn ω02 e ω0 /(2π)c(ω)Π(k)i,l

i,l

× −iE10 ψ1 |x|ψ0 i a(ω, n, l) + iE01 ψ0 |x|ψ1 i a(ω, n, l)† .

We restrict ourselves to the case of one excitation. Then we have only to consider

the cases, that either we have the photon vacuum Φ and the atom is in the upper level

or the atom is in the lower level and a photon (ω, n, i) is present. We restrict our

state space to the space generated by the states ψ1 ⊗ Φ or ψ0 ⊗ a + (ω, n, i)Φ. So

we may use as Hilbert space

H = C ⊕ L2 (Xrad , λ)

λ|f = dωω02 dn f (ω, n, i).

i=1,2,3

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation 83

space of continuous functions with compact support, and use the notation

Ψ (c, f ) = cψ1 ⊗ Φ + dλf (ω, n, i) ψ0 ⊗ a + (ω, n, i)Φ .

Then

0 g| c

Ψ (c, f )Htot Ψ c , f = (c, f )

|g K f

with

√ ω0

g(ω, n, i) = ic(ω) e Π(n)i,l ψ0 |x|ψ1 l ,

2π

l

(Kf )(ω, n, i) = ω Π(n)i,l f (ω, n, l).

l

H = C ⊕ L2 R × S2 × {1, 2, 3}

λ|f = dω ω02 dn f (ω, n, i).

i=1,2,3

R × S2 . Then H becomes

H = C ⊕ L2 R × S2 , C3 .

0 g| 0 cv|

Hc = = ;

|g K |vc AΩA

here

g(ω, n) = c(ω)v(n),

√

ω0

v(n) = ie Π(n)ψ0 |x|ψ1 ,

2π

(Ωf)(ωn) = ωf (ω, n),

84 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

K = AΩA = AΩ = ΩA,

Π(n)ij = δij − ni nj ;

the function c is one with the properties 0 ≤ c(ω) ≤ 1 and c(ω) = 0 for |ω| ≥ ω1 ,

and the operator A is a projector, so A2 = A and Av = v.

By Krein’s formula we can calculate the resolvent

1 0 0 1 1

Rc (z) = = + 1, g|RK

z − Hc 0 RK (z) RK |g z − g|RK (z)|g

with

1 1 1 1

RK (z) = = =A A + (1 − A).

z−K z − AΩA z−Ω z

Since

Av = v

we obtain, with RΩ (z) = 1/(z − Ω),

0 0

Rc (z) =

0 ARΩ (z)A + 1z (1 − A)

1 1

+ 1, cv|RΩ (z) .

RΩ (z)|vc z − g|RK (z)|g

We now perform the singular coupling limit and make the function c converge to

the constant function E: E(ω) = 1, in such a way that c stays bounded by E and

c(ω) = c(−ω). Then

c(ω)2

g|RK (z)|g = c|RΩ (z)|c v|A|v = dω v|v → −iπσ (z)γ

z−ω

with

2ω3 2

γ = v|v = dnω02 v(n)|v(n) = e2 0 ψ0 |x|ψ1 .

3π

0 0 0 0

R(z) = +

0 ARΩ (z)A 0 1z (1 − A)

1 1

+ 1, Ev|RΩ (z) .

RΩ (z)|vE z + iπσ (z)γ

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation 85

The term

0 0

z (1 − A)

1

0

is the contribution of the fictitious longitudinally polarized photons and need not

to be considered further. The expression E| is the linear functional f → E|f =

dωf (ω), and E = |E is the semilinear functional given by f |E = E|f .

For the time development we obtain, similarly to Sect. 4.2.4,

U00 U01

U (t) =

U10 U11

with

U00 = e−πγ t ,

t

U01 = −i dt1 e−πγ (t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ⊗ v|,

0

t

U10 = −i dt1 e−iΩ(t−t1 ) |E e−πγ t1 ⊗ |v ,

0

U11 = e−iΩt ⊗ A − dt1 dt2 e−iΩ(t−t2 ) |E e−πγ (t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ⊗ |v v|

0<t1 <t2 <t

+ 1 ⊗ (1 − A).

We have

0 0

H0 =

0 AΩA

and

1 0

e−iH0 t = .

0 Ae−iΩt A + 1 − A

Then

V (t) = eiH0 t U (t)

is given by

V00 = e−πγ t ,

t

V01 = −i dt1 e−πγ (t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ⊗ v|,

0

√ t

V10 = −i 2π dt1 eiΩt1 |E e−πγ t1 ⊗ |v ,

0

V11 = 1 − dt1 dt2 e−iΩ(t−t2 ) |E e−πγ (t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ⊗ |v v|.

0<t1 <t2 <t

86 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

V00 = e−πγ t ,

√ t

V01 |τ = −i 2π dt1 e−πγ (t−t1 ) δ(t − t1 )v|,

0

t

τ |V10 = −i dt1 δ(τ − t1 )|E e−πγ t1 ⊗ |v ,

0

τ2 |V11 τ1 = δ(τ1 − τ2 ) − 2π dt1 dt2 δ(τ2 − τ1 )e−πγ (t2 −t1 ) δ(t1 − τ1 )

0<t1 <t2 <t

⊗ |v v|.

The matrix element U00 describes the decay of the upper state. The transition

probability is

4ω03

2πγ = e2ψ0 |x|ψ1 2 ,

3

in agreement with Landau-Lifschitz [28]. The element U10 represents the sponta-

neous emission. The integrated emitted tensor intensity, in direction n and with fre-

quency ω, for all times between 0 and ∞, is

1

I(ω, n) = v(n) v(n)

ω2 +π γ

2 2

1 e2 ω03

= Π(n)(ψ0 |x|ψ1 ) (ψ1 |x|ψ0 )Π(n).

ω2 + π 2 γ 2 4π 2

3 |ψ1 |Π(n)x|ψ0 |2 3

dω trace I(ω, n) = 1− = sin2 ϑ

8π |ψ1 |x|ψ0 |2 8π

The element U10 describes absorption, and U11 describes undisturbed transmis-

sion and scattering.

0 Êv|

H= ,

|vÊ AΩ̂A

4.3 A Two-Level Atom Interacting with Polarized Radiation 87

where the definitions of Ê and Ω̂ have to be adapted from Sect. 4.2.2 to the vector

case here. The domain of H is

D = R(z)H

1 0

= c +

RΩ (z)Ev RΩ (z)Af1

0

+ : c ∈ C, f1 , f2 ∈ L2 R × S2 , C3 .

(1 − A)f2

One checks immediately that

We discuss the eigenvalue problem in the same way as in the previous section. One

calculates in a similar way, using the fact that for

ci

ξi = , ri ∈ C, fi ∈ Cc1 , h ∈ Cc1 , x∈R

fi

the expression

dx h(x)(ξ1 |R(x ± i0)|ξ2 )

is well defined.

ci

ξi = , ci ∈ C, fi ∈ Cc1 ,

fi

that, for z = x + iy, the spectral Schwartz distribution

1

∂ z (ξ1 |R(z)|ξ2 ) = (ξ1 |μ(x)|ξ2 )δ(y)

π

with

μ(x) = px1 + px2 + px3

and

⎛ √ ⎞

1 γ

px1 = |αx αx |, |αx = ⎝ √ √ P ⎠,

x 2 + π 2 γ 2 x|vδx / γ + γ x − Ω |E

0 0 |v v|

px2 = , q =A− ,

0 q|δx δx | v|v

px3 = (1 − A)δ(x).

88 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

and

j

pxi py = δ(x − y)δij pi (x).

We also have completeness expressed by

dx μ(x) = 1.

Consider a quantum harmonic oscillator, with the usual creation and annihilation

operators b+ and b, in a heat bath of oscillators given by aλ+ , aλ , λ ∈ Λ, with the

Hamiltonian

H0 = −ω0 b+ b + (ω0 + ωλ )aλ+ aλ + gλ aλ b + g λ aλ+ b+ .

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

This Hamiltonian, however, is not bounded below, so it cannot describe a real phys-

ical system. Nevertheless, it does enable one to discuss the initial behaviour of su-

perradiance, and can be used as the model of a photon multiplier. We now sketch

these ideas.

We consider N two-level atoms coupled to a heat bath. The Hilbert space of the

atoms is (C2 )⊗N . The Hamiltonian is

(ω0 + ωλ )aλ+ aλ + N −1/2 gλ σ+ + N −1/2 g λ σ− aλ+

(N ) (N ) (N )

HN = σ3 ω0 +

with

(N )

σi = σi ⊗ 1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ 1 + · · · + 1 ⊗ · · · ⊗ 1 ⊗ σi ,

the sum of terms with σi in all possible positions in the N -fold tensor product, and

the spin matrices are as usual given by

1 0 1 1 0 i 1 −1 0

σ1 = , σ1 = , σ3 = ,

2 1 0 2 −i 0 2 0 1

0 0 0 1

σ+ = σ1 + iσ2 = , σ− = σ1 − iσ2 = .

1 0 0 0

(N )

The operators σi

considered as a “spin representation space”, or, in other words, as a representation

4.4 The Heisenberg Equation of the Amplified Oscillator 89

space of the group U(2). Any irreducible representation space is invariant under the

operator H .

0In the case of superradiance, at t = 0 all atoms are initially in the upper state

1 . Then, due to spontaneous emission, one atom emits a photon, the radiation

increases the probability that another atom emits a second single photon, etc. Thus

an avalanche is created,

which dies out when the atoms of a majority of the N atoms

are in the lower state 10 .

⊗N

For t = 0 the state of the atomic system is 01 = ψN/2 , the highest weight vec-

(N )

tor of the representation, and successive applications of σ− create an irreducible

invariant subspace spanned by ψm , m = −N/2, −N/2 + 1, . . . , N/2. One has

1/2

(N ) (N ) N N

σ3 ψm = mψm , σ± ψm = + 1 − m(m ± 1) ψm±1 .

2 2

1/2 √

N −1/2 σ+ ϕk = N −1/2 N k − k 2 + k

(N )

ϕk−1 → k ϕk−1 ,

1/2 √

N −1/2 σ− ϕk = N −1/2 N (k + 1) − k 2 + k

(N )

ϕk+1 → k + 1 ϕk+1 .

For N → ∞ the operator N −1/2 σ− becomes the creation operator b+ and the

(N )

(N )

⊗N

by adding ω0 N/2 we obtain H0 . By choosing, for t = 0, the vector ψ−N/2 = 10

we would have arrived at the same irreducible representation, and an analogous

procedure would have ended with the Hamiltonian for the damped oscillator.

We split H0 into two commuting operators H0 = H0 + H0 with

H0 = ωλ aλ+ aλ + gλ aλ b + g λ aλ+ b+ ,

λ∈Λ λ∈Λ

+ +

H0 = ω0 −b b + aλ aλ .

λ∈Λ

The time dependence due to H0 is trivial: it describes a fast oscillation modulated

by the time development due to H0 . We disregard it.

Put

ηt b+ = exp iH0 t b+ exp −iH0 t ,

ηt (aλ ) = exp iH0 t aλ exp −iH0 t .

Then

1 d ηt (b+ ) ηt (b+ )

= Hλ,λ

i dt ηt (aλ )

ηt (aλ )

λ

90 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

with

0 g|

H= ,

−|g Ω

where |g is the column vector in CΛ with the elements gλ , g| is the row vector

with the entries g λ , and Ω is the Λ × Λ-matrix with entries ωλ δλ,λ . As in the

first example of Sect. 4.2.1, we introduce a continuous set of frequencies. Then |g

becomes an L2 -function and Ω the multiplication operator.

and Eigenvalue Problem

We recall the discussions of Sect. 4.2.2. We again have the Hilbert space

H = C ⊕ L2 (R)

(c, f )| c , g = cc + dx f (x)g(x).

0 g|

Hg = ,

−|g Ω

not symmetric but does satisfy the equation

J Hg J = Hg+

with

−1 0

J= .

0 1

Using Krein’s formula we obtain the resolvent Rg (z) of Hg as

1 0 0 1 1

= Rg (z) = + 1, g|RΩ (z)

z − Hg 0 R Ω (z) −R Ω (z)|g Cg (z)

with

|g(ω)|2

Cg (z) = z − g|RΩ (z)|g = z − dω.

z−ω

4.4 The Heisenberg Equation of the Amplified Oscillator 91

square-integrable functions, converging pointwise to E, and uniformly bounded by

some constant function with the property

gn (ω) = gn (−ω).

Then, for fixed z with Im z = 0, the resolvents Rgn (z) converge in operator norm to

0 0 1 1

R(z) = + 1, E|RΩ (z) .

0 RΩ (z) −RΩ (z)|E z − iπσ (z)

Recall the spaces L and L† , the functionals Ê| and |Ê , and the operator Ω̂ from

Sect. 4.4.2. Define the operator

Ĥ : C ⊕ L → C ⊕ L†

0 Ê|

Ĥ = .

−|Ê Ω̂

We have to distinguish between right and left domains Dl , resp. Dr , of the oper-

ator H corresponding to R(z):

Dl = HR(z) = ξ ∈ C ⊕ L : ξ = c 1, E|R(z) + 0, f |R(z) ,

1 0

Dr = R(z)H = ξ ∈ C ⊕ L : ξ = c + ,

−R(z)|E R(z)f

ξ |H = ξ |Ĥ ,

H |ξ = Ĥ |ξ ,

for ξ ∈ Dl , resp. for ξ ∈ Dr .

The time development operator corresponding to R(z) is for t > 0

U00 U01

U (t) =

U10 U11

with

U00 = eπt ,

t

U01 = i dt1 eπ(t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ,

0

t

U10 = −i dt1 e−iΩ(t−t1 ) |E eπt1 ,

0

92 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

U11 = e−iΩt + dt1 dt2 e−iΩ(t−t2 ) |E eπ(t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 .

0<t1 <t2 <t

Put

0 0

H0 =

0 Ω

and

V (t) = eiH0 t U (t).

Then

V00 = eπt ,

t

V01 = i dt1 eπ(t−t1 ) E|e−iΩt1 ,

0

t

V10 = −i dt1 eiΩt1 |E eπt1 ,

0

V11 = 1 + dt1 dt2 eiΩt2 |E eπ(t2 −t1 ) E|e−iΩt1

0<t1 <t2 <t

t

V01 (t)|τ = i(2π)1/2 dt1 eπ(t−t1 ) δ(τ − t1 ),

0

t

τ |V10 (t) = −i(2π)1/2 dt1 δ(t1 − τ )eπt1 ,

0

(τ2 |V11 (t)|τ1 ) = δ(τ1 − τ2 ) − 2π dt1 dt2 δ(τ2 − t2 )eπ(t2 −t1 ) δ(t1 − τ1 ).

0<t1 <t2 <t

Proposition 4.4.1 The resolvent R(z) is holomorphic outside the real line and

away from the two simple poles ±iπ . The spectral Schwartz distribution M(z) =

(1/π)∂R(z) has the form

with

1

μ(x) = R(x − i0) − R(x + i0) = |αx βx |,

2πi

2 −1/2 1 0

|αx = x + π 2 P + x ,

− x−Ω |E |δx

4.4 The Heisenberg Equation of the Amplified Oscillator 93

−1/2 P

βx | = x 2 + π 2 − 1, E| + x 0, δx | ,

x−Ω

and

1 1

|α±iπ = , β±iπ | = 1, E| .

− ±iπ−Ω

1

|E ±iπ − Ω

Proof Write

1

= a ± iπb

−RΩ (x ± i0)|E

with

1 0

a= P , b= ,

− x−Ω |E |δx

and

1, E|R(x ± i0) = a ∓ iπb

with

P

a = 1, E| , b = 0, δx | .

x−Ω

Then

1

R(x − i0) − R(x + i0)

2πi

1 1 1

= bb + (a − iπb) a + iπb − (a + iπb) a − iπb

2πi x + iπ x − iπ

1

= (a + xb) −a + xb = |αx βx |.

x2 +π 2

The terms p±iπ are the residues of R(z) at the points ±iπ , so, e.g.,

1 1

piπ = lim (z − iπ)R(z) = 1, E| .

z→iπ − π−Ω1

|E iπ − Ω

αx |β±iπ = 0, α±iπ |βx = 0,

α± iπ |β±iπ = 1, α±iπ |β∓iπ = 0.

94 4 Four Explicitly Calculable One-Excitation Processes

Similarly to the discussions in Sect. 4.2.5, one proves the completeness condition

dz M(z) = 1.

The pure number quantum stochastic process restricted to the one-particle case is

mathematically the easiest of the four examples, but it does not seem to have a direct

physical meaning. We consider the Hamiltonian

H = dω ω a † (ω)a(ω) + dω g(ω)a † (ω) dω g(ω)a(ω) ,

with g ∈ L2 (R).

The underlying Hilbert space is the Fock space. The number operator

N = dω a † (ω)a(ω)

yields the operator defined in L2 ,

Hg = Ω + |g g|.

1 1

Rg (z) = = RΩ (z) + RΩ (z)|g g|RΩ (z).

z − Hg 1 − g|RΩ (z)|g

of square-integrable functions, converging to E pointwise, uniformly bounded by a

constant function, with the property gn (ω) = gn (−ω). Then, for fixed z with Im z =

0, the resolvents Rgn (z) converge in operator norm to

1

R(z) = RΩ (z) + RΩ (z)|E E|RΩ (z)

1 + iπσ (z)

with σ (z) = sign Im z. The corresponding unitary evolution has, for t > 0, the form

t

1

U (t) = e−iΩt − i dt1 e−iΩ(t−t1 ) |E E|e−iΩt1 .

1 + iπ 0

U (t) = e−iΩt V (t),

4.5 The Pure Number Process 95

so that

t

1

V (t) = 1 − i dt1 eiΩ(t1 ) |E E|e−iΩt1 .

1 + iπ 0

In the formal time representation we have

t

2π

h|V (t)|f = h|f − i dt1 h(t1 )f (t1 ),

1 + iπ 0

2πi

V (t)f (τ ) = 1 − 1[0,t] (τ ) f (τ ).

1 + iπ

The domain of the selfadjoint operator H is a subspace of the space L defined in

Sect. 4.2.2. It is

E|RΩ (z)|f

D = R(z)L (R) = RΩ (z) |f +

2

|E : f ∈ L .2

1 + iσ (z)π

Ĥ = Ω̂ + |Ê Ê|

to that domain [42]. With the methods used before we calculate the spectral

Schwartz distribution M(x + iy) = μ(x)δ(y) with

1

μ(x) = R(x − i0) − R(x + i0) = |αx αx |,

2πi

−1/2 P

|αx = 1 + π 2 |E + |δx .

x −Ω

Chapter 5

White Noise Calculus

Only special monomials can be formed, which are colled admissible. Normal or-

dered monomials are admissible and products of several normal ordered monomials

depending on different variables are admissible, too. By a variant of Wick’s theorem

it can be shown, that any admissible monomial is the linear combination of normal

ordered monomials: The coefficients are products of point measures. We prove the

representation of unity by monomials of creation and annihilation operators and

investigate the duality, which changes creators in annihilators and vice versa.

Before introducing white noise, we have to offer some preliminary explanations. We

define for any locally compact space X, M+ (X) to be its set of positive measures.

Let X and Y be two locally compact spaces. A continuous diffusion is (following

Bourbaki, Intégration, Chap. 5 [11]) a vaguely continuous mapping

κ : X → M+ (Y ) : x → κx .

Vaguely continuous means that the mapping x ∈ X → κx (dy)f (y) is continuous

for any f ∈ K (Y ).

We consider three types of multiplication of diffusions:

1. Let X1 , X2 , Y1 , Y2 be four locally compact spaces, and let

κ1 : X1 → M+ (Y1 ),

κ2 : X2 → M+ (Y2 )

κ : X1 × X2 → M+ (Y1 × Y2 ),

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_5,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

98 5 White Noise Calculus

or

κ1 : X → M+ (Y ),

κ2 : Y → M+ (Z)

κ : X → M+ (Y × Z),

κ(x; dy, dz) = κ1 (x, dy)κ2 (y, dz).

So

κ(x; dy, dz)f (x, y) = κ1 (x, dy) κ2 (y, dz)f (y, z).

This product is familiar from probability theory. If κ1 (x, dy) is the probability of

transition from x to y and κ2 (y, dz) is the probability of transition from y to z,

then κ(x; dx, dy) is the transition probability from x to y and z.

3. Let X, Y, Z be three locally compact spaces and

κ1 : X → M+ (Y ),

κ2 : X → M+ (Z)

κ : X → M+ (Y × Z),

κ(x; dy, dz) = κ1 (x, dy)κ2 (x, dz).

So

κx = κ1,x ⊗ κ2,x .

Using the positivity of the diffusions it is easy to see, that all three types of

multiplications again yield positive continuous diffusions. We shall not introduce

different symbols for the multiplications, but rely on the different notations using

differentials to make clear which is in play.

5.2 Multiplication of Point Measures 99

Using Bourbaki’s terminology we denote by εx the point measure at the point x ∈ X.

So for f ∈ K (X) we have

εx (dy)f (y) = f (x).

ε : x ∈ X → εx ∈ M+ (X).

We have the three ways of defining the product of two point measures. If the four

variables x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 are different, then we may first define the tensor product

εx1 ⊗ εx3 (dx2 , dx4 )f (x2 , x4 ) = f (x1 , x3 ).

εx1 (dx2 )εx2 (dx3 ) =: Ex1 (dx2 , dx3 ) = εx1 ⊗ εx1 (dx2 , dx3 ),

Ex1 (dx2 , dx3 )f (x2 , x3 ) = f (x1 , x1 ).

That the last two products amount to the same here is a property of εx . We omit the

variable x and write only the indices, and use the notation

ε(bi , ci ) : i = 1, . . . , n .

S = (b1 , c1 ), . . . , (bn , cn ) ,

where all the bi and all the ci are different and bi = ci . We introduce in S the

structure of an oriented graph by defining the relation of being a right neighbor

(b, c) & b , c ⇐⇒ c = b .

An element (b, c) has at most one right neighbor, as (bi , ci ) & (bj , cj ) and (bi , ci ) &

(bk , ck ) implies bj = bk and j = k. So the components of the graph S are either

chains or circuits.

100 5 White Noise Calculus

We have to avoid the expression εx (dx). This notion makes no sense and if one

wants to give it a sense, one runs into problems. If X is discrete, then εx (dy) = δx,y

and εx (dx) = δx,x = 1. If X = R, then εx (dy) = δ(x − y)dy, and if one wants to

approximate Dirac’s delta function one obtains εx (dx) = ∞.

Consider a circuit

It corresponds to a product

order that ni=1 ε(bi , ci ) can be defined, it is necessary that the graph S contain no

circuits.

On the other hand, if (1, 2), (2, 3), . . . , (k − 2, k − 1), (k − 1, k) is a chain, then

using the second form of multiplication we have

= E(1; 2, 3, . . . , k) = εx⊗(k−1)

1

(dx2 , . . . , dxk ),

··· E(1; 2, 3, . . . , k)f (2, 3, . . . , k) = f (x1 , . . . , x1 ).

2,3,...,k

cuits, then any p ∈ S− \ S+ is the starting point of a (maximal) chain

where explicitly

⊗#πp

E(p; πp ) = εxp (dxπp ).

Finally we adopt

n

ES = ε(bi , ci ) = E(p; πp ).

i=0 p∈S− \S+

5.3 White Noise Operators 101

the definition

+

a ε(dy) f (xα ) = εxc (dy)f (xα\c ).

c∈α

a + ε(dxb ) = a + (dxb ) = ab+ .

The annihilation operator a(x) = a(εx ) is the special case for the annihilation oper-

ator a(ν) (defined in Sect. 2.3)

a(εxb )f (xα ) = a(xb )f (xα ) = f (xα+b ).

a(εxb ) = ab .

If α = {b1 , . . . , bn } is a set, then

aα = ab1 · · · abn , a∅ = 1.

We shall be dealing with functions on the space X, which we recall is the space of

all tuples of elements of X:

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · · .

K = Ks (X).

Recall the function

Φ(x) = 1 for x = ∅,

Φ ∈K ; Φ(x) =

Φ(x) = 0 for x = ∅

Ψ ∈ Ms (X); Ψ (f ) = f (∅).

We define

Φα = aα+ Φ,

and then

Φ∅ = Φ

102 5 White Noise Calculus

and, for α = ∅,

Φα (xυ ) = ε(υ, α) for υ ∩ α = ∅,

where

n

i=1 ε(h(bi ), bi ) if #α = #υ,

ε(υ, α) = h:α_υ

0 otherwise.

More explicitly the last expression could have been written

n

ε(xh(bi ) , dxbi )

h:α_υ i=1

showing the dependence on the variables of X. Here the sign _ signifies a bijective

mapping. So the sum runs over all bijections from α to υ. We call Φα a measure-

valued finite-particle vector. So Φα is a continuous diffusion

Φα : X → X α .

Extending Ψ we have

Ψ aυ aα+ Φ = ε(υ, α).

Assume we are given a set σ = {s1 , . . . , sm } and a set S = {(bi , ci ) : i = 1, . . . , n},

where all the elements bi and ci are different. Use, as above, the notation S− =

{b1 , . . . , bn } and S+ = {c1 , . . . , cn }, and assume that σ ∩ S+ = ∅. We extend the

relation & of right neighbor from S to the pair (σ, S) by defining

s & (b, c) ⇐⇒ s = b.

f : υ _ σ , the graph

S ∪ c, f (c) , c ∈ υ

is cycle-free, so there are no problems in defining ES Φσ = Φσ ES .

The graph naturally is made up of a collection of chains, some of which begin

with an element in σ and some of which do not. We break up the nodes in the

graph into groups according to the chains in which they are. We carry along the first

element in the case of chains that begin in σ . All the rest of the elements in a chain

must be target elements in some edge for the relation &, i.e., in S+ . Formally, we set

this out in a lemma.

Γ = Γ (σ, S) = Γ1 + Γ2 ,

Γ1 = s, (s, cs,1 ), (cs,1 , cs,2 ), . . . , (cs,ks −1 , cs,ks ) ; s ∈ σ ,

5.3 White Noise Operators 103

Γ2 = (t, ct,1 ), (ct,1 , ct,2 ), . . . , (ct,kt −1 , ct,kt ) ; t ∈ S− \ (S+ + σ ) .

Put

πt = {ct,1 , . . . , ct,kt } for t ∈ S− \ (S+ + σ ),

π = S+ + σ,

" = S− \ (S+ + σ ).

Then

π= ξs + πt .

s∈σ t∈"

Note that π is made up of the nodes which are in σ , or are second components

of pairs; ρ are those nodes which are not connected to σ by a chain. This partitions

the chains into two types. The physical reason for these considerations is that there

are the chains of interactions connected to the vacuum and those which are not.

So Φσ ES is a continuous diffusion

Φσ E S : X × X " → M + X π ,

Φσ ES (xυ + x" ) = E(c, ξf (c) ) E(t, πt ).

f :υ_σ c∈υ t∈"

Definition 5.3.1 We denote by Gn,π," the additive monoid generated by the ele-

ments of the form Φσ ES , such that σ ∩ S+ = ∅ and the graph (σ, S) is circuit-free,

and that

Gπ," = Gn,π," .

n

We define for c ∈

/ σ , using ac Φ = 0,

a c Φσ = ε(c, b)Φσ \b ,

b∈σ

ac+ Φσ = Φσ +c ,

/ σ,

104 5 White Noise Calculus

a b a c Φσ = a c a b Φσ ,

ab ac+ Φσ = ε(b, c)Φσ + ac+ ab Φσ .

f = Φσ ES ∈ Gn,π," .

Then, for c ∈

/ π , we have

+

ac Φσ ES ∈ Gn+1,π+c,"\c

ac+ f = ac+ Φσ ES .

If c ∈

/ π + ", then

(ac Φσ )ES ∈ Gn−1,π,"+c

and we can define

ac f = (ac Φσ )ES .

Proof We only have to prove that there are no circuits created for the definitions to

be good ones.

The graph of Φσ ES is (σ, S). Its set of components is Γ = Γ1 + Γ2 as above.

Assume c ∈ / π and consider (ac+ Φσ )ES . The corresponding graph is (S , σ ) = (σ +

c, S). Denote by Γ = Γ1 + Γ2 the corresponding set of components of (S , σ ).

There are two cases:

/ S− , in which case Γ1 = Γ1 + {c}, Γ2 = Γ2 , and π = π + c and " = ".

(a) c ∈

(b) c = t ∈ S− , so that

Γ1 = Γ1 + t, (t, ct,1 ), (ct,1 , ct,2 ), . . . , (ct,kt −1 , ct,kt ) ,

Γ2 = Γ2 \ (t, ct,1 ), (ct,1 , ct,2 ), . . . , (ct,kt −1 , ct,kt )

\ (σ + S ) = " \ {c}.

+

In both cases the graph (σ + c, S) contains no circuits and (ac+ Φσ )ES is defined;

we set

ac+ (Φσ ES ) = ac+ Φσ ES .

Assume c ∈ / π + " and consider (ac Φσ )ES . It consists of a sum of terms with a

graph of the form (S , σ ) = (σ \ b, S + (c, b)). Denote the corresponding sets of

components by Γ1 , Γ2 . Then we have

Γ1 = Γ1 \ b, (bc1 , bc2 ), . . . , (bck−1 , bck ) ,

Γ2 = Γ2 + (c, b), (bc1 , bc2 ), . . . , (bck−1 , bck )

5.3 White Noise Operators 105

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11

a + for ϑ = +1,

acϑ = c

ac for ϑ = −1

is called admissible if

i > j =⇒ ci = cj or {ci = cj and ϑi = 1, ϑj = −1} .

form (acϑ , acϑ ) with c = c , or (ac+ , ac ) and no pairs of the form (ac , ac ), (ac+ , ac+ )

or (ac , ac+ ).

If W is an admissible sequence, define

ω(W ) = {c1 , . . . , cn },

ω+ (W ) = {ci , 1 ≤ i ≤ n : ϑi = +1},

ω− (W ) = {ci , 1 ≤ i ≤ n : ϑi = −1}.

If

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11

is an admissible sequence we call

M = acϑnn · · · acϑ11

an admissible monomial.

The following proposition shows that iterated creators and annihilators can be

defined in a suitable way.

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11

to be an admissible sequence. Assume disjoint index sets π and " are given and that

ω+ (W ) ∩ π = ∅,

ω− (W ) ∩ (π + ") = ∅.

Define, for k = 1, . . . , n,

Wk = acϑkk , . . . , acϑ11 .

106 5 White Noise Calculus

πk = π + ω+ (Wk ),

"k = " + ω− (Wk ) \ ω+ (Wk )

α \ β = α \ (α ∩ β).

Then we have for the maps of Proposition 5.3.1

with

π = π + ω+ (W ),

" = " + ω− (W ) \ ω+ (W ).

Proof For l = 1, . . . , n use the shorter notation ωl = ω(Wl ) and ω±,k = ω± (Wk ).

We carry out the proof by induction. The case of one operator is trivial. Assume

that we have proven the theorem for up to k − 1 operators. Assume ϑk = +1. In

order that ac+k be defined, ck ∈/ πk−1 , in the notation given in the theorem’s statement.

But ck ∈/ π by assumption and ck ∈ / ω+,k−1 , since Wk is admissible. So we have a

mapping

ac+k : Gπk−1 ,"k−1 → Gπk−1 +ck ,"k−1 \ck .

Now πk−1 + ck = π + ω+,k = πk and

Assume now, that ϑk = −1. In order that ack be defined,

ck ∈

/ πk−1 + "k−1 ⊂ π + " + ωk−1 .

But ck ∈

/ π + " by assumption and ck ∈

/ ωk−1 , as Wk is admissible. So we have the

mapping

ack : Gπk−1 ,"k−1 → Gπk−1 ,"k−1 +ck .

But ω+,k = ω+,k−1 and

πk = π + ωk−1 = πk−1

5.4 Wick’s Theorem 107

and

"k−1 + ck = (" + ω−,k−1 ) ∩ ω+,k−1 ∪ {ck } = (" + ω−,k ) ∩ ω+,k = "k

as ck ∈

/ ω+,k−1 .

We prove a theorem analogous to that of Sect. 1.3 and to Proposition 1.7.2. The

general theorem of Sect. 1.3 cannot be applied, as the multiplication is not always

defined. But the ideas of our proof are borrowed from there.

Assume two finite index sets σ, τ and a finite set of pairs S = {(bi , ci ) : i ∈ I },

such that all bi and all ci are different and bi = ci . We extend the relation of right

neighbor to the triple (σ, S, τ ) by putting for (b, c) ∈ S, t ∈ τ

(b, c) & t ⇐⇒ c = t.

Consider a triple (σ, S, τ ), σ ∩ τ = ∅, and two finite sets υ, β such that the three sets

σ ∪ S+ ∪ S− ∪ τ and υ and β are pairwise disjoint. As

+

aσ aτ Φυ (β) = ε(τ, υ1 )ε(β, σ + υ2 )

υ1 +υ2 =υ

we find that the product (aσ+ aτ Φυ )(β)ES is defined if the graph (σ, S, τ ) is free of

circuits and we define the operator

that way.

Consider an admissible sequence W = (acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11 ) and the associated sets

ω+ , ω− . We define the set P(W ) of all decompositions of [1, n], i.e., all sets of

subsets, of the form

p = p+ , p− , {qi , ri }i∈I ,

[1, n] = p+ + p− + {qi , ri },

i∈I

p+ ⊂ ω+ , p− ⊂ ω− , qi ∈ ω− , ri ∈ ω+ , qi > ri .

Lemma 5.4.1 Assume W to be admissible and p ∈ P(W ). Then the graph (σ, S, τ )

with

σ = {cs : s ∈ p+ }, S = (cqi , cri ) : i ∈ I , τ = {ct : t ∈ p− }

has no circuits.

108 5 White Noise Calculus

Proof Let (cq , cr ) & (cq , cr ), then cr = cq and r > q as W is admissible. By the

definition of p we have q > r and q > r , so q > r > q > r , and if we have a

sequence (cq1 , cr1 ) & · · · & (cqk , crk ), then q1 > r1 > · · · qk > rk and as ϑ1 = −1, ϑk =

+1 we have cq1 = crk as W is admissible. This proves that S is without circuits. For

the other components of the graph one uses similar arguments.

W p = ac+s ε(cqi , cri ) act .

s∈p+ i∈I t∈p−

monomial, then

M= W p .

p∈P(W )

(qi , ri ), ε(c(pi )) = ε(cqi , cri ). Assume

V = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11

N = acϑnn · · · acϑ11 .

Consider W = (acn+1 , V ) and define a mapping ϕ− : P(W ) → P(V ) consisting in

erasing n + 1. Then n + 1 may occur in one of the pi , say in pi0 , or in p− . In the first

case

ϕ− p = p+ + {ri0 }, (pi )i∈I \i0 , p−

in the second case

ϕ− p = p+ , (pi )i∈I , p− \ {n + 1} .

Assume

q = q+ , (qj )j ∈J , q− ∈ P(V )

then

−1

ϕ− q = {p : ϕ− p = q} = p(0) , p(l) , l ∈ q+ ,

p(0) = q+ , (qj )j ∈J , q− + {n + 1} ,

p(l) = q+ \ l, (qj )j ∈J , (n + 1, l), q− .

Consider

acn+1 V q = acn+1 ac+s ε c(qj ) act

s∈q+ j ∈J t∈q−

5.5 Representation of Unity 109

= ac+s ε c(qj ) act

s∈q+ j ∈J t∈q− +{n+1}

+ ac+s ε(c(qj )ε(cn+1 , cl ) act

l∈q+ s∈q+ \l j ∈J t∈q−

= W p .

−1

p∈ϕ− (q)

Finally

acn+1 N = acn+1 V = W p = W p .

q∈P(V ) q∈P(V ) p∈ϕ −1 (q) p∈P(W )

−

in erasing n + 1 then

ϕ+ p = p+ \ {n + 1}, (pi )i∈I , p− ,

−1

ϕ+ q = q+ + {n + 1}, (qj )j ∈J , q− + ,

ac+n+1 V q = W ϕ −1 q .

+

We extend the functional Ψ to Gn,π," by putting

1 for σ = ∅,

Ψ Φσ =

0 otherwise

and

Ψ Φσ ES = (Ψ Φσ )ES .

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11

to be admissible and

M = acϑnn · · · acϑ11 .

Then we define

M = W p .

p∈P0 (W )

110 5 White Noise Calculus

Here P0 (W ) is the set of partitions of [1, n] into pairs {qi , ri }i=1,...,n/2 such that

q1 > ri , ϑqi = −1, ϑri = +1, and

W p = ε(bi , ci ).

i

0 if ϑ1 + · · · + ϑn = 0,

(MΦ)(∅) = Ψ MΦ =

M if ϑ1 + · · · + ϑn = 0.

If M is admissible, then

(MΦβ )(α) = Ψ aα Maβ+ Φ = aα Maβ+ .

M = Δα M2 aα+ aα M1 .

α

Proof Assume

M = acϑnn · · · acϑ11 ,

M2 = acϑnn · · · acϑkk ,

ϑ

M1 = ack−1

k−1

· · · acϑ11 .

M for α = ∅,

Ψ aα+ aα MΦ =

0 otherwise.

ϑ

k+1

. Assume ϑk = −1. Then

Δα M2 aα+ aα M1 = Δα M2 ack aα+ aα M1

α α

+

= Δα M2 aα\b aα M1 ε(ck , b)

α b∈α

5.6 Duality 111

= Δα M2 aα+ aα+b M1 ε(ck , b)

α b

= Δα M2 aα+ aα ack M1 .

α

Δα M2 aα+ aα ac+k M1 = Δα M2 ac+k aα+ aα M1 .

α α

5.6 Duality

We fix a positive measure λ on X, and instead of writing e(λ) we shall just continue

to write λ when there are indexed variables like xα , and so by abuse of notation

Λ(1, . . . , k)f (1, . . . , k)

= Λ(dx1 , . . . , dxk )f (x1 , . . . , xk ) = λ(dx)f (x, . . . , x).

So we have

λ(1)ε(1, 2) · · · ε(k − 1, k) = Λ(1, 2, . . . , k).

Assume

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11 ,

to be an admissible sequence with ϑ1 + · · · ϑn = 0. Define as usual ω± (W ) = {ci :

ϑi = ±1}. Recall from Theorem 5.4.1 that

M = W p .

p∈P0 (W )

Here P0 (W ) is the set of partitions of [1, n] into pairs {qi , ri }i=1,...,n/2 such that

q1 > ri , ϑqi = −1, ϑri = +1, and

W p = ε(bi , ci ).

i

Call S(p) the graph related to p and Γ (S(p)) the set of components of the graph. To

any s ∈ S− (p) \ S+ (p) there is associated a component. As

112 5 White Noise Calculus

M λ(") = W p λ(") = Λ(γ ).

p∈P0 (W ) p∈P0 (W ) γ ∈Γ (S(p))

W = acϑnn , . . . , acϑ11 ,

to be an admissible sequence, then define the formally adjoint sequence by

W + = ac−ϑ 1

1 , . . . , a −ϑn .

cn

corresponding to W + .

Theorem 5.6.1

M λ ω− (W ) \ ω+ (W ) = M + λ ω+ (W ) \ ω− (W ) .

Chapter 6

Circled Integrals

Abstract The circled integral will be needed to treat quantum stochastic differential

equations. We solve a circled integral equation, introduce the class C 1 , which has

remarkable analytical properties, and show, that the solution is a C 1 function.

6.1 Definition

R = {∅} + R + R2 + · · · .

We provide R with the measure e(λ) induced by the Lebesgue measure λ, and write

for short e(λ)(dtα ) = dtα = λα . So for a symmetric function

∞

1

Δαf (tα )dtα = f (∅) + ··· dt1 · · · dtn f (t1 , . . . , tn )

n! Rn

n=1

∞

= f (∅) + ··· dt1 · · · dtn f (t1 , . . . , tn ).

n=1 t1 <···<tn

x : R × Rk → B,

(t, w1 , . . . , wk ) → xt (w1 , . . . , wk )

respect to the Lebesgue measure on R × Rk . Let there be given a Lebesgue inte-

(j

grable function f : R → C. The circled integral (f )x is defined by

) j

(f )x (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = f (tc ) xtc (tα1 , . . . , tαj −1 , tαj \c , tαj +1 , . . . , tαk ).

c∈αj

The circled integral has been called Skorohod integral by P.A. Meyer [34].

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_6,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

114 6 Circled Integrals

) j

(w1 , . . . , wk ) ∈ Rk → (f )x (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) ∈ B

Proof The symmetry is trivial; for local integrability it is sufficient that all func-

tions have values ≥ 0. Let g(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) be a continuous function with g ≥ 0 and

compact support, symmetric in any of the tαi , then by the sum-integral lemma, The-

orem 2.2.1,

) j

··· (f )x (tα1 , . . . , tαk )g(tα1 , . . . , tαk )dtα1 · · · dtαk Δα1 · · · Δαk

= ··· f (tc )xtc (tα1 , . . . , tαk )

R

(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) ∈ Rk : all ti for i ∈ α1 + · · · + αk are different ;

this differs from the set Rk by a null set. We define on this set a mapping Ξ onto

S(R × {1, . . . , k}), where S denotes the set of finite subsets, by mapping

(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) → ξ = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn , in )

where

il = j ⇔ sl ∈ tαj .

That is we list all the variables occurring in the tαj as sl ’s and add a second index,

showing in which block j a variable occurs, to make an entry (sl , j ).

and that all points in the following subset of R

{s, t} ∪ {ti : i ∈ α1 + · · · + αk }

6.2 A Circled Integral Equation 115

u(A1 , . . . , Ak , B) : s, t ∈ R2 , s < t × Rk

→ uts (A1 , . . . , Ak , B)(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) ∈ B

by

= 1{s < s1 < · · · < sn < t} exp (t − sn )B Ain exp (sn − sn−1 )B Ain−1

× · · · × Ai2 exp (s2 − s1 )B Ai1 exp (s1 − s)B

Ξ (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn , in )

with

s1 < · · · < sn .

e : Rk → B,

1 if tα1 = · · · = tαk = ∅,

e(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) =

0 otherwise.

) j ) j

= (1]s,t[ ).

s,t

is a symmetric function in each of the variables tαi and locally integrable. Consider

for t > s the equation

k ) j t

xt = e + Aj x+ Bxu du.

j =1 s,t s

Then

xt = uts (A1 , . . . , Ak , B)

is the unique solution of that equation.

116 6 Circled Integrals

Proof The proof is very similar to that of [41, Lemma 6.1]. We include it for com-

pleteness. Using the renumbering Ξ we rewrite the equation in terms of

ξ = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn , in ) , s1 < · · · < sn ,

and to spare ourselves further heavy notation we view a pair (sj , ij ) as also denoting

the variable in the tαi to which it corresponds, namely Ξ −1 ({(sj , ij )}); we extend

this then to all of ξ . With this convention we obtain a rewritten form of the equation

to be solved, with a sum running now to n over the list of all the variables in the k

different tαi ,

n

t

xt (ξ ) = e(ξ ) + Ail xsl ξ \ (sl , il ) 1{s < sl < t} + B xu (ξ )du.

l=1 s

t

xt (∅) = 1 + B xu (∅)du

s

whose solution is

xt (∅) = exp (t − s)B .

We want to prove by induction that xt (ξ ) = 0 if {s1 , . . . , sn } ⊂ ]s, t[.

Assume n = 1 and s1 ∈ / ]s, t[; then, looking at the equation above for ξ =

xt ({(s1 , i1 )}) we see the e(ξ ) term vanishes since ξ = ∅, the second term vanishes

because the set in {s < si < t} is empty, and we are left with

t

xt (s1 , i1 ) = B xu (s1 , i1 ) du

s

With n > 1, if {s1 , . . . , sn } ⊂ ]s, t[, since the sj were chosen ordered, then at least

one of the si , either s1 or sn , is not in ]s, t[. Assume s1 ∈ / ]s, t[, then

n t

xt (ξ ) = Ail 1{s < sl < t}xsl ξ \ (sl , il ) + B xu (ξ )du.

l=2 s

The first sum vanishes, since, for each contribution, s1 < s is still contained in the

shorter set of indices ξ \ (sl , il ) so the induction hypothesis applies; the integral

contribution vanishes as argued above; therefore xt (ξ ) = 0.

Now if {s1 , . . . , sn } ⊂ ]s, t[, then xsl (ξ \ (sl , il )) = 0 for l < n, since

{s1 , . . . , sn } \ sl ⊂ ]s, sl [;

t

xt (ξ ) = Ain xsn (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn−1 , in−1 ) + B xu (ξ )du.

sn

6.3 Functions of Class C 1 117

xt (ξ ) = eB(t−sn ) Ain xsn (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn−1 , in−1 ) .

Repeating this procedure to pull out all the exponential terms we finally obtain, as

asserted,

xt (ξ ) = 1{s < s1 < · · · < sn < t} exp (t − sn )B Ain exp (sn − sn−1 )B Ain−1

× · · · × Ai2 exp (s2 − s1 )B Ai1 exp (s1 − s)B

= uts (A1 , . . . , Ak , B)(tα1 , . . . , tαk ).

In a similar way one proves, for the lower variable s of the evolution,

s → ys = uts (A1 , . . . , Ak , B)

k

)

j t

ys = e + y Aij − yu du B.

j =1 s,t s

with

ξ = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn , in ) and s1 < · · · < sn ,

and assuming s < r < t and sj −1 < r < sj ; then

with

ξ1 = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sj −1 , ij −1 ) ,

ξ2 = (sj , ij ), . . . , (sn , in ) .

It will be important for later calculations that we are working with what are called

C 1 -functions.

118 6 Circled Integrals

locally integrable and continuous in the subspace where all points t, ti , i ∈ α1 +

· · · αk , are different. We call x of class C 1 if it is of class C 0 and if, on the same

subspace, the functions

c d

∂ x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = xt (tα1 , . . . , tαk ),

dt

j

R± x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = xt±0 tα1 , . . . , tαj −1 , tαj + {t}, tαj +1 , . . . , tαk

exist for j = 1, . . . , k, and are of class C 0 . Here d/dt = ∂ c is the usual derivative

j

at the points of ordinary differentiability, and R± denote respectively the limits at t

from above and below, which are assumed to exist where the function is not contin-

uous. Put

j j

D j x = R+ x − R− x.

S ⊂ Rk = (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) ,

where all points ti , i ∈ α1 , . . . , αk are different, the function xt (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) has left

and right limits at every point t, so xt±0 (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) are well defined and we have

for s < t

t k ) j

xt−0 = xs+0 + dt ∂ c xt + D j x.

s j =1 s,t

integrable and continuous on S, then

)

t k j

xt = g + dt f0 t + fj

s j =1 s,t

is of type C 1 , and

c

∂ x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = f0 (tα1 , . . . , tαk ),

j

D x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = fj (tα1 , . . . , tαk ).

Hence

j

R− x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = x(t)(tα1 , . . . , tαk ),

j

R+ x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = x(t)(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) + D j x t (tα1 , . . . , tαk ).

6.3 Functions of Class C 1 119

Proof We have that, on S, the function xt is continuous if t is not one of the variables

in tα1 +···+αk . If t is a variable in tα1 +···+αk , e.g., t is a variable in tαj , we obtain

j

xt±0 (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = R± x t tα1 , . . . , tαj −1 , tαj \ {t}, tαj +1 , . . . , tαk ;

but the right-hand side is well defined, because t is not amongst the variables of

tα1 +···+αj −1 +αj +αj +1 +···+αk \ {t}. So xt±0 is well defined on S.

To finish the proof we discuss only the case k = 1, since for general k we can use

analogous reasoning using the representation Ξ . Assume then we have α = α1 , so

n

n

si+1

xt−0 (tα ) − xs+0 (tα ) = dt ∂ c x t (tα ) + xsi +0 (tα ) − xsi −0 (tα )

i=0 si i=1

n

t

= dt ∂ c x t (tα ) + (Dx)si (tα \ si )

s i=1

)

t

= dt ∂ x t (tα ) +

c

(Dx)(tα )

s s,t

(1 (

since we naturally write D 1 = D and = .

Proposition 6.3.2 For fixed s, the function u·s : t → uts (Ai , B), and for fixed t, the

functions ut· : s → uts (Ai , B), are each of class C 1 , and one has

j ·

R+ us t = Aj uts ,

j ·

R− us t = 0,

∂sc uts = −uts B,

j t

R+ u· s = 0,

j t

R− u· s = uts Aj

for j = 1, . . . , k.

We recall the definition of the Schwartz test functions on the real line. They make

up the space Cc∞ (R) of infinitely differentiable functions of compact support.

120 6 Circled Integrals

Definition 6.3.2 For f locally integrable on R, the Schwartz derivative is the func-

tional given by

(∂f )(ϕ) = − f (t)ϕ (t)dt

(∂f )(ϕ) = g(t)ϕ(t)dt,

g = ∂f.

its Schwartz differential is the measure

n

∂f = ∂ c f + f (ti + 0) − f (ti − 0) εti (dt),

i=1

where ∂ c f is the usual derivative outside the jump points, and εt is the point measure

in the point t.

We extend the notion of the circled integral to the vaguely continuous measure-

valued function ε : x → εx by defining

) j

ε(dt)x (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = εtc (dt) xtc (tα1 , . . . , tαj −1 , tαj \c , tαj +1 , . . . , tαk ).

c∈αj

This expression is scalarly defined, i.e., for any function f with compact support in

R we have

) j ) j

ε(dt)x f (t) = (f )x.

k )

j

(∂xt )(dt) = ∂ c x t dt + ε(dt) D j x .

j =1

Proof We calculate

− · · · Δα1 · · · Δαk dtα1 · · · dtαk g(tα1 , . . . , tαk ) dt ϕ (t)xt (tα1 , . . . , tαk )

the integral outside the null set where all the ti , for i ∈ α1 + · · · + αk , are different.

6.3 Functions of Class C 1 121

Ξ (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = ξ = (s1 , i1 ), . . . , (sn , in )

− dt ϕ (t)xt (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) = − dt ϕ (t)xt (ξ )

n

= dt ϕ(t)∂ c xt (ξ ) + ϕ(tj ) xsj +0 (ξ ) − xsj −0 (ξ ) .

j =1

k

ϕ(tc ) xtc +0 (tα1 , . . . , tαk ) − xtc −0 (tα1 , . . . , tαk )

j =1 c∈αj

k

= ϕ(tc ) D j x t (tα1 , . . . , taj \c , . . . , tαk )

c

j =1 c∈αj

k

)

j

= (ϕ)D j x (tα1 , . . . , tαk ).

j =1

Chapter 7

White Noise Integration

scalarly defined as sesquilinear forms over Ks (X, k), the space of all symmetric,

continuous functions of compact support with values in a Hilbert space k. We can de-

fine products of those objects as scalarly defined integrals. We define C 1 -processes

and calculate their Schwartz derivatives. We prove Ito’s theorem for C 1 -processes.

In the following we shall, if not otherwise stated, skip Δα etc. in the integrals. So

we write, e.g.,

μ(dα) for μ(dα)Δα.

∞

1

μ(dα) = μ(∅) + · · · μ(dx1 , . . . , dxn ).

n!

n=1

With this simplified notation the sum-integral lemma, Theorem 2.2.1, reads

··· μ(dxα1 , . . . , dxαk ) = μ(dxα1 , . . . , dxαk )

α1 αk α α +···+α =α

1 n

··· μ(α1 , . . . , αk ) = μ(α1 , . . . , αk ).

α1 αk α α +···+α =α

1 k

M = acϑnn · · · acϑ11 .

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_7,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

124 7 White Noise Integration

Let S+ be the set of all i, such that ϑi = +1, and S− the set of all i, such that

ϑi = −1. If λ is the base measure, we will use the fact, that

M λS− \S+

is a positive measure in the usual sense on an appropriate space. We shall denote by

Φ| the measure, concentrated on ∅, which we denoted by Ψ in Sect. 2.1 So

Φ|f = f (∅).

A monomial

M = acϑnn · · · acϑ11

is called normal ordered if all the creators ac+ are to the left of the annihilators ac ,

i.e.,

ϑi = +1, ϑj = −1 =⇒ i > j.

Using the commutation relations it is clear that any normal ordered monomial

can be brought into the form

a + (dxs1 ) · · · a + (dxsl )a + (dxt1 ) · · · a + (dxtm )

a(xt1 ) · · · a(xtm )a(xu1 ) · · · a(xun ) = aσ++τ aτ +υ ,

with

σ = {s1 , . . . , sl }, τ = {t1 , . . . , tm }, υ = {u1 , . . . , un }.

Assume five finite, pairwise disjoint, index sets π, σ, τ, υ, ρ and consider the

admissible monomial aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ . The indices of creators make up the set

S+ = σ +τ +ρ, and the indices of annihilators S− = π +τ +υ. So S− \S+ = π +υ.

Following Sect. 5.6, aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ λπ+υ is for fixed #π, #σ, #τ, #υ, #ρ, a mea-

sure on X #(π+σ +τ +υ+ρ) . Letting the numbers #π, #σ, #τ, #υ, #ρ run from 0 to ∞

we arrive at a measure m on X5

m = m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ) = aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ λπ+υ .

Using Theorem 5.5.1 and Theorem 5.6.1, we obtain (forgetting about the Δω),

m= aω aσ +τ aπ+ aω aτ +υ aρ+ λω+σ +τ +υ

ω

= ε(σ + τ + ω, π)ε(τ + υ + ω, ρ)λω+σ +τ +υ .

ω

If ϕ ∈ Ks (X5 ) then

m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ)ϕ(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ) = ϕ(σ + τ + ω, σ, τ, υ, τ + υ + ω)λω+σ +τ +υ ,

7.1 Integration of Normal Ordered Monomials 125

Assume we have a Hilbert space k with a countable basis. We often write the

scalar product x, y → x, y in the form x + y by introducing the dual vector x + . We

denote by B(k) the space of bounded linear operators on k. We provide B(k) with

the operator norm topology. If A ∈ B(k), then A+ denotes the adjoint operator.

Assume the function F : X3 → B(k) is locally λ-integrable, i.e., locally inte-

grable with respect to e(λ)⊗3 , and f, g ∈ Ks (X, k) (continuous in the norm topology

of k). The integral

m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ)f + (π)F (σ, τ, υ)g(ρ)

= f + (σ + τ + ω)F (σ, τ, υ)g(τ + υ + ω)λω+σ +τ +υ = f |B(F )|g

exists and defines a sesquilinear form on Ks (X, k). We may say that

B(F ) = F (σ, τ, υ)aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ

+

f | = f (π)Φ|aπ λπ , |g = g(ρ)aρ+ |Φ ;

note that aρ+ is a measure but aπ has to be multiplied with the base measure λπ . We

shall use the following formulas, which can be established easily.

Lemma 7.1.1

+

aω aρ+ |Φ = ε(ω, α)aρ\α |Φ ,

α⊂ω

aω+ aω aρ+ |Φ = ε(ω, α)aρ+ |Φ ,

α⊂ω

Φ|aπ aω+ = ε(α, ω)Φ|aπ\α ,

α⊂π

Φ|aπ aτ+ aτ = ε(α, τ )Φ|aω\α .

α⊂π

Proposition 7.1.1 The sesquilinear form f |B(F )|g induces a mapping O(F )

from Ks (X) into the locally λ-integrable functions on X, and we have

f |B(F )|g = f + (ω) O(F )g (ω)λω = f |O(F )g λ ,

O(F )g (ω) = λυ F (α, β, υ)g(ω \ α + υ).

α⊂ω β⊂ω\α υ

126 7 White Noise Integration

If we define

F + (σ, τ, υ) = F (υ, σ, τ )+ ,

we obtain

f |O(F )g λ = O F + f |g λ .

Proof We have

m = aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ λπ+υ = Φ|aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ |Φ λπ+υ .

Now

Φ|aπ aσ+ = ε(α, σ )Φ|aπ\α

α⊂π

and

Φ|aω aτ+ aτ = ε(β, τ )Φ|aω\β .

β⊂ω

From there one obtains the first formula. Using the results of Sect. 5.6, we have

m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ) = m(ρ, υ, τ, σ, π)

and obtain

f |O(F )g λ = g|O F + f λ = O F + f |g λ .

m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ) = aπ aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aσ+2 +τ2 at2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

f |B(F, G)|g

= m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)f + (π)F (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )G(σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )g(ρ)

provided the integral exists in norm. So the bilinear form B(F, G) in F and G,

whose values are sesquilinear forms in f and g, can be written as the scalarly de-

fined integral

B(F, G) = F (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )G(σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 λυ1 +υ2 .

One obtains

Proposition 7.1.2

f |B(F, G)|g = O F + f |O(G)g λ .

7.2 Meyer’s Formula 127

Proof Use the representation of unity from Sect. 5.6, and obtain

m= aπ aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aω+ aω aσ+2 +τ2 at2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2

ω

= aω aτ+1 +υ1 aτ1 +σ1 aπ+ aω aσ+2 +τ2 a2 +υ2 aρ+ λω+σ1 +υ2 .

ω

O(F + ) and O(G) are bounded operators from Ks (X, k), provided with the

L2 (X, k, λ)-norm, into L2 (X, k, λ).

As might be guessed from Wick’s theorem, there exists an H such that B(F, G) =

B(H ). In fact we have the following theorem, basically due to P.A. Meyer [34].

ric in each variable, such that

B(F, G) = F (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )G(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 λυ1 +υ2

variable, such that

B(F, G) = B(H )

and H is given by the formula

H (σ, τ, υ) = λκ F (α1 , α2 + β1 + β2 , γ1 + γ2 + κ)

κ

× G(κ + α2 + α3 , β2 + β3 + γ2 , γ3 )

α1 + α2 + α3 = σ,

β1 + β2 + β3 = τ,

γ1 + γ2 + γ3 = υ.

That is essentially Meyer’s formula [34, p. 92]. The difference is mainly, that his

formula is formulated for sets of coordinates, whereas our formula deals with sets

of indices of coordinates; in addition, our formula holds for any locally compact

128 7 White Noise Integration

set and for any base measure λ; Meyer considers only X = R and the Lebesgue

measure. This formula was proven in [43] for Cc -functions. In order to generalize

it to more complicated functions one must use the extension theorems of measure

theory.

Proof We prove the theorem only for positive Cc -functions and leave the general-

ization to the reader. Recall from Sect. 5.3 that

ε(α, β) = aα , aβ+ = ε c, ϕ(c) (∗)

ϕ∈B(α,β) c∈α

and ε(α, β) = 0.

One shows easily that

ε(α1 + α2 , β) = ε(α1 , β1 )ε(α2 , β2 ),

β1 +β2 =β

ε(α, β1 + β2 ) = ε(α1 , β1 )ε(α2 , β2 ).

α1 +α2 =α

(∗) ε(α1 + α2 , β1 + β2 ) = ε(α11 , β11 )ε(α12 , β21 )ε(α21 , β12 )ε(α22 , β22 )

where the sum runs through all indices α11 , . . . , β22 with

β11 + β12 = β1 , β21 + β22 = β2 .

We have

B(F, G) = λυ1 +υ2 F (σ2 , τ2 , τ1 )G(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 ,

where the integral runs over all (mutually disjoint) index sets σ1 , . . . , υ2 . Calculate

= aσ+2 +τ2 +σ11 +τ11 aτ21 +υ21 +τ1 +υ1 ε(τ22 + υ22 , σ12 + τ12 )

σ11 + σ12 = σ1 , τ11 + τ12 = τ1 .

Following (∗)

ε(τ22 + υ22 , σ12 + τ12 ) = ε(τ221 , σ121 )ε(τ222 , τ121 )ε(υ221 , σ122 )ε(υ222 , τ122 )

7.3 Quantum Stochastic Processes of Class C 1 129

with

σ121 + σ122 = σ12 , τ121 + τ122 = τ12 .

B(F, G) = λυ21 +υ221 +υ222 +υ1 F (σ2 , τ21 + τ221 + τ222 , υ21 + υ221 + υ222 )

× G(σ11 + σ121 + σ122 , τ11 + τ121 + τ122 , υ1 )ε(τ221 , σ121 )ε(τ222 , τ121 )

× ε(υ221 , σ122 )ε(υ222 , τ122 )aσ+2 +τ21 +τ221 +τ222 +σ11 +τ11

× aτ21 +υ21 +τ11 +τ121 +τ122 +υ1

τ21 = β1 , τ222 = τ121 = β2 , τ11 = β3 ,

υ21 = γ1 , υ222 = τ122 = γ2 , υ 1 = γ3 ,

σ122 = υ221 = κ,

where the equalities in the second column hold after integration. Define

α1 + α2 + α3 = σ,

β1 + β2 + β3 = τ,

γ1 + γ2 + γ3 = υ,

and Fundamental Properties

Recall the definition of functions of class C 1 from Definition 6.3.1, and use, instead

of the index sets α1 , . . . , αk , the index sets σ, τ, υ; set B = B(k), where k is a Hilbert

space. Assume xt (σ, τ, υ) of class C 1 , and use the notation

1

R± x t (tσ , tτ , tυ ) = xt±0 tσ + {t}, tτ , tυ ,

0

R± x t (tσ , tτ , tυ ) = xt±0 tσ , tτ + {t}, tυ ,

−1

R± x t (tσ , tτ , tυ ) = xt±0 tσ , tτ , tυ + {t} ,

i i i

D x t = R+ x t − R− x t .

130 7 White Noise Integration

gously. Recall, from Sect. 7.1, the definition of the measure

m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ) = aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ λπ+υ

f |B(F )|g = m(π, σ, τ, υ, ρ)f + (π)F (σ, τ, υ)g(ρ).

of class C 1 .

for f, g ∈ Ks (R, k) is a locally integrable function

∂f |B(xt )|g = f |B ∂ c xt |g

+ a(t)f B D 1 xt |g + a(t)f B D 0 xt a(t)g

+ f |B D −1 xt a(t)g

t

f |B(xt )|g − f |B(xs )|g = dt ∂f |B(xt )|g .

s

∂B(xt ) = B ∂ c xt + a † (t)B D 1 xt + a † (t)B D 0 xt a(t) + B D −1 xt a(t).

= f |B(xt−0 )|g − f |B(xs+0 )|g

= mf + (π)∂tc xt (σ, τ, υ)g(ρ)ϕ(t)dt

+ mf + (π) D 0 x c xtc (σ \ c, τ, υ)g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

c∈σ

+ mf + (π) D 1 x c xtc (σ, τ \ c, υ)g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

c∈τ

+ mf + (π) D −1 x c xtc (σ, τ, υ \ c)g(ρ)ϕ(tc ).

c∈υ

7.4 Ito’s Theorem 131

By using the sum-integral lemma, we obtain for the last three terms

aπ aσ++c+τ aτ +υ aρ+ λπ+υ f + (π) D 1 x c g(ρ)ϕ(c)

+ aπ aσ++τ +c aτ +c+υ aρ+ λπ+υ f + (π) D 0 x c g(ρ)ϕ(c)

+ aπ aσ++c+τ aτ +υ+c aρ+ λπ+υ+c f + (π) D −1 x c g(ρ)ϕ(c)

where the integration is over all indices π, σ, τ, υ, ρ, c. From there we deduce the

result.

m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ) = aπ aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aσ+2 +τ2 at2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

f |B(F, G)|g

= m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)f + (π)F (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )G(σ2 , τ2 , υ3 )g(ρ)

sesquilinear forms f |B(Ft , Gt )|g exist in norm, and t ∈ R → f |B(Ft , Gt )|g

1 x , R 0 x , R −1 x }

is locally integrable, where Ft can be any function in {xt , ∂ c xt , R± t ± t ± t

−1

and Gt can be any function in {yt , ∂ yt , R± yt , R± yt , R± yt }.

c 1 0

integrable function, and a formula for it is

∂f |B(xt , yt )|g = f |B ∂ c xt , yt + B f, ∂ c yt + I−1,+1,t |g

+ a(t)f B D 1 xt , yt + B f, D 1 yt + I0,+1,t |g

+ a(t)f B D 0 xt , yt + B f, D 0 yt + I0,0,t a(t)g

+ f |B D −1 xt , yt + B f, D −1 yt + I−1,0,t a(t)g

with

i j i j

Ii,j,t = B R+ xt , R+ yt − B R− xt , R− yt .

132 7 White Noise Integration

t

f |B(xt , yt )|g − f |B(xs , ys )|g = ds ∂f |B(xs , ys )|g .

s

we may write

c

∂B(xt , yt ) = B ∂ xt , yt + B f, ∂ c yt + I−1,+1,t

+ a † (t) B D 1 xt , yt + B f, D 1 yt + I0,+1,t

+ a † (t) B D 0 xt , yt + B f, D 0 yt + I0,0,t a(t)

+ B D −1 xt , yt + B f, D −1 yt + I−1,0,t a(t).

1 if {tσ +τ +υ }• has a repeated point,

N(σ, τ, υ) =

0 otherwise.

xt±0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

are everywhere defined Borel functions, and we consider

aπ ac aσ++τ aτ +υ aρ+ f + (π)h(c)xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ) g(ρ).

atc aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

1 0

= O(xtc )ac + O R+ x t + O R+ t

ac .

c c

xt+0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

⎧

⎪

⎪ xt (σ, τ, υ) if tc ∈

/ tσ +τ +υ ,

⎪ 1

⎨(R+ x)t (σ \ b, τ, υ) if t = tb , b ∈ σ,

= 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

⎪

⎪ (R 0 x) (σ, τ \ b, υ)

+ t if t = tb , b ∈ τ,

⎪

⎩ −1

(R+ x)t (σ, τ, υ \ b) if t = tb , b ∈ υ

atc aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

7.4 Ito’s Theorem 133

= xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ)aσ++τ aτ +υ+c λυ 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

+ xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ) atc , aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ 1 − N (σ, τ, υ) .

Because, in the first term on the right-hand side upon insertion of f, g, h all mea-

sures are λ-based, we may neglect N and replace tc + 0 by tc . The second term

equals, with the help of the sum-integral lemma and integrating over tb ,

ε(c, b)aσ+\b+τ aτ +υ λυ + ε(c, b)aσ++τ \b aτ +υ λυ xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ)

b∈σ b∈σ

× 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

= aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ

× 1 − N (σ + c, τ, υ) xtc +0 (σ + c, τ, υ)

+ 1 − N (σ, τ + c, υ) xtc +0 (σ, τ + c, υ)ac .

If we insert the functions f, g, h into the expressions, we see that we have to deal

with integrals over λ-based measures; we may neglect N . We use the expressions

R+1 , R 0 introduced in Sect. 7.3, and arrive at

+

atc aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ xtc +0 (σ, τ, υ) 1 − N (σ, τ, υ)

1 0

= aσ++τ aτ +υ λυ ac xtc (σ, τ, υ) + R+ x t (σ, τ, υ) + ac R+ t

(σ, τ, υ)

c c

0

= O(xtc )ac + O 1

R+ x t + O R+ t

ac .

c c

Proof of Ito’s Theorem By the formulae in Sect. 7.1, the sesquilinear form B(F, G)

vanishes if one of the functions F or G is a Lebesgue null function. So for fixed t

Define

1 if {tσ +τ +υ }• has a repeated point,

N(σ, τ, υ) =

0 otherwise.

As N is a Lebesgue null function, we have, for t0 < t1 ,

= m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , π)f + (π) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

134 7 White Noise Integration

× xt1 −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt1 −0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) − xt0 +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt0 +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

× 1 − N(σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ).

(tσ1 +τ1 +υ1 ∪ tσ2 +τ2 +υ2 ) ∩ ]t0 , t1 [ = t 1 < · · · < t n−1 ,

xt1 −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt1 −0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) − xt0 +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt0 +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

× 1 − N(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

n ti

= dt ∂ c xt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt (σ2 , t2 , υ2 ) + xt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )∂ c yt (σ2 , t2 , υ2 )

i−1

i=1 t

× 1 − N(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

n−1

+ xt i +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt i +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) − xt i −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt i −0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

i=1

× 1 − N(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) .

t1

dt ∂ c xt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )yt (σ2 , t2 , υ2 ) + xt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )∂ c yt (σ2 , t2 , υ2 ) .

t0

Remark that the points of each of tσ1 +τ1 +υ1 and tσ2 +τ2 +υ2 are all different, but there

may be points common to both. The second sum equals

xtc +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) − xtc −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) ytc −0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

c∈σ1 +τ1 +υ1 , tc ∈]t0 ,t1 [

× 1 − N(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

+ (xtc −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ1 ) − ytc −0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

c∈σ2 +τ2 +υ2 , tc ∈]t0 ,t1 [

× 1 − N(σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

xtc +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) − xtc −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) = 0

for tc ∈

/ tσ1 +τ1 +υ1 . We discuss the integrals of the terms of the form

xtc ±0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

c∈σi +τi +υi , tc ∈]t0 ,t1 [

7.4 Ito’s Theorem 135

× ytc ±0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )

ϕ(t) = 1 t ∈ ]t0 , t1 [

and consider

f (π) xtc +0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

c∈σ1 +τ1 +υ1

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)

= I + II + III.

= + + .

c∈σ1 +τ1 +υ1 c∈σ1 c∈τ1 c∈υ1

I = f (π) R+1

x t (σ1 \ c, τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

c

c∈σ1

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)

1

= f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 + c, τ1 , υ1 )

c

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× aπ aσ+1 +c+τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2

1

= dtϕ(t) a(t)f B R+ xt , yt |g

t1 1

= dt a(t)f B R+ xt , yt |g .

t0

The integral over N (σ1 + c, τ1 , υ1 ) and N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) vanishes, and yt+0 = yt a.e.

with respect to the integrating measure.

In the same way

0

II = f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 + c, υ1 )

c

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

136 7 White Noise Integration

× aπ aσ+1 +τ1 +c aτ1 +c+υ1 aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

0

II = f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 + c, υ1 )

c

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× aπ aσ+1 +τ1 +c aτ1 +υ1 aω+ aω ac aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

ω

0

f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 + c, υ1 ) aπ aσ+1 +τ1 +c aτ1 +υ1 aω+ λπ+υ1

c

0 + +

= O R+ x t atc f (ω)λω ,

c

ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ) aω ac aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λυ2

= aω ac aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 g(ω)

1 0

= O(ytc )ac + O R+ y t + O R+ y t ac g (ω),

c c

0 + 1 0

II = dtc ϕ(tc ) O R+ x t atc f O(xtc )ac + O R+ x t + O R+ a gλ

t c

c c c

0 0

= dtϕ(t) at f |B R+ x t , yt a(t)g + at f |B R+ 1

xt , R+ yt |g

0

+ at f |B R+ 0

xt , R+ yt |at g .

We calculate

−1

III = f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 + c)

c

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× aπ aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 +c aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +c+υ2

−1

= f (π) R+ x t (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 + c)

c

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× aπ aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 aω+ aω ac aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aρ+ λπ+υ1 +c+υ2 .

ω

7.4 Ito’s Theorem 137

−1 −1

III = dϕ(t) f |B R+ xt , yt a(t)g + f |B R+ 1

xt , R+ yt |g

−1

+ f |B R+ 0

xt , R+ yt a(t)g .

The assumptions of our theorem guarantee that all the expressions exist and we

may extend the formulas to vector- and operator-valued functions. By analogous

calculations,

f (π)+ xtc ±0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

c∈σ1 +τ1 +υ1

× ytc +0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)

t1

= dtK±,+ (t)

t0

and

f (π)+ xtc −0 (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 ) 1 − N (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )

c∈σ2 +τ2 +υ2

× ytc ±0 (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) 1 − N (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )g(ρ)ϕ(tc )

× m(π, σ1 , τ1 , υ1 , σ2 , τ2 , υ2 , ρ)

= dtϕ(t)K−,± (t)

t1

= dtK−,± (t).

t0

We have

(1) (2)

K±,+ = K±,+ + K±,+ ,

(1) (2)

K−,± = K−,± + K−,±

with

1 0

(1)

K±,+ = a(t)f B R± xt , yt |g + a(t)f B R± xt , yt a(t)g

−1

+ f |B R± xt , yt a(t)g ,

K−,± = a(t)f B xt , R± yt |g + a(t)f B xt , R+ yt a(t)g

(1) 1 0

−1

+ f |B xt , R+ yt a(t)g

138 7 White Noise Integration

and

0 0

K±,± = a(t)f B R± yt |g + a(t)f B R± yt a(t)g

(2) 1 0

xt , R± xt , R±

−1 −1

+ f |B R± 0

xt , R± yt a(t)g + f |B R± xt , R±1

yt |g .

From there one achieves the final result without great difficulty.

Chapter 8

The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential

Equation

be solved by a classical integral in a high-dimensional space. With the help of an

a priori estimate it is possible to show that the solution is unitary, under the usual

assumptions. The unitarity allows stronger estimates: the Γk -norm is of polynomial

growth. This provides the resolvent of the associated one-parameter group with the

properties needed for the discussion of the Hamiltonian. An explicit form of the

Hamiltonian can be established.

We shall investigate the quantum stochastic differential equation that reads in the

Hudson-Parthasarathy calculus [34, 36]

dt Ust = A1 dBt+ Ust + A0 dΛt Ust + A−1 dBt Ust + BUst dt, with Uss = 1,

where A1 , A0 , A−1 , B are operators in B(k). In his white noise calculus Accardi [3]

formulates it as a normal ordered equation

dUst

= A1 at+ Ust + A0 at+ Ust at + A−1 Ust at + BUst .

dt

form over Ks (R) given by the classical integrals

f |Ust |g = f + (π)uts (σ, τ, υ)g(") aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υ

differential equation in the weak sense as

d

f |Ust |g = at f |A1 Ust |g + at f |A0 Ust |at g + f |A−1 Ust |at g + f |BUst |g ,

dt

Uss = 1

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_8,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

140 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

or, using the operator a † and interpreting the bracket as a weak integral,

dUst

= a † (t)A1 Ust + a † (t)A0 Ust a(t) + A−1 Ust a(t) + BUst ,

dt

which is still more similar to Accardi’s formulation. We can write the differential

equation better as the integral equation

t t

f |Ust |g = f |g + drar f |A1 Usr |g + drar f |A0 Usr |ar g

s s

t t

+ drf |A−1 Usr |ar g + drf |BUsr |g (∗)

s s

for t ≥ s. We shall show that this equation has a unique solution, which can be given

explicitly.

Lemma 8.2.1 The equation (∗) is equivalent to the circled integral equation (∗∗)

) 1 ) 0 ) −1 t

uts = e + A1 us· + A0 us· + A−1 us· + B dr urs (∗∗)

s,t s,t s,t s

where

1 if σ + τ + υ = ∅,

e(σ, τ, υ) =

0 otherwise.

t

dr ar f |A0 Usr |ar g

s

= 1[s,t] (tc )f + (ω + σ + τ + c)A0 utsc (σ, τ, υ)g(ω + τ + υ + c)λω+σ +τ +υ+c

= 1[s,t] (tc )f + (ω + σ + τ )A0 utsc (σ, τ \ c, υ)g(ω + τ + υ)λω+σ +τ +υ

c∈τ

) 0

= +

f (ω + σ + τ )A0 ·

us (σ, τ, υ)g(ω + τ + υ)λω+σ +τ +υ .

s,t

Remark that the function uts (σ, τ, υ) is determined by the sesquilinear form

f |Ust |g Lebesgue almost everywhere.

8.3 Examples 141

Ust = B uts (A1 , A0 , A−1 ; B) .

uts (σ, τ, υ)

= (−i)n eB(t−sn ) Ain eB(sn −sn−1 ) Ain−1

· · · Ai2 eB(s2 −s1 ) Ai1 eB(s1 −s) 1 tσ +τ +υ ⊂ ]s, t[

If Oa is the operator inducing the normal ordering of a and a + , one may write

∞

Ust = 1 + (−i)n · · ·

n=1 s<s1 <s2 <···<sn <t

Oa eB(t−sn ) A1 a + (dsn ) + A0 a + (dsn )a(sn ) + A−1 a(sn )dsn eB(sn −sn−1 )

· · · eB(s2 −s1 ) A1 a + (ds1 ) + A0 a + (ds1 )a(s1 ) + A−1 a(s1 )ds1 eB(s1 −s) .

∞

Ust =1+ (−i)n

··· ds1 · · · dsn

n=1 s<s1 <s2 <···<sn <t

Oa eB(t−sn ) A1 a † (sn ) + A0 a † (sn )a(sn ) + A−1 a(sn ) eB(sn −sn−1 )

· · · eB(s2 −s1 ) A1 a † (s1 ) + A0 a † (s1 )a(s1 ) + A−1 a(s1 ) eB(s1 −s) .

8.3 Examples

We consider the equation

√ √

(d/dt)Ust = −i 2πa † (t)E−+ Ust − i 2πE+− Ust a(t) − πE++ Ust ,

142 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

∞

√

−πE++ (t−s)

Ust =e + (− 2πi)n

··· ds1 · · · dsn

n=1 s<s1 <s2 <···<sn <t

Oa e−πE++ (t−sn ) E−+ a † (sn ) + E+− a(sn ) e−πE++ (sn −sn−1 )

· · · e−πE++ (s2 −s1 ) E−+ a † (s1 ) + E+− a(s1 ) e−πE++ (s1 −s) .

1 0

Use the notation |+ = 0 and |− = 1 . Then we calculate

√ t

Ust |+ ⊗ |∅ = e−π(t−s) |+ ⊗ |∅ − i 2π ds1 |− ⊗ a † (s1 )|∅ e−π(s1 −s)

s

since

E−+ a † (s1 ) + E+− a(s1 ) |+ ⊗ |∅ = |− ⊗ a † (s1 )|∅ ,

Oa E−+ a † (s2 ) + E+− a(s2 ) E−+ a † (s1 ) + E+− a(s1 ) |+ ⊗ |∅ = 0.

Also

√ t

Ust |− ⊗ a † (s)|∅ = |− ⊗ a † (s)|∅ − i 2π ds1 e−π(t−s1 ) |+ ⊗ |∅

s

− 2π ds1 ds2 e−π(s2 −s1 ) δ(s − s1 )|− ⊗ a † (s2 )|∅

s<s1 <s2 <t

since

E−+ a † (s1 ) + E+− a(s1 ) |− ⊗ a † (s)|∅ = δ(s1 − s) |+ ⊗ |∅ ,

Oa E−+ a † (s2 ) + E+− a(s2 ) E−+ a † (s1 ) + E+− a(s1 ) |− ⊗ a † (s)|∅

= δ(s − s1 )|− ⊗ a † (s2 )|∅ .

The terms of third and higher orders vanish. So the subspace spanned by |+ ⊗ |∅

and |− ⊗ a † (s)|∅ , s ∈ R, stays invariant, and the restriction of U0t to this subspace

coincides with the matrix V (t) in the formal time representation (see Sect. 4.2.4),

as

V V01

V (t) = 00

V10 V11

and

t

V01 (t)|τ = −i(2π)1/2 dt1 e−π(t−t1 ) δ(τ − t1 ),

0

8.3 Examples 143

t

τ |V10 (t) = −i(2π)1/2 dt1 δ(t1 − τ )e−πt1 ,

0

(τ2 |V11 (t)|τ1 ) = δ(τ1 − τ2 ) − 2π dt1 dt2 δ(τ2 − t2 )e−π(t2 −t1 ) δ(t1 − τ1 ).

0<t1 <t2 <t

X = L2 R × S2 × {1, 2, 3}

λ|f = dt ω02 dn f (t, n, i),

i=1,2,3

dn = 4π

S2

X = {∅} + X + X 2 + · · ·

and consider

Γ = L2 X, C3 .

Recall the vector

v(n) = Π(n)q,

where Π(n) is the projector on the plane perpendicular to n,

Π(n)ij = δij − ni nj

One finds

2 8π 2

γ = ω02 dnv(n) = |q| .

3

We have the annihilation operators a(t, n, i) and the creation operators

a + (d(t, n, i)). Define the vectors

a(t, n) = a(t, n, i) i=1,2,3 , a+ d(t, n) = a d(t, n, i) i=1,2,3 .

144 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

√

dt Us = −i 2π

t

v(n), a+ d(n, t) E01 Ust

S2

√

− i 2πE10 Ust dt ω02 dn a(t, n), v(n) − πγ E11 Ust dt.

S2

+

K(dt) = v(n), a d(n, t) E01 + E10 dtω02 dn a(t, n), v(n)

S2 S2

then we assume without proof, that the solution is analogous to the series of Theo-

rem 8.2.1

∞

√

Ust = 1 + (−i 2π)n · · ·

n=1 s<s1 <···<sn <t

Oa e−πγ (t−sn ) K(dsn ) · · · e−iπγ (s2 −s1 ) K(dt1 )e−πγ (s1 −s) .

By a similar calculation to that in Sect. 8.3.1 we obtain that the subspace spanned

by 10 ⊗ |∅ and 01 ⊗ a + (d(t, n, i))|∅ stays invariant and that the restriction of U0t

to that subspace equals V (t) in the formal time representation in Sect. 4.2.3.

This is formally very similar to the first example in Sect. 8.3.1. We have the stochas-

tic differential equation

d t √ √

Us = i 2πa † (t)E−+ Ust − i 2πE+− Ust a(t) + πE++ Ust .

dt

the restriction of U0t coincides with the matrix V (t) in Sect. 4.4.2. But the analytical

character is very different, as was pointed out there.

8.4 A Priori Estimate and Continuity at the Origin 145

It

can be solved by the infinite series of Theorem 4.2.1. The number operator

a + (dt)a(t) is an invariant. If we restrict to the one-particle space, we obtain

t

∅|a(s2 )Ust a † (s1 )|∅ = δ(s1 − s2 ) + c dt1 δ(s1 − t1 )δ(t1 − s2 )

s

= 1 + c1[s,t] (s1 ) δ(s1 − s2 )

−i2π

c= .

1 + iπ

Definition 8.4.1 We define the Fock space

Γ = L2s R, k, e(λ)

R to k. If f is a measurable function on R define the operator N by (Nf )(w) =

(#w)f (w), and define Γk as the space of those measurable symmetric functions

from R to k for which

Δ(w) f (w)|(N + 1)k f (w) dw < ∞.

K = Ks (R, k)

for the space of all symmetric continuous functions from R to k with compact sup-

port. Call K (n) , resp. Γ (n) , the subspaces where f (w) = 0 for #w > n.

We extend the notions of a and a + . We define a(ϕλ)f = a(ϕ)f and a + (ϕ)f for

ϕ ∈ L2 (R) and f ∈ Γ (n) . We have the well known relations

√

a(ϕ) : Γ (n) → Γ (n−1) , a(ϕ)f ≤ nϕ 2 f Γ ,

Γ L

√

a(ϕ)+ : Γ (n) → Γ (n+1) , a(ϕ)+ f ≤ n + 1ϕ 2 f Γ .

Γ L

+ +

a (σ )e(ϕ)(σ ) = exp a (dt)ϕ(t) ,

146 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

λυ a(υ)e(ϕ)(υ) = exp dt a(t)ϕ(t) ,

+ +

a (τ )a(τ )e(ϕ)(τ ) = Oa exp a (dt)a(t)ϕ(t) ,

with

e(ϕ)(t1 , . . . , tn ) = ϕ(t1 ) · · · ϕ(tn )

as usual.

then

2 N

λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k} f (ξ + ω) = f | |f .

k

λω f (ω)2 1{#ξ = k} = λω #ω f (ω)2 ,

k

ξ ⊂ω

after a change of variable and using the sum-integral lemma, and the resulting right-

hand side is what was needed.

Lemma 8.4.3 If

+

f = exp a (dt)ϕ(t) g,

then

N 2 N

f | |f ≤ e4ϕ g|2N |g .

k k1

k1 ≤k

f (σ ) = e ϕ(σ1 ) g(σ2 )

σ1 +σ2

and

2

λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k}f (ξ + ω)

2

= λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k} e(ϕ)(ξ1 + ω1 )g(ξ2 + ω2 ) .

ω1 +ω2 =ω

ξ1 +ξ2 =ξ

8.4 A Priori Estimate and Continuity at the Origin 147

≤2 k

2#ω λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k} e ϕ 2 (ξ1 + ω1 )g(ξ2 + ω2 )2

ω1 +ω2 =ω

ξ1 +ξ2 =ξ

= λξ1 +ξ2 +ω1 +ω2 1{#ξ1 = k1 }1{#ξ2 = k2 }

k1 +k2 =k

2k1 e ϕ 2 (ξ1 )2#ω1 e ϕ 2 (ω1 )2k2 +#ω2 g(ξ2 + ω2 )2

2 N

≤ e4ϕ g|2N |g

k1

k1 ≤k

as

1 k1 2

λξ1 1{#ξ1 = k1 }2k1 e ϕ 2 (ξ1 ) = 2 ϕ2k1 < e2ϕ

k1 !

and

2

λω1 2#ω1 e ϕ 2 (ω1 ) = e2ϕ

and

#(ξ2 +ω2 ) N

λξ2 +ω2 1{ξ2 = k2 }2 g(ξ2 + ω2 ) = g|2

2 N

|g

k1

by the same reasoning as in the proof of the preceding lemma.

Ust = O uts (A1 , A0 , A−1 ; B) .

t

U f ≤ Cn,k (t − s)f Γ .

s Γ k

t

U f − f → 0.

s Γ k

Proof Define

C = max Ai , i = 1, 0, −1, B ;

then

t

u (σ, τ, υ) ≤ eC(t−s) C #σ +#τ +#υ 1 tσ +τ +υ ⊂ [s, t] = eC(t−s) e(χ)(σ + τ + υ)

s

with χ(r) = C1[s,t] (r) and e(χ)(ω) = c∈ω χ(tc ).

148 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

t

O u f (ω)

s

≤ λυ eC(t−s) e(χ)(σ + τ + υ)f (ω \ σ + υ)

σ ⊂ω τ ⊂ω\σ

= eC(t−s) Rst Sst Tst f (ω).

λυ aυ e(χ)(υ)g (ω) = Tst g (ω) = λυ e(χ)(υ)g(ω + υ) = exp a(χ) g (ω).

As Tst : K (n) →K (n) , we may estimate the Γk -norm by the Γ -norm. We have

t n

T g ≤ (1/ l!) n(n − 1) · · · (n − l + 1)C l (t − s)l/2 gΓ

s

l=0

as

√

χL2 = C t − s.

Furthermore we have

+

aτ aτ g (ω) = Sst g (ω) = e(χ)(τ )g(ω) = e(1 + χ)(ω)g(ω)

τ ⊂ω

and

s

S g ≤ (1 + C)n gΓ .

t Γ

Again

Rst : K (n)

→Γk

+

aσ e(g) (ω) = Rts g (ω) = e(χ)(σ )g(ω \ σ ) = exp a + (χ)g (ω).

σ ⊂ω

Use the inequality of the last lemma and obtain the first assertion.

We investigate the second assertion. As

t

O us f − f (ω) = λυ uts (σ, τ, υ)1{σ + τ + υ = ∅}f (ω \ σ + υ)

σ ⊂ω τ ⊂ω\σ

8.4 A Priori Estimate and Continuity at the Origin 149

λυ exp C(t − s) e(χ)(σ + τ + υ)f (ω \ σ + υ)1{σ + τ + υ = ∅}

σ ⊂ω τ ⊂ω\σ

= exp C(t − s) Rst Sst Tst − 1 f (ω).

We have

t

n

√

T g − g ≤ (1/ l!) n(n − 1) · · · (n − l + 1)C l (t − s)l/2 gΓ = O( t − s),

s Γ

l=1

and

t

Ss − 1 g (ω) = e(1 + χ)(ω) − 1 g(ω)

= χ(c)e(1 + χ)(ω \ c)g(ω) ≤ χ(c)(1 + C)n−1 g(ω).

c∈ω c∈ω

e(1K )(ω) for #ω ≤ n, if g(ω) ≤ 1 for all ω. We have

χ(c)(1 + C)n−1 g(ω) ≤ χ(c)(1 + C)n e(1K )(ω \ c).

c∈ω c∈ω

√ √

n + 1 t − s(1 + C)n exp |K|/2 .

We have

t

Rs − 1 g (ω) = e(χ)(σ )g(ω \ σ ).

σ ⊂ω,σ =∅

Hence

N t

Rst g − g R g − g

s

k

2

= λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k} Rst g − g (ξ + ω)

2

= λξ +ω 1{#ξ = k} e(χ)(ξ1 + ω1 )g(ξ2 + ω2 )

ω1 +ω2 =ω

ξ1 +ξ2 =ξ

ω1 +ξ1 =∅

≤ λξ1 +ξ2 +ω1 +ω2 1{#ξ1 = k1 }1{#ξ2 = k2 }

k1 +k2 =k ξ1 +ω1 =∅

150 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

× 2k1 e χ 2 (ξ1 )2#ω1 e χ 2 (ω1 )2k2 +#ω2 g(ξ2 + ω2 )2

2 N

≤ e4χ − 1 g|2N |g = O(t − s)

k1

k1 ≤k

because

λξ1 +ω1 1{#ξ1 = k1 }2#(ξ1 +ω1 ) e χ 2 (ξ1 + ω1 ) ≤ e4χ − 1.

2

ξ1 +ω1 =∅

From these results one obtains the second assertion of the proposition easily.

We start with a lemma.

m = aπ aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +υ2

F = 1 tσ1 +τ1 +υ1 ⊂ [s, r] 1 tσ2 +τ2 +υ2 ⊂ [r, t] .

Then

F m = F aπ aσ+2 +τ2 +σ1 +τ1 aτ2 +υ2 +τ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

f (π, σ1 , . . . , υ2 , ")F m.

aτ2 +υ2 aσ+1 +τ1 = aτ2 +υ2 \c aσ+1 +τ1 ac + +

ε(c, b)aτ2 +υ2 \c a(σ 1 +τ1 )\c

.

b∈σ2 +τ2

But

f + (π, . . . , ")ε(c, b) aπ aσ+2 +τ2 aτ2 +υ2 \c a(σ

+

aτ +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 = 0

1 +τ1 )\b 1

as

λc ε(c, b)1{r < tc < t}1{s < tb < r} = λc 1{r < tc < t}1{s < tc < r} = 0.

8.5 Consecutive Intervals in Time 151

t0 < t1 < · · · < tn

and multiply the measure

m = aπ aσ+n +τN aτn +υn · · · aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +···+υn

F = 1 tσ1 +τ1 +υ1 ⊂ [t0 , t1 ] · · · 1 tσn +τn +υn ⊂ [tn−1 , tn ] .

Then

F m = F aπ aσ+n +τn +···+σ1 +τ1 aτn +υn +···+τ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +···+υn .

We consider again uts (A1 , A0 , A−1 ; B). We have shown, in Sect. 8.4, that the

map O(uts ) : K (n) → Γ is bounded. So B(utr , urs ) exists (see Sect. 7.1).

B utr , urs = B uts .

Proof We have

f |B utr , urs |g = f + (π)utr (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )urt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )g(")

aπ aσ+2 +τ2 at2 +υ2 aσ+1 +τ1 aτ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

As, e.g., utr (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 ) vanishes if tσ2 +τ2 +υ2 ⊂ [r, t], we may apply Lemma 8.5.1

and we obtain

t r

f |B ur , us |g = f + (π)utr (σ2 , τ2 , υ2 )urt (σ1 , τ1 , υ1 )g(")m

with

m = aπ aσ+2 +τ2 aσ+1 +τ1 aτ2 +υ2 aτ1 +υ1 a"+ λπ+υ1 +υ2 .

If {r, s, t, tσ +τ +τ }• is without multiple points, then we showed in Remark 6.2.1 that

with

σ2 = {c ∈ σ : r < tc < t}, σ1 = {c ∈ σ : r < tc < t}

etc. But tσ• +τ +υ is without multiple points m -a.e.

152 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

8.6 Unitarity

Theorem 8.6.1 Assume uts = uts (A1 , A0 , A−1 ; B). The mapping

O uts : K → Γ

Ust : Γ → Γ,

There exists a unitary operator Υ such that

A0 = Υ − 1,

A1 = −Υ A+

−1 ,

B + B + = −A+ +

1 A1 = −A−1 A−1 .

Proof We recall Proposition 6.3.2. For fixed s, the function u·s : t → uts , and for

fixed t, the function ut· : s → uts is of class C 1 , and one has

j ·

R+ us t = Aj uts ,

j ·

R− us t = 0,

∂sc uts = −uts B,

j t

R+ u· s = 0,

j t

R− u· s = uts Aj

of class C 1 , and that for f, g ∈ Ks (R, k) the sesquilinear forms f |B(Ft , Gt )|g

exist in norm and t ∈ R → f |B(Ft , Gt )|g is locally integrable, where Ft can

be any function in {xt , ∂ c xt , R± 1 x , R 0 x , R −1 x } and G can be any function in

t ± t ± t t

−1

{yt , ∂ yt , R± yt , R± yt , R± yt }.

c 1 0

integrable function, and this yields

∂f |B(xt , yt )|g = f |B ∂ c xt , yt + B f, ∂ c yt + I−1,+1,t |g

+ a(t)f B D 1 xt , yt + B f, D 1 yt + I0,+1,t |g

8.6 Unitarity 153

+ a(t)f B D 0 xt , yt + B f, D 0 yt + I0,0,t a(t)g

+ f |B D −1 xt , yt + B f, D −1 yt + I−1,0,t a(t)g

with

i j i j

Ii,j,t = B R+ xt , R+ yt − B R− xt , R− yt .

We want to calculate the Schwartz derivatives of the functions

+

t → f |B uts , uts |g

+

s → f |B uts , uts |g .

The derivatives exist, because u and u+ , and the ∂ c , R and D operators, applied to

u and u+ , map K → Γ . We obtain

+

∂t f |B uts , uts |g = f |B u+ , C1 u |g + a(t)f B u+ , C2 u |g

+ a(t)f B u+ , C3 u a(t)g + f |B u+ , C4 u a(t)g ,

+

∂s f |B uts , uts |g = f |B u, C5 u+ |g + a(t)f B u, C6 u+ |g

+ a(t)f B u, C7 u+ a(t)g + f |B u, C8 u+ a(t)g

with

C1 = B + B + + A+

1 A1 , C5 = B + B + + A−1 A+

−1 ,

C2 = A+ +

−1 + A1 + A0 A1 , C6 = A1 + A+ +

−1 + A0 A−1 ,

C3 = A+ +

0 + A0 + A0 A0 , C7 = A0 + A+ +

0 + A0 A0 ,

C4 = A+ +

1 + A−1 + A1 A0 , C8 = A−1 + A+ +

1 + A−1 A0 .

The operator O(uts ) is unitary if both derivatives vanish, and they vanish if

Ci = 0, i = 1, . . . , 8. The equations C3 = 0 and C7 = 0 imply

+

1 + A+0 (1 + A0 ) = (1 + A0 ) 1 + A0 = 1.

So

Υ = 1 + A0

is unitary. The equations are not independent. We have C2+ = C4 and C6+ = C8 .

Furthermore

+

C2 = A+ + +

−1 + 1 + A0 A1 = A−1 + Υ A1 = Υ C6 .

+

So C2 = 0 implies A1 = −Υ A+

−1 , and we conclude C1 = C5 .

154 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

+

Ust = Uts .

Proof For both cases s < r < t and t < r < s, the assertion follows from Proposi-

tion 8.5.1. For s < t < r, we calculate

+ t

f |Urt Usr g = Utr f | Utr Us g = f |Ust g .

m(π, σ, τ, υ, ")f + (ω)F (σ, τ, υ)g(") = f + (ω) O(F )g (ω) = f, O(F )g

with

O(F )g (ω) = λυ F (α, β, υ)g(ω \ α + υ)

α⊂ω β⊂ω\α υ

and

m = aω aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λω+υ .

So O(F ) is a mapping from Ks (X) = K into the locally λ-integrable functions on

X. Extend it to those functions g such that the integral exists in norm for almost all

ω and yields a locally integrable function in ω.

Recall furthermore

F + (σ, τ, υ) = F (υ, τ, σ )+

and the relation

f |O(F )g = O F + f |g

for f, g ∈ K .

operator T : Γ → Γ are given such that

T K = O(F ).

8.7 Estimation of the Γk -Norm 155

Then

T + K = O F+ .

h|T g = h|O(F )g = O F + h|g = T + h|g .

operator T : Γ → Γ are given such that

T K = O(F )

h(ω)F (σ, τ, υ)f (")m < ∞

O(F )f = Tf.

+

h (ω) O(F )f (ω) dω = f + (ω) O F + h (ω) dω = f |T + h = h|Tf .

Lemma 8.7.3 Assume we have uts = uts (Ai , B) satisfying the unitarity conditions,

and that Ust is the corresponding unitary operator. Assume G1 , . . . , Gk ∈ B(k) and

s = t0 < t1 < · · · < tk < tk+1 = t, and also that

F (σ, τ, υ)

t

= uttk (σk , τk , υk )Gk utkk−1 (σk−1 , τk−1 , υk−1 )Gk−1

σ0 +σ1 +···+σk =σ

τ0 +τ1 +···+τk =τ

υ0 +υ1 +···+υk =υ

Then, for g ∈ K ,

k

Gk−1 · · · G2 Utt12 G1 Ust1 g.

156 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

Proof The case k = 0 is clear. We prove the induction step from k − 1 to k. Put, for

short,

t

u(i) = uti+1

i

(σi , τi , υi ).

Then split up F by writing

F= u(k)Gk · · · u(1)G1 u(0) = u(k)Gk F σ , τ , υ

σk +σ =σ

τk +τ =τ

υk +υ =υ

with

F σ , τ , υ = u(k − 1)Gk−1 · · · u(1)G1 u(0).

σ0 +···+σk−1 =σ

τ0 +···+τk−1 =τ

υ0 +···+υk−1 =υ

Put

C = max Ai , i = 1, 0, −1; B; Gi , i = 1, . . . , k .

We have

F (σ, τ, υ) ≤ C k+#(σ +τ +υ) 1 tσ +τ +υ ⊂ [s, t] .

h+ (ω) O(F )g (ω)λω = h+ (π)F (σ, τ, υ)g(") aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υ .

h+ (π)u(k)Gk F σ , τ , υ g(") aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υk +υ .

aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ = aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aω+ aω aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ .

ω

Put

Gk F σ , τ , υ g(") aω aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ λυ = O Gk F g (ω) = f (ω).

Then

h+ (π)F (σ, τ, υ)g(") aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υ

= h+ (π)u(k)(σk , τk , υk )f (ω) aπ a + σk + τk aτk +υk λπ+υk .

8.7 Estimation of the Γk -Norm 157

f = Gk Uttk−1

k

· · · G1 Ust1 g ∈ Γ.

h(π)u(k)f (ω) aω a +

σk +τk aτk +υk λω+υk

= h(π)u(k Gk F g(") aπ a + aτ +υ a + λπ+υ

σ +τ "

≤ h(ω)F (σ, τ, υ)g(")m < ∞

and note

h+ (ω)O u(k)f (ω)λω = h|Uttk f .

Continue with

k

Gk−1 · · · G2 Utt12 G1 Ust1 g.

Lemma 8.7.4 such that for g ∈ K we have O(F )gΓ ≤ const gΓ and

O(F + )gΓ ≤ const gΓ . Let T : Γ → Γ the operator, such that O(F ) is the

restriction of T to K . Then O(F + ) is the restriction of T + to K . Assume f ∈ Γ

such that O(F B(k) )f k ∈ L2 (R), then

Tf = O(F )f.

h|T g = h|O(F )g = h+ (ω)F (σ, τ, υ)g(")m

= g + (ω)F + (σ, τ, υ)h(")m = O F + h|g = T + h|g

with

m = aω aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λω+υ .

So O(F + ) is the restriction of T + to K .

We have

h(ω)F (σ, τ, υ)g(")m < ∞.

Hence

h+ (ω) O(F )f (ω)dω = f + (ω) O F + h (ω)dω = f |T + h = h|Tf .

158 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

Lemma 8.7.5 Assume uts = uts (Ai , B) satisfying the unitarity conditions and Ust

the corresponding unitary operator. Assume G1 , . . . , Gk ∈ B(k) and s = t0 < t1 <

· · · < tk < tk+1 = t and

F (σ, τ, υ)

= uttk (σk , τk , υk )Gk uttkk−1 (σk−1 , τk−1 , υk−1 )Gk−1

σ0 +σ1 +···+σk =σ

τ0 +τ1 +···+τk =τ

υ0 +υ1 +···+υk =υ

Then for f ∈ K

k

Gk−1 · · · G2 Utt12 G1 Ust1 g.

Proof The case k = 0 is clear. We prove by induction from k − 1 to k. Put for short

t

u(i) = uti+1

i

(σi , τi , υi ).

Then

F= u(k)Gk · · · u(1)G1 u(0) = u(k)Gk F σ , τ , υ

σk +σ =σ

τk +τ =τ

υk +υ =υ

with

F σ , τ , υ = u(k − 1)Gk−1 · · · u(1)G1 u(0).

σ0 +···+σk−1 =σ

τ0 +···+τk−1 =τ

υ0 +···+υk−1 =υ

C = max Ai , i = 1, 0, −1; B; Gi , i = 1, . . . , k .

For g ∈ K we have

O F g ≤ cgΓ

Γ

O F g ≤ c gΓ .

Γ

For h ∈ K

h+ (ω) O(F )g (ω)λω = h+ (π)F (σ, τ, υ)g(") aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υ .

8.7 Estimation of the Γk -Norm 159

Using the same argument as in the proof of Proposition 4.4.1 the last term equals

h+ (π)u(k)Gk F σ , τ , υ g(") aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υk +υ .

aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ = aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aω+ aω aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ .

ω

As

F σ , τ , υ g(") aω aσ+ +τ aτ +υ a"+ λυ = O F g (ω) = f (ω)

h (ω) O(F )g (ω)λω = h+ (π)u(k)Gk f (ω) aπ aσ+k +τk aτk +υk aω+ λπ+υk .

+

The conditions of the preceding lemma are fulfilled, the last expression equals

h|Uttk f = h|Uttk Gk Uttk−1

k

Gk−1 · · · G2 Utt12 G1 Ust1 g

Theorem 8.7.1 For any k there exists a polynomial P of degree ≤ k with coeffi-

cients ≥ 0, such that, for g ∈ Γk ,

t 2

U g ≤ P |t − s| g2 .

s Γ k Γk

t N t 2

Us f Us f = Ust f (ω + ξ ) 1{#ξ = k}λω+ξ < ∞.

k

Hence (Ust f )(ω + ξ )2 λω < ∞ for almost all ξ . We have

t

O us (ω) = λυ uts (ω1 , ω2 , υ)f (ω2 + ω3 + υ)

ω1 +ω2 +ω3 =ω

and

t

O us (ω + ξ )

= λυ uts (ω1 + ξ1 , ω2 + ξ2 , υ)f (ω2 + ξ2 + ω3 + ξ3 + υ)

ω1 +ω2 +ω3 =ω

ξ1 +ξ2 +ξ3 =ξ

160 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

t

= O us ξ fξ2 +ξ3 )(ω)

1 ,ξ2

ξ1 +ξ2 +ξ3 =ξ

with

t

us ξ (σ, τ, υ) = uts (σ + ξ1 , τ + ξ2 , υ),

1 ,ξ2

Assume that the multiset {s, t, tξ , tσ +τ +υ }• has no multiple points and order the set

(ti , 1) : i ∈ ξ1 + {ti , 0) : i ∈ ξ0 } = (t1 , i1 ), . . . , (tl , il )

t

us ξ ,ξ (σ, τ, υ)

1 2

t

= uttl (σl , τl , υl )Ail utll−1 (σl−1 , τl−1 , υl−1 )Ail−1

σ0 +σ1 +···+σl =σ

τ0 +τ1 +···+τl =τ

υ0 +υ1 +···+υl =υ

O uts ξ ,ξ h = Uttl Ail · · · Ai2 Utt12 Ai1 Ust1 h.

1 2

t

O u #(ξ1 +ξ2 )

s ξ ,ξ h Γ ≤ C

1 2

1 tξ1 +ξ2 ⊂ [s, t] hΓ .

Finally

t N t t

Us f Us f = U f (ω + ξ )2 1{#ξ = k}

s

k

2

= O uts ξ fξ2 ,ξ3 (ω)1{#ξ = k}

1 ,ξ2 λξ +ω

ξ1 +ξ2 +ξ3 =ξ

≤C 3 2k k

λξ +ω

2

× 1{#ξ = k}1 tξ1 +ξ2 ⊂ [s, t] f (ξ2 + ξ3 + ω)

ξ1 +ξ2 +ξ3 =ξ

k

≤ C 2k 3k λξ1 1{#ξ1 = k1 }1 tξ1 ⊂ [s, t]

k1 =0

8.8 The Hamiltonian 161

2

× λξ0 +ω 1{#ξ0 = k − k1 }f (ξ0 + ω)

k

(t − s)k1 N

= C 2k 3k f | |f .

k1 ! k − k1

k1

The previous theorem covers the case s < t; a proof for t < s can be carried out

in the same way.

If f is a function on R, then (Θ(t)f )(w) = f (Θ(t)w). If μ is a measure on R,

then Θ(t)μ is defined by the property

Θ(t)μ(dw) Θ(t)f (w) = μ(dw)f (w).

for Rk .

Θ(t)εx (dy) = εx−t (dy).

R, one calculates

Θ(t) a + (ϕ)f = a + Θ(t)ϕ Θ(t)f ,

Θ(t) a + (ν)μ = a + Θ(t)ν Θ(t)μ ,

Θ(t) a(ν)f = a Θ(t)ν Θ(t)f ,

Θ(t) a(ϕ)μ = a Θ(t)ϕ Θ(t)μ .

162 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

measure.

Proof According to the considerations in Sect. 5.6, this measure is a sum of mea-

sures, each one a tensor product of measures of the form

Λ(dt1 , . . . , dtn ) : Λ(dt1 , . . . , dtn )f (t1 , . . . , tn ) = dtf (t, . . . , t).

Θ(r)uts = ut−r

s−r

for r, s, t ∈ R.

erators Ust , s, t ∈ R, form a cocycle with respect to Θ(t), i.e.

t−r

.

m = aπ aσ++τ aτ +υ a"+ λπ+υ

and obtain

f + (π)ut−r

s−r (σ, τ, υ)g(")m = f + (π) Θ(r)uts (σ, τ, υ) g(")m

Γ

= Θ(−r)f + (π)uts (σ, τ, υ) Θ(−r)g (")m

= Θ(−r)f |Ust Θ(−r)g = f |Θ(r)Ust Θ(−r)g .

0

Θ(t);

8.8 The Hamiltonian 163

and also

W (t)+ = Ut0 Θ(−t) = Θ(−t)U0−t = W (−t).

Proposition 8.8.3 The operators W (t) map the space Γk into itself, they form a

strongly continuous one-parameter group on Γk , and

W (t)f 2 ≤ P |t| f 2

Γ k ΓK

Θ(ϕ) = ϕ(t)Θ(t)dt,

If ν is a measure on R and f a locally integrable function, symmetric on R, then

+

a (ν)f λ (ω) = ν(c)f (ω \ c)λ(ω \ c).

c∈ω

+

a (ν)f (ω) = ν(c)f (ω \ c).

c∈ω

We set

the preceding text; a(ε0 ) = a(0) = a is the same as before. We have

+

a f (ω) = ε0 (dtc )f (tω\c ) = ε0 (dtc )f (tω\c )λ(dtω\c ).

c∈ω c∈ω

g(ω) a+ f (ω) = (ag)(ω)f (ω)λ(ω).

164 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

Lemma 8.8.4 Assume f ∈ L2 (Rn ) and ϕ ∈ (L1 ∩ L2 )(R). Then Θ(ϕ) maps the

singular measure a+ f into an absolute continuous measure identified with its den-

sity, and we have

Θ(ϕ)a+ f (tω ) = ϕ(−tc ) Θ(−tc )f (ω \ c).

c∈ω

Θ(ϕ)a+ f ≤ ϕL2 f Γk .

Γ k−1

We have

+ +

g(ω)+ Θ(ϕ)a+ f (tω )dω = aΘ ϕ g (ω)f (ω)dω

aΘ(ϕ)f (t1 , . . . , tn ) = ϕ(s)dsf (s, t1 + s, . . . , tn + s).

aΘ(ϕ)f ≤ 2k/2 ϕL2 f Γk .

Γ k−1

ds ϕ(s)Θ(s) ε0 (dtc )f (tω\c )λ(dtω\c )

c∈ω

= ds ϕ(s) ε−s (dtc ) Θ(s)f (tω\c )λ(dtω\c )

c∈ω

= ds ϕ(−s) εs (dtc ) Θ(−s)f (tω\c )λ(dtω\c )

c∈ω

= ϕ(−tc ) Θ(−tc )f (ω \ c)λ(ω \ c),

c∈ω

by changing the variable s → −s to get the second equality, and using for the third

ds ϕ(s)εs ( tc )ψ(tc ) = ϕ(tc )ψ(tc )dtc ,

or more succinctly

ds εs (dtc ) = dtc .

8.8 The Hamiltonian 165

making a function out of a singular measure. The other results follow by simple

calculations.

x ∈ Rn+1 → g(x)

g(x)(t1 , . . . , tn ) = Θ(ϕ)f (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + x

bounded by ϕL2 (R) f L2 (Rn+1 ) .

g(x) − g(y)2 2 n

L (R )

= dt1 · · · dtn

ds ϕ(s)(f (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + se + x

2

− f (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + se + y

≤ ϕ2L2 (R) dt1 · · · dtn ds

× f (s + x0 , t1 + s + x1 , . . . , tn + s + xn )

2

− f (s + y0 , t1 + s + y1 , . . . , tn + s + yn )

2

= ϕ2L2 (R) dt0 · · · dtn f (t0 + x0 , . . . , tn + xn ) − f (t0 + y0 , . . . , tn + yn )

2

= ϕ2L2 (R) T (x) − T (y) f L2 (Rn+1 )

where T (x) denotes translation by x. The bound for g(x) can be shown in the

same way.

function on R \ {0} with right and left limits at 0, or, in other words, η is a continuous

bounded function on R0 . If

x ∈ Rn+1 → g(x) ∈ L2 Rn

g(x)(t1 , . . . , tn ) = Θ(η)a+ f (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + x

then

g(x) ≤ (n + 1)η∞ f L2 (Rn )

L2 (Rn )

166 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

We have that the limits g(0±, x1 , . . . , xn ) exist and

g(0+, x1 , . . . , xn ) − g(0−, x1 , . . . , xn ) = − η(0+) − η(0−) T (x1 , . . . , xn )f

Proof We have

Θ(η)a+ f (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn ) = k0 (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn ) + · · · + kn (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn )

with

k1 (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn ) = η(−t1 )f (t0 − t1 , t2 − t1 , . . . , tn − t1 ),

..

.

kn (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn ) = η(−tn )f (t0 − tn , t1 − tn , . . . , tn−1 − tn ).

Define

gi (x)(t1 , . . . , tn ) = ki (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + x

and first discuss gi with i = 0, for example, gn . We have

gn (x)(t1 , . . . , tn ) = kn (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + x = kn (x0 , t1 + x1 , . . . , tn + xn )

= η(−xn − tn )f (x0 − xn − tn , x1 − xn + t1 − tn , . . . ,

xn−1 − xn + tn−1 − tn )

= η(−xn − tn ) T x f (−tn , t1 − tn , . . . , tn−1 − tn−1 )

with

x = (x0 − xn , x1 − xn , . . . , xn−1 − xn ).

From there one obtains

gn (x) ≤ η∞ f .

We have

2

dt1 · · · dtn kn (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + x − kn (0, t1 , . . . , tn ) + y

2

≤2 dt1 · · · dtn η(−xn − tn ) − η(−yn − tn )

2

× T x f (−tn , t1 − tn , . . . , tn−1 − tn−1 )

8.8 The Hamiltonian 167

2

+ 2η2∞ dt1 · · · dtn T x − T y f (−tn , t1 − tn , . . . , tn−1 − tn−1 ) .

For y → x, the first term goes to zero by the theorem of Lebesgue, and from the

second term we observe that z → T (z)f is norm continuous. So gn (x) and thus

gi (x), i = 0 are continuous for all x. We have

if its restriction to R \ {0} is continuous and if both limits f (±0) exist. We define

R0 = {∅} + R0 + R20 + · · · .

R \ {0} which has left and right limits at 0 can be considered as a function on R0 .

We define the measures ε±0 , and, for symmetric functions f on R0 , the operators

a± = a(ε±0 ) and a+ +

± = a (ε±0 ) and shall use similar conventions to those above.

We put

1 1 1 +

ε̂0 = (ε+0 + ε−0 ), â = (a+ + a− ), â+ = a+ + a+

− .

2 2 2

A δ-sequence is a sequence of functions ϕn ∈ Cc∞ such that

ϕn (t)dt = 1, ϕn (t)dt ≤ C < ∞, supp(ϕn ) ⊂ ]−εn , εn [

and εn ↓ 0.

real and ϕn (t) = ϕn (−t) for all n and t.

Proposition 8.8.4 Assume we have two functions f and η fulfilling the conditions

of Lemma 8.8.6, then âΘ(η)a+ f exists, and

âΘ(η)a+ f ≤ η∞ f Γ ;

Γ 2

168 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

Θ(η)a+ f (s, t1 , . . . , tn ) = g(s, 0, . . . , 0)(t1 , . . . , tn )

and g(s, 0, . . . , 0) → g(0+, 0, . . . , 0) for s ↓ 0. From there one concludes the exis-

tence of âΘ(η)a+ f . We have

aΘ(s)Θ(η)a+ f (t1 , . . . , tn ) = g(s, . . . , s)(t1 , . . . , tn )

and g(s, . . . , s) → g(0+, 0, . . . , 0) for s ↓ 0. From there one obtains the rest of the

proposition.

the norm of Γ . If f ∈ C 1 (Rn ) and ϕn is a δ-sequence, then

Θ ϕn f (t) = ϕn (s)f (t + se)ds

∂f

=− ϕn (s)f (t + se)ds → − (t) = −(∂f )(t).

∂ti

This motivates

∂ˆ = − lim Θ ϕn ,

and C 1 on R \ {0} and has left and right limits at 0, so the Schwartz derivative of η

equals

∂η = η(+0) − η(−0) δ + ∂ c η,

where ∂ c η is the continuous part of the derivative. Assume, furthermore, that ∂ c η ∈

L2 (R). Put

L n (η) = Θ(η)a+ f, f ∈ L2s Rn

and let L n (η)† denote the space of all semilinear functionals L n (η) → C. Then ∂ˆ

defines a linear mapping

L n (η) → L n (η)†

given by the sesquilinear form on L n (η)

ˆ = − limu|Θ ϕn |v .

u|∂|v

ˆ

∂Θ(η)f = η(+0) − η(−0) â+ f + Θ ∂ c η a+ f.

8.8 The Hamiltonian 169

Proof We have

Θ(η)a+ g|Θ ϕn Θ(η)a+ f = Θ(η)a+ g|Θ ϕn % η a+ f ,

ϕn % η = ϕn % η = η(+0) − η(−0) ϕn + ϕn % ∂c η

we continue

= η(+0) − η(−0) Θ(η)a+ g|Θ(ϕn )a+ f + Θ(η)a+ g|Θ(ϕn % ∂c η)a+ f .

Θ(η)a+ g|Θ(∂c η)a+ f .

Θ(η)a+ g|Θ(ϕn )a+ f = aΘ(ϕn )Θ(η)a+ g|f

âΘ(η)a+ g|f = Θ(η)a+ g|â+ f .

ϕn (−t) = −ϕn (t),

We recall the resolvent (from Sect. 3.1) associated to the group W (t).

∞

−i 0 eizt W (t)dt for Im z > 0,

R(z) = 0 izt

+i −∞ e W (t)dt for Im z < 0.

The Hamiltonian H of W (t) is so defined that −iH is the generator of the group

W (t) (see Sect. 3.1). Its domain is the set

D = R(z)Γ,

is a selfadjoint operator given by the equation

H R(z)f = −f + zR(z)f.

170 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

∞

−i 0 eizt W (t)a(t) for Im z > 0,

S(z) = 0 izt

+i −∞ e W (t)a(t) for Im z < 0

and

−i1{t > 0}eizt+Bt for Im z > 0,

κ(z) = +

+i1{t < 0}eizt−B t for Im z < 0

and

∞ izt Bt

−i 0 e e Θ(t)dt for Im z > 0,

R̃(z) = Θ κ(z) = 0 +

+i −∞ eizt e−B t Θ(t)dt for Im z < 0.

R(z)f = R̃(z)f

iR̃(z)a+ A1 R(z)f + iR̃(z)a+ A0 S(z)f + iR̃(z)A−1 S(z)f

+

−iR̃(z)a+ A+ + + +

−1 R(z)f − iR̃(z)a A0 S(z)f − iR̃(z)A1 S(z)f.

The upper line holds for Im z > 0, the lower one for Im z < 0.

Proof Directly from the definition for t > s, considering first the variation in t and

then in s, we have

+ eB(t−tc ) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A1 utsc (σ \ c, τ, υ)

c∈σ

+ eB(t−tc ) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A0 utsc (σ, τ \ c, υ)

c∈τ

+ eB(t−tc ) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A−1 utsc (σ, τ, υ \ c)

c∈υ

= eB(t−s) e(σ, τ, υ)

+ uttc (σ \ c, τ, υ)A1 eB(tc −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t]

c∈σ

+ uttc (σ, τ \ c, υ)A0 eB(tc −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t]

c∈τ

+ uttc (σ, τ, υ \ c)A−1 eB(tc −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] .

c∈υ

8.8 The Hamiltonian 171

Hence, working with the second formula above since adjoint will reverse the order

of things in a product,

t + +

us (σ, τ, υ) = uts (υ, τ, σ )

+ (t−s)

= eB e(σ, τ, υ)

+
t +

+ eB (tc −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A+

−1 us

c (σ \ c, τ, υ)

c∈σ

+ (t
t +

+ eB c −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A+

0 us

c (σ, τ \ c, υ)

c∈τ

+ (t
t +

+ eB c −s) 1 tc ∈ [s, t] A+

1 us

c (σ, τ, υ \ c).

c∈υ

Assume f, g ∈ K and using the same arguments as in the proof of Theorem 8.2.1

we obtain

t

f |Ust g = f |eB(t−s) g + dr a(r)f |eB(t−r) A1 Usr g

s

+ a(t)f |e B(t−r)

A0 Usr a(r)g + f |eB(t−r) A−1 Usr a(r)g

and

t + B + (t−s) t + t +

f | Us g = f |e g + dr a(r)f |eB (r−s) A+

−1 Ur g

s

B + (r−s)

t + + t +

+ a(r)f |e A+

0 Ur a(r)g + f |eB (r−s) A+

1 Ur a(r)g .

t

f |U0t g = f |eBt g + dr a(r)f |eB(t−r) A1 U0r g

0

+ a(r)f |e B(t−r)

A0 U0r a(r)g + f |eB(t−r) A−1 U0r a(r)g

+

f |U0t g = f | Ut0 g

+ 0 +

= f |e−B t g + dr a(r)f |eB (r−t) A+ r

−1 U0 g

t

B + (r−t)

B + (r−t) + r

+ a(r)f |e A+

0 U0 a(r)g + f |e

r

A1 U0 a(r)g .

∞ ∞

f |R(z)g = −i dt e f |Θ(t)U0 g = −i

izt t

dt eizt Θ(−t)f |U0t g

0 0

172 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

∞ t

−i dteizt dr a(r)Θ(−t)f |eB(t−r) A0 U0r a(r)g

0 0

∞ ∞

= −i dr eizt a(r)Θ(−t)f |eB(t−r) A0 U0r a(r)g

0 r

∞ ∞

= −i dr dteiz(t+r) a(r)Θ(−t − r)f |eBt A0 U0r a(r)g

0 0

∞ ∞ +

= −i dr dteiz(t+r) a(0)eB t Θ(−t)f |A0 Θ(r)U0r a(r)g

0 0

= aR̃(z) g|iA0 S(z)g = i f |R̃(z)a+ A0 S(z)g .

+

R(z)f = R̃(z) f0 (z) + a+ f1 (z)

with

+iA−1 S(z)f for Im z > 0,

f0 (z) = f +

−iA+

1 S(z)f for Im z < 0

and

+iA1 R(z)f + iA0 S(z)f for Im z > 0,

f1 (z) =

−iA+

−1 R(z)f − iA0 + S(z)f for Im z < 0.

D̂ = f = R̃(z) f0 + a+ f1 : f0 ∈ Γ1 , f1 ∈ Γ2 .

R(z) : K → D̂.

W (t)f 2 ≤ P |t| f 2 ,

Γ k Γk

8.8 The Hamiltonian 173

ple, for Im z > 0

∞ .

R(z)f ≤ dt exp(−t Im z) P |t| f Γk .

Γ k

0

bounded in any Γk -norm. Hence R(z)f and S(z)f are in Γk for all k.

1

A1 R(z)f + 12 A0 S(z)f for Im z > 0,

âR(z)f = S(z)f + 2 +

1 +

2 A−1 R(z)f + 2 A0 S(z)f

1

for Im z < 0.

0 0

U−t f (ω + c) = U−t a(tc )f (ω)

tc tc

+ 1 tc ∈ [−t, 0] Ut0c A1 U−t f (ω) + Ut0c A0 U−t a(tc )f (ω)

and

R(z)f (ω + c)

∞ ∞

0

= −i dte Θ(t)U0 f (ω + c) = −i

izt t

dteizt U−t Θ(t)f (ω + c)

0 0

∞ 0

= −i dt U−t Θ(t)a(tc + t)f (ω) − i1{tc < 0}Ut0c

0

∞ ∞

tc tc

× A1 izt

dte U−t Θ(t)f (ω) + A0 dte U−t Θ(t)a(tc + t)f (ω) .

izt

−tc −tc

One concludes

R(z)f (0+, t1 , . . . , tn ) = S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ),

R(z)f (0−, t1 , . . . , tn ) = S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ) + A1 R(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn )

+ A0 S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ).

R(z)f (0+, t1 , . . . , tn ) = S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ) + A+

−1 R(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn )

+ A+0 S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ),

R(z)f (0−, t1 , . . . , tn ) = S(z)f (t1 , . . . , tn ).

174 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

Definition 8.8.6 Assume we have four operators M0 , M±1 , G ∈ B(k) such that

by

Ĥ = i∂ˆ + M1 â+ + M0 â+ â + M−1 â + G.

The following lemma is a direct consequence of Proposition 8.8.5 and the as-

sumptions about the coefficients.

f, g ∈ D → f |Ĥ g = f |(i∂ˆ + G)g + âf |M1 g + âf |âM0 g + f |âM−1 g

f ∈ Γ → g ∈ D̂ → g|f .

D̂ ⊂ Γ ⊂ D̂ † .

Ĥ f = − f0 + â+ f1 + z − iC(z) f + M1 â+ f + M0 â+ âf + M−1 âf

with

+B for Im z > 0,

C(z) =

−B + for Im z < 0.

−f1 + M1 f + M0 âf = 0.

κ(z) = −iδ + ∂ c κ(z) = −iδ + iz + C(z) κ(z)

∂ˆ R̃(z) f0 + a+ f1 = − lim Θ ϕn Θ κ(z) f0 + a+ f1

= − lim Θ ϕn ∗ κ(z) f0 + a+ f1

8.8 The Hamiltonian 175

= − lim Θ −iϕn + ϕn % ∂ c κ(z) f0 + a+ f1

= i f0 + â+ f1 − Θ ∂ c κ(z) f0 + a+ f1

= i f0 + â+ f1 − iz + C(z) f.

Finally

Ĥ f = − f0 + â+ f1 + z − iC(z) f + M1 â+ f + M0 â+ âf + M−1 âf.

This formula shows that the singular part of Ĥ f vanishes if and only if the corre-

sponding equation in the proposition is fulfilled.

a+ f1 ) ∈ D̂ which obey the condition of Proposition 8.8.9, i.e., f = R̃(z)(f0 +

a+ f1 ) ∈ Γ , and denote by H0 the restriction of Ĥ to D0 f .

The conditions for the unitarity of the operators O(uts )(Ai , B) were (Theo-

rem 8.6.1) that the operators Ai , i = 1, 0, −1 and B fulfill the following conditions:

There exists a unitary operator Υ such that

A0 = Υ − 1,

A1 = −Υ A+

−1 ,

B + B + = −A+ +

1 A1 = −A−1 A−1 .

1

A1 = M1 ,

i − M0 /2

M0

A0 = ,

i − M0 /2

(∗∗)

1

A−1 = M−1 ,

i − M0 /2

i 1

B = −iG − M−1 M1 .

2 i − M0 /2

As a consequence

i + M0 /2

Υ= .

i − M0 /2

176 8 The Hudson-Parthasarathy Differential Equation

If equation (∗∗) is fulfilled, then R(z) maps K into D0 . The domain D of the Hamil-

tonian H of W (t) contains D0 and the restriction of H to D0 coincides with the

restriction H0 of Ĥ to D0 , and furthermore D0 is dense in Γ and H is the closure

of H0 .

ˆ

i∂Rf = −f − iA1 SF − â+ (iA1 Rf + iA0 Sf ) + (z − iB)Rf

1 1

âRf = Sf + A1 Rf + A0 Sf.

2 2

Then

Ĥ Rf = −f + zRf + C1 â+ Rf + C2 â+ Sf + C3 Sf + C4 Rf

with

1

C1 = −iA1 + M1 + M0 A1 ,

2

1

C2 = −iA0 + M0 + M0 A0 ,

2

1

C3 = −iA−1 + M−1 + M−1 A0 ,

2

1

C4 = −iB + G + M−1 A1 .

2

The equations C1 = C2 = C3 = C4 = 0 are equivalent to (∗∗).

For Im z < 0, we obtain

ˆ = − f − iA+ Sf + â+ iA−1 Rf + A+ Sf + z + iB + Rf,

i∂R 1 0

1 1

âRf = Sf + A+ Rf + A+ Sf.

2 −1 2 0

Again

Ĥ Rf = −f + zRf + C1 â+ Rf + C2 â+ Sf + C3 Sf + C4 Rf

with

1

C1 = iA+ +

−1 + M1 + 2 M0 A−1 ,

1

C2 = iA+ +

0 + M0 + 2 M0 A0 ,

1

C3 = iA+ +

1 + M−1 + 2 M−1 A0 ,

1

C4 = iB + + G + M−1 A+ −1 .

2

8.8 The Hamiltonian 177

Equations C1 = C2 = C3 = C4 = 0 are equivalent to (∗∗) as well, as it should be.

We know already that R(z) maps K into D for Im z = 0. Formula (∗) shows that

R(z) maps K into D0 .

We studied in Sect. 3.1 the following situation. Assume a unitary group U (t) and

a dense subspace V0 ⊂ V . Assume given a subspace D0 ⊂ V and that z and z are in

the resolvent set of the Hamiltonian, and, furthermore, that R(z)V0 and R(z)V0 are

contained in D0 . Let there be given a symmetric operator H0 : D0 → V , i.e.

H0 R(z)ξ = −ξ + zR(z)ξ,

H0 R(z)ξ = −ξ + zR(z)ξ

for ξ ∈ V0 .

Then the subspace D0 is dense in V and D0 ⊂ D, the domain of H ; also

H0 = H D0 ,

We apply this result to U (t) → W (t), V → Γ, V0 → K and finish the proof.

Remark 8.8.1 L. Accardi [2, 4] and J. Gough [20] studied the so-called Hamiltonian

form of quantum stochastic differential equations, and arrived at similar formulae.

In particular, a Cayley transform, like that in equation (∗∗), shows up. Writing a

Hamiltonian form for the equations is different from finding a Hamiltonian.

Another representation of the Hamiltonian prior to our representation was found

by Gregoratti [22], who used the ideas of Chebotarev [14]. Chebotarev had obtained

a characterization of the Hamiltonian for the Hudson-Parthasarathy equation with

commuting coefficients.

Chapter 9

The Amplified Oscillator

oscillator. The solution can be given as a series of normal ordered monomials. The

series can be summed with the help of Wick’s theorem. From there one gets an a

priori estimate. As the solution is a C 1 -process, we can prove that it is a unitary

cocycle. We obtain the Heisenberg equation studied in Chap. 4, and from there an a

posteriori estimate strong enough to calculate the explicit form of the Hamiltonian.

We show how amplification works and how the classical Yule process is a part of

the quantum stochastic process.

A quantum oscillator has the energy levels {nhν : n = 0, 1, 2, . . .}. A damped oscil-

lator has the property, if the oscillator is in level n, then it emits a photon and jumps

to level n − 1, then it emits a second photon and jumps to level n − 2, and so on.

After some approximations and normalizations it can be described by the QSDE

dU0t 1

= −iba † (t)U0t − ib+ U0t a(t) − b+ b U0t .

dt 2

Here b and b+ are the usual oscillator operators, but we have carefully distinguished

a † which only can act to the left, in contrast to an ordinary adjoint such as b+ , and

is defined by (cf. Sect. 2.4)

f |a † (t) = a(t)f .

Its restriction to the one-excitation case has been studied in Sect. 4.2 and in

Sect. 8.3.1.

An amplified oscillator has the property, if the oscillator is in level n, then it emits

a photon and jumps to level n + 1, then it emits a second photon and jumps to level

n + 2, and so on. The number of emissions per time is proportional to the number

of photons. So an avalanche is created. It can be described by the QSDE

dU0t 1

= −ib+ a † (t)U0t − ibU0t a(t) − bb+ U0t .

dt 2

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_9,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

180 9 The Amplified Oscillator

The physical background has been explained in Sect. 4.2. The differential equation√

studied here differs from that in Sect. 4.4 and in Sect. 8.3.3 by a scaling factor 2π .

The quantum stochastic differential equation has been studied by Hudson and

Ion [25]. They used another method and obtained the solution as a Bogolyubov

transform of the Heisenberg equation. More explicit is Berezin’s treatment [8]. The

amplified oscillator has a quadratic Hamiltonian and the time evolution can be cal-

culated. There is, however, the inversion of a complicated operator involved. Mandel

and Wolf [32] treat the problem with the help of a master equation. It would be nice,

to compare the different approaches.

Define

Γ ∗ = Γ ⊗ l 2 (N)

and, for f ∈ Γ ∗ ,

∞

|f = 1/(m!k!) fm,k (x1 , . . . xm )a + (dx1 ) · · · a + (dxm )|∅ ⊗ b+k |0

m, k=0

with

fm,k ∈ L(m) = L2s Rm

and

∞

2

f 2 = 1/(m!k!) dx1 · · · dxm fm,k (x1 , . . . , xm ) = f |f .

m, k=0

subspace consisting of finite sums in m and k. We denote by K ∗ the subspace of

those functions f , where all fm,k are continuous with compact support and where

the sum over m and k has finitely many terms.

∞

Ust = (−i)n Un,s

t

n=0

with

+

t

Un,s = ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa e−bb (t−tn )/2 bϑn a ϑn (tn )

s<t1 <···<tn <t ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

9.2 Closed Solution 181

+ (t + (t

× e−bb n −tn−1 )/2 bϑn−1 a ϑn−1 (tn−1 ) · · · e−bb 2 −t1 )/2 bϑ1 a ϑ1 (t1 )

+ (t

× e−bb 1 −s)/2 ,

where, ϑ = ±1,

b+1 = b+ , b−1 = b,

a +1 = a † , a −1 = a

We introduce ordering with respect to t, and denote it again by an ordering sym-

bol Ot . As a result of Ot a function of t1 , . . . , tn becomes symmetric in t1 , . . . , tn

and

t

1 t

··· dt1 · · · dtn = Ot ··· dt1 · · · dtn .

s<t1 <···<tn <t n! s s

Use the formula

+ t/2 + t/2

ebb bϑ e−bb = eϑt/2 bϑ

and the time-ordering operator Ot to arrive at

+ (t−s)/2

t

Un,s = e−bb

t t

1

Ot Oa ··· dt1 · · · dtn eϑn t/2 a ϑn (tn )bϑn · · · eϑ1 t/2 a ϑ1 (t1 )bϑ1 .

n! s s ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

f (t, ϑ) = eϑt/2 a ϑ (t)bϑ

and

F = Oa Ot eϑn t/2 bϑn · · · eϑ1 t/2 bϑ1 = Oa Ot f (tn , ϑn ) · · · f (t1 , ϑ1 ).

ϑ1 ,...,ϑn ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

the right of it does not matter; effectively in such expressions the quantities a, a †

commute. We apply Wick’s theorem (Sect. 1.3) for the orderings with respect to t

and to ϑ . Ordering with respect to ϑ means normal ordering with respect to b+ , b.

We define

C t, ϑ; t , ϑ = f (t, ϑ), f t , ϑ 1 t > t − 1 ϑ > ϑ

and consider the fact that in this context a, a † are commuting quantities, so

ϑt/2+ϑ t /2 ϑ

1{t > t} for ϑ = 1, ϑ = −1,

ϑ

C t, ϑ; t , ϑ = e a (t)a t

1{t > t } for ϑ = −1, ϑ = 1.

182 9 The Amplified Oscillator

Denote by P(n) the set of partitions of [1, n] into singletons and pairs. So p ∈ P(n)

is of the form

p = {u1 }, . . . , {ul }, {r1 , s1 }, . . . , {rm , sm } .

Define

Fp = Oa Ot Oϑ f (tu1 , ϑu1 ) · · · f (tul , ϑul ) Cr1 ,s1 · · · Crm ,sm

in which we note that

Then

F = Oa Ot Fp .

ϑ1 ,...,ϑn p∈P(n)

under those permutations of 1, . . . , n, which leave p invariant.

So p Fp is invariant

under all permutations of (t1 , ϑ1 ), . . . , (tn , ϑn ), and Oa ϑ1 ,...,ϑn p∈P(n) Fp is a

symmetric function in t1 , . . . , tn ; we may forget about Ot . We calculate

t

+ 1 t

t

Un,s = e−bb (t−s)/2 Oa ··· dt1 · · · dtn Fp

n! s s ϑ1 ,...,ϑn p∈P(n)

t t

+ (t−s)/2 1

= e−bb Oa ··· dt1 · · · dtl

l!2m m! s s

l+2m=n

t m

t

× Oϑ f (t1 , ϑ1 ) · · · f (tl , ϑl ) dt1 dt2 C12

ϑ1 ,...,ϑl s s ϑ1 ,ϑ2

+ (t−s)/2 1

= e−bb Oa g(1)l1 g(−1)l2 D m

l1 !l2 !m!

l1 +l2 +2m=n

with

t t

g(1) = dt1 f (t1 − s, 1) = dt1 e(t1 −s)/2 a † (t1 )b+ ,

s s

t t

g(−1) = dt1 f (t1 , −1) = dt1 e−(t1 −s)/2 a(t1 )b,

s s

t t

1

D = Oa dt1 dt2 C12 = dt1 dt2 et1 /2−t2 /2 a † (t1 )a(t2 ).

2 s s s<t1 <t2 <t

ϑ1 ,ϑ2

Explicitly

t l1

+ (t−s)/2 1

t

Un,s = e−bb dt1 e(t1 −s)/2 a † (t1 )b+

l1 !l2 !m! s

l1 +l2 +2m=n

9.2 Closed Solution 183

m

× Oa dt1 dt2 et1 /2−t2 /2 a † (t1 )a(t2 )

s<t1 <t2 <t

t l2

−(t1 −s)/2

× dt1 e a(t1 )b .

s

+ t/2 + t/2

ebb bϑ e−bb = eϑt/2 bϑ

we obtain

t l1

1 −(t−t1 )/2 † + + (t−s)/2

t

Un,s = dt1 e a (t1 )b e−bb

l1 !l2 !m! s

l1 +l2 +2m=n

m

× Oa dt1 dt2 e t1 /2−t2 /2 †

a (t1 )a(t2 )

s<t1 <t2 <t

t l2

× dt1 e−(t1 −s)/2 a(t1 )b .

s

t b+k |f and b+l (U t )+ b+k |f can be considered

n,s

as Borel functions ≥ 0 on R × N which are symmetric on R. We set

∞

Yst = t

Un,s ,

n=0

∞

t + t +

Ys = Un,s .

n=0

The functions b+l Yst b+k |f and b+l (Ust )+ b+k |f are defined, are symmetric and

≥ 0, and they have possibly the value ∞. We obtain

Proposition 9.2.1

t

+

Yst = exp dt1 e−(t−t1 )/2 a † (t1 )b+ e−bb (t−s)/2

s

× Oa exp dt1 dt2 et1 /2−t2 /2 a † (t1 )a(t2 )

s<t1 <t2 <t

t

× exp dt1 e−(t1 −s)/2 a(t1 )b

s

and

t

t + −(t1 −s)/2 † +

Ys = exp dt1 e a (t1 )b e−bb (t−s)/2

+

s

184 9 The Amplified Oscillator

× Oa exp dt1 dt2 et1 /2−t2 /2 a † (t2 )a(t1 )

s<t1 <t2 <t

t

× exp dt1 e−(t−t1 )/2 a(t1 )b .

s

We want to show that b+l Yst b+k |f and b+l (Yst )+ b+k |f are in Γ ∗ , and to give

estimates for their norms. We start with some lemmata.

Lemma 9.2.1 Consider two pairs of quantum oscillators with the usual operators

a, a + and b, b+ and

T = exp sa + b+ ,

with s ∈ C and |s|2 < 1.

Then

0|a m bn T + bk b+k T a +m b+n |0 = m!(n + k)!2 F1 m + 1, n + k + 1, 1, |s|2

Proof We calculate

+ b+

0|a m bn esab bk b+k esa a +m b+n |0

∞

1 l1 l2 l +m l +n+k

= s s 0|a m+l1 a + 2 |0 0|bn+l1 +k b+ 2 |0

l1 !l2 !

l1 ,l2 =0

1

= |s|2l (m + l)!(n + l + k)!.

(l!)2

l

and obtain

∞

+ b+ (m + 1)l (n + k + 1)l

0|a m bn esab bk b+k esa a +m b+n |0 = m!(m + k)! |s|2l .

(l!)2

l=0

−(k+m+n+1)

0|a m bn T + bk b+k T a +m b+n |0 ≤ (k + m + n)! 1 − |s|2 .

9.2 Closed Solution 185

Proof We have

(m + l)!(n + l + k)!

= (l + 1) · · · (m + l)(l + 1) · · · (n + k + l)

(l!)2

≤ (l + 1) · · · (l + m)(l + m + 1) · · · (l + m + n + k)

(l + m + n + k)!

= .

l!

For 0 ≤ x < 1, we have

∞

(k + m + n + 1)l

x l = (1 − x)−(k+m+n+1) .

l!

l=0

This estimate is optimal, as using Theorem 2.1.3 in Askey’s book [5] we have

Γ (1)Γ (m + n + k + 1)

lim 2 F1 (m + 1, n + k + 1, 1; x)(1 − x)2m+k+1 =

x→1−0 Γ (m + 1)Γ (n + k + 1)

(m + n + k)!

= .

m!(n + k)!

sider the operator

L = Oa exp K(s, t)a + (ds)a(t)dt

∞

= (1/ l!) · · · K(s1 , t1 ) · · · K(sl , tl )a + (ds1 )a + (dsl )a(t1 ) · · · a(tl )dt1 · · · dtl .

l=0

Then L maps L2s (Rn ) into itself, and, for f ∈ L2s (Rn ), we have

l

Lf ≤ 1 + KH S f ,

where

1/2

2

KH S = ds dt K(s, t)

n

1 1

f |L|g = f (x[1,n] )K(s[1,l] , t[1,l] )g(y[1,l] )m

l! n!2

l=0

186 9 The Amplified Oscillator

with

m = a(x[1,n] )a + (ds[1,l] )a(t[1,l] )a + (dy[1,n] ) dx[1,n] ds[1,l] .

Using Wick’s theorem

m= m(ϕ, ψ, χ)

I ⊂[1,n],#I =l J ⊂[1,n],#J =l ϕ:[1,l]_I ψ:[1,l]_J ϕ:I c _J c

m(ϕ, ψ, χ) = ε(xϕ(i) , dsi ) dxϕ(i) ε(ti , dyψ(i) ) dti

i∈[1,l] i∈[1,l]

× ε(xi , dyχ(i) ) dxi .

i∈I c

Hence

F (ϕ, ψ, χ) = f (x[1,n] )K(s[1,l] , t[1,l] )g(y[1,l] )m(ϕ, ψ, χ)

= ds[1,l] dt[1,l] K(s[1,l] , t[1,l] )

× dx[1,n]\I f (sϕ −1 (i) )i∈I , x[1,n]\I g (tψ −1 (i) )i∈J , xχ −1 (i) i∈[1,n]\I .

F (ϕ, ψ, χ)2

2

≤ ds[1,l] dt[1,l] K(s[1,l] , t[1,l] )

× ds[1,l] dt[1,l] dx[1,n]\I f (sϕ −1 (i) )i∈I , x[1,n]\I

2

× g (tψ −1 (i) )i∈J , xχ −1 (i) i∈[1,n]\I

≤ K2l

H S (n!) f Γ gΓ .

2 2 2

Finally

n

1 1 2

f |L|g ≤ n(n − 1) · · · (n − l + 1) (n − l)!KlH S f Γ gΓ

l! n!

l=0

n

n

= KlH S f Γ gΓ .

l

l=0

9.2 Closed Solution 187

+ 1

a (f ) = a + (dx1 ) · · · a + (dxm )f (x1 , . . . , xm )

m!

and

|f = a + (f )|∅ ⊗ |0

where |∅ is the vacuum of the heat bath and |0 is the ground state of the oscillator.

ea(ϕ)b b+n |f ∈ L2s Rm−l ⊗ b+(n−l) |0

l

and

a(ϕ)b +n 2

e b |f ≤ n!f 2 2 F1 −m, −n, 1; ϕ2 ,

where the Gauss hypergeometric function 2 F1 (−m, −n, 1; ϕ2 ) is a finite polyno-

mial in ϕ2 with coefficients ≥ 0.

Proof We calculate

a(ϕ)b +n 2 +

e b |f = f |bn ea (ϕ)b ea(ϕ)b b+n |f

= (1/ l!)2 f |a(ϕ)l a + (ϕ)l |f 0|bn b+l bl b+n |0

l

≤ (1/ l!)2 m(m − 1) · · · (m − l + 1)ϕ2l f 2

l

2

× n(n − 1) · · · (n − l + 1) (n − l)!

= (1/ l!)2 (−m)l (−n)l ϕ2l n!f 2

l

= n!f 2 2 F1 −m, −n, 1; ϕ2 .

+l t +k

b Y b |f ≤ C(t − s; m, l, k)f ,

s

+l t + +k

b Y b |f ≤ C(t − s; m, l, k)f

s

188 9 The Amplified Oscillator

with

1/2

m

C(t − s; m, l, k) = e (l+m+k+1)(t−s)/2

(j + k + l)!/j !

j =0

√ √

× (1 + t − s)m 2 F1 (−m, −k, 1; 1) k!).

ψ(t1 ) = 1{s < t1 < t}e−(t1 −s)/2 ,

K(t1 , t2 ) = 1{s < t1 < t2 < t}e−(t2 −t1 )/2 .

Then

+ + +

Yst = ea (ϕ)b e−bb (t−s)/2 Oa e dt1 dt2 K(t1 ,t2 )a (t1 )a(t2 ) ea(ψ)b ,

†

t + + + +

Ys = ea (ψ)b e−bb (t−s)/2 Oa e dt1 dt2 K(t1 ,t2 )a (t2 )a(t1 ) ea(ϕ)b .

†

We have

ϕ = ψ = 1 − e−(t−s) .

Putting a = a(ϕ)/ϕ or a(ϕ) = ϕa, Lemma 9.2.2 yields

+ +

0|a(ϕ)m bn ea(ϕ)b bk b+k ea (ϕ)b a + (ϕ)m b+n |0

m

≤ (k + m + n)! 1 − e−(t−s) e(k+m+n+1)(t−s) . (i)

We recall the equation, holding for two Hilbert spaces V1 , V2 and a bounded

linear mapping A : V1 → V2 ,

⊥

ker(A) = image A+ .

and A+ is the adjoint of A.

Consider the annihilation operator a(ϕ) : L(n) → L(n − 1) with ϕ ∈ L(1). The

adjoint of a(ϕ) is a + (ϕ) : L(n − 1) → L(n). We split L(n) into the orthogonal sum

L(n) = a + (ϕ)L(n − 1) ⊕ ker a(ϕ) , f = a + (ϕ)gn + fn

2

a + (ϕ)gn = a + (ϕ) gn−1 + a + (ϕ)fn−1

n

f = fn + a + (ϕ)fn−1 + · · · + a + (ϕ) f0

9.2 Closed Solution 189

We have

+ i j

a (ϕ) fn−i | a + (ϕ) fn−j = δi,j j !ϕ2j fn−j 2

and

n

f 2 = j !ϕ2j fn−j 2 .

j =0

We calculate

+ k a + (ϕ)b+ + j +l 2

b e a (ϕ) b fn−j

k + +

= fn−j |bl a(ϕ)j ea(ϕ)b bk b+ ea (ϕ)b a + (ϕ)j b+l |fn−j .

k + +

= fn−j 2 0|bl a(ϕ)j ea(ϕ)b bk b+ ea (ϕ)b a + (ϕ)j b+l |0 = fn−j 2 cj2

k + + 2

cj2 = b+ ea (ϕ)b a + (ϕ)j b+l |0 ≤ ϕ2j (j + l + k)!e(k+j +l+1)(t−s)

+ k a + (ϕ)b+ +l

b e b |f

n

+ k a + (ϕ)b+ + j +l

≤ b e a (ϕ) b |fn−j

j =0

1/2 1/2

n cj2

= cj fn−j ≤ j !ϕ2j fn−j 2

j !ϕ2j

j =0

and finally

n 1/2

+ k a + (ϕ)b+ +l (j + l + k)!

b e b |f ≤ e (k+j +l+1)(t−s)

f . (ii)

j!

j =0

The expression

Oa exp a + (r1 )er1 /2 a(r2 )e−r2 /2 dr1 dr2

s<r1 <r2 <t

190 9 The Amplified Oscillator

and

1/2

√

KH S = ds dtK(s, t) 2

≤ t − s.

√

Oa exp + −r2 /2

dr1 dr2 ≤ (1 + t − s) .

r1 /2 m

a (r1 )e a(r2 )e

s<r1 <r2 <t

(iii)

−bb+ (t−s)/2

e ≤ 1. (iv)

Γ∗

For f ∈ L(m)

m

ea(ψ)b) b+n |f ∈ L(m) ⊗ bn−l |0

l=0

and by Lemma 9.2.4

a(ψ)b) +n

e b |f ≤ 2 F1 (−m, −n, 1; 1)n!f . (v)

By combining equations (i) to (v) we obtain the result for Yst . For (Yst )+ all goes the

same way.

∞

Ust = (−i)n Un,s

t

n=0

t

−(t−t1 )/2 +

= exp −i e a (t1 )dt1 b exp −bb+ (t − s)/2

+

s

× Oa exp − a + (r1 )er1 /2 a(r2 )e−r2 /2 dr1 dr2

s<r1 <r2 <t

t

× exp −i a(t1 )e−(t1 −s)/2 dt1 b ,

s

∞

t + t +

Us = in Un,s

n=0

t

−(t1 −s)/2 + +

= exp i dt1 e a (t1 )b e−bb (t−s)/2

+

s

9.2 Closed Solution 191

× Oa exp − dt1 dt2 et1 /2−t2 /2 a + (t2 )a(t1 )

s<t1 <t2 <t

t

× exp i dt1 e−(t−t1 )/2 a(t1 )b .

s

∞ n t + +k

The sums ∞ +k

n=0 (−i) Un,s b |f and

n t

n=0 i (Un,s ) b |f converge in norm for

fixed f ∈ L2s (Rm ) and k.

∞

t +k

U b |f ↓ 0.

n,s

n=1

Proof Recall

+

t

Un,s = ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa e−bb (t−tn /2) bϑn a ϑn (tn )

s<t1 <···<tn <t ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

+ (t

×e bϑn−1 a ϑn−1 (tn−1 ) · · · e−bb 2 −t1 )/2 bϑ1 a ϑ1 (t1 )

+ (t

× e−bb 1 −s)/2 .

t +k

U b |f ≤ bϑn · · · bϑ1 b+k |0

n,s

ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

× ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa a ϑn (tn ) · · · a ϑ1 (t1 )|f

s<t1 <···<tn <t

(t − s)n

≤ (k + 1) · · · (k + n) (m + 1) · · · (m + n)f

n!

ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

(l + 1)n

≤ 2n (t − s)n f

n!

∞

t +k

U b |f ≤ 1 − 2(t − s) −l−1 − 1 f ↓ 0.

n,s

n=1

192 9 The Amplified Oscillator

Recall

+

t

Un,s = ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa e−bb (t−tn /2) bϑn a ϑn (tn )

s<t1 <···<tn <t ϑ1 ,...,ϑn

+ + +

e−bb (tn −tn−1 )/2 bϑn−1 a ϑn−1 (tn−1 ) · · · e−bb (t2 −t1 )/2 bϑ1 a ϑ1 (t1 )e−bb (t1 −s)/2

+

= ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa e−bb (t−tn /2) b+ a † (tn ) + ba(tn )

s<t1 <···<tn <t

−bb+ (tn −tn−1 )/2

×e

+ † +

b a (tn−1 ) + ba(tn−1 ) · · · e−bb (t2 −t1 )/2 b+ a † (t1 ) + ba(t1 )

+

× e−bb (t1 −s)/2 .

Then

t + +

Un,s = ··· dt1 · · · dtn Oa e−bb (t1 −s) b+ a † (t1 ) + ba(t1 )

s<t1 <···<tn <t

−bb+ (t2 −t1 )/2

×e

+ † +

b a (t2 ) + ba(t2 ) · · · e−bb (tn −tn−1 )/2 b+ a † (tn ) + ba(tn )

+

× e−bb (t−tn )/2 .

t

t

Un,s = un,s (σ, τ )aσ+ aτ λτ ,

t + t

Un,s = ũn,s (σ, τ )aσ+ aτ λτ

with

t

un,s (σ, τ ) = 1 tσ + tτ ⊂ ]s, t[ 1{#σ + #τ = n}

+ /2(t−t + /2(t + /2(t

e−bb n) bϑn e−bb n −tn−1 ) bϑn−1 · · · bϑ2 e−bb 2 −t1 ) bϑ1

+ /2(t

e−bb 1 −s)

and

t +

ũn,s (σ, τ ) = utn,s (σ, τ ) = 1 tσ + tτ ⊂ ]s, t[ 1{#σ + #τ = n}

9.3 The Unitary Evolution 193

e−bb 1 −s) bϑ1 e−bb 2 −t1 ) bϑ2 · · · bϑn−1 e−bb n−1 −tn ) bϑn

+ /2(t−t

e−bb n)

and ϑi = 1 if ti ∈ tσ and ϑi = −1 if ti ∈ tτ .

Make the two definitions

∞

uts = (−i)n utn,s ,

n=0

∞

ũts = in ũtn,s .

n=0

We want to apply Ito’s theorem, and observe that 0|bl uts b+k |0 and

0|bl (uts )+ b+k |0 are C 1 functions with values in R.

For our purposes we have to adapt Ito’s theorem. Assume we have two matrix-

valued functions

F = (Fkl ), G = (Gkl ), k, l = 0, 1, 2, . . . : R2 → R,

where all the matrix elements are Lebesgue measurable. Define the measure

m(π, σ1 , τ1 , σ2 , τ2 , ρ) = aπ aσ+1 aτ1 aσ+2 aτ2 aρ+ λπ+τ1 +τ2

f, g ∈ Ks (R) → f |B(F, G)|g = f | B(F, G) kl |g ,

f |B(F, G)kl |g = m 1/m!f (π)Fkm (σ1 , τ1 )Gml (σ2 , τ2 )g(ρ),

m

Theorem 9.3.1 Assume xt and yt to be matrix-valued functions, where all their ma-

trix elements of class C 1 , and that, for f, g ∈ Ks (R, R), all the sesquilinear forms

f |B(Ft , Gt )|g exist so that t ∈ R → f |B(Ft , Gt )|g is locally integrable, where

Ft is any function drawn from {xt , ∂ c xt , R±1 x , R −1 x }, and similarly G is any func-

t ± t t

1 y , R −1 y }. Then t → f |(B(x , y )) |g is contin-

tion drawn from {yt , ∂ c yt , R± t ± t t t kl

uous and has as Schwartz derivative a locally integrable function. The Schwartz

derivative is

∂f |B(xt , yt )|g = f |B ∂ c xt , yt + B f, ∂ c yt + I−1,+1,t |g

194 9 The Amplified Oscillator

+ a(t)f B D 1 xt , yt + B f, D 1 yt |g

+ f |B D −1 xt , yt + B f, D −1 yt a(t)g

with

−1 −1

I−1,1,t = B R+ 1

xt , R+ y t − B R− 1

xt , R− yt .

We recall the operators ∂ c and R± i , from Sect. 6.3, and the following properties

Lemma 9.3.1 With ∂ c and R± s

1 · + t

R+ us t (σ, τ ) = ut+0

s (tσ + t, tτ ) = −ib us (σ, τ ),

1 ·

R− us t (σ, τ ) = ut−0

s (tσ + t, tτ ) = 0,

−1 ·

R+ us t (σ, τ ) = ut+0s (tσ , tτ + t) = −ibus (σ, τ ),

t

−1 ·

R− us t (σ, τ ) = ut−0s (tσ , tτ + t) = 0;

∂sc uts (σ, τ ) = uts (σ, τ ) bb+ /2 ,

1 t

R+ u· s (σ, τ ) = uts+0 (tσ + s, tτ ) = 0,

1 t

R− u· s (σ, τ ) = uts−0 (tσ + s, tτ ) = uts −ib+ ,

−1 t

R+ u· s (σ, τ ) = uts+0 (tσ , tτ + s) = 0,

−1 t

R− u· s (σ, τ ) = uts−0 (tσ , tτ + s) = uts (σ, τ )(−ib);

∂tc ũts (σ, τ ) = ũts (σ, τ ) −bb+ /2 ,

1 · +

R+ ũs t (σ, τ ) = ũt+0

s (tσ + t, tτ ) = ũs (σ, τ )ib ,

t

1 ·

R− ũs t (σ, τ ) = ũt−0

s (tσ + t, tτ ) = 0,

−1 ·

R+ ũs t (σ, τ ) = ũt+0s (tσ , tτ + t) = ũs (σ, τ )ib,

t

−1 ·

R− ũs t (σ, τ ) = ũt−0s (tσ , tτ + t) = 0;

∂sc ũts (σ, τ ) = bb+ /2 ũts (σ, τ ) bb+ /2 ,

9.3 The Unitary Evolution 195

1 t

R+ ũ· s (σ, τ ) = ũts+0 (tσ + s, tτ ) = 0,

1 t

R− ũ· s (σ, τ ) = ũts−0 (tσ + s, tτ ) = ib+ uts ,

−1 t

R+ ũ· s (σ, τ ) = ũts+0 (tσ , tτ + s) = 0,

−1 t

R− ũ· s (σ, τ ) = ũts−0 (tσ , tτ + s) = ibũts (σ, τ ).

Theorem 9.3.2 There exist uniquely determined operators Ûst on Γ ∗ , whose re-

strictions to K ∗ coincide with Ust . We shall write Ust instead of Ûst and use the

notation

+

Ust = Uts for t < s.

We have

Urt Usr = Ust for s, t, r ∈ R.

The Ust form a strongly continuous unitary evolution on Γ ∗ .

t

us kl = 0|bk uts b+l |0 ,

t + +

us kl = 0|bl uts b+k |0 .

+

B uts , uts .

But this relation, and the other relations needed for the application of Ito’s theorem,

follow directly from Proposition 9.2.2 and Theorem 9.3.1.

We obtain with the help of Lemma 9.3.1

∂r B utr , urs = 0,

hence

t r

B ur , us kl = B uts , uss kl = B uts , e(∅, ∅) kl

t

= us kl (σ, τ )aσ+ aτ λτ = B uts kl ,

and so

+

Ust = Uts for t < s.

In the same way,

+

∂t B uts , uts = 0

196 9 The Amplified Oscillator

and

+

∂s B uts , uts = 0,

giving

t + t +

B us , us kl = B uts , uts kl

= δkl .

Therefore the mappings Ust and (Ust )+ have the property that, for f, g ∈ Γf∗ ,

+ +

f | Ust Ust |g = f |Ust Ust |g = f |g ,

so Ust and (Ust )+ are the restrictions of unitary operators from Γf∗ to Γ ∗ . These

unitary operators we denote again by Ust and (Ust )+ . We have, for s < r < t,

+

Ust = Uts ,

the relation Urt Usr = Ust holds for all s, t, r ∈ R.

The strong continuity follows from Lemma 9.2.5.

+ 1 +

∂t Ust b+ Ust = Ust b+ Ust + ia(t),

2

and

+ 1 +

∂s Ust b+ Ust = − Ust b+ Ust + ia(s).

2

Hence

t + + t t

U0 b U0 = et/2 b+ + i e(t−s)/2 a(s)ds

0

and

∞

−t/2

t + + t

lim e U0 b U0 = b + + i e−s/2 a(s)ds.

t→∞ 0

m = m(π, σ1 , τ1 , σ2 , τ2 , ρ) = aπ aσ+1 aτ1 aσ+2 aτ2 aρ+ λπ+τ1 +τ2 .

9.4 Heisenberg Equation 197

+

f | Ust b+ Ust kl |g = mf (π)0|bk uts (σ1 , τ1 )b+ uts (σ2 , τ2 )b+l |0 g(ρ).

+

∂t mf (π) uts (σ1 , τ1 )b+ uts (σ2 , τ2 )ibb+ uts (σ2 , τ2 )b+ kl g(ρ)

+

= f (π)0|bk uts (σ1 , τ1 )

2 2

× m −b b+ /2 − b+ bb+ /2 + b b+

2 2

+ a † (t)m i b+ − i b+ + ma(t) ibb+ − ib+ b uts (σ2 , τ2 )b+l |0 g(ρ)

+

= f (π)0|bk uts (σ1 , τ1 ) mb+ /2 + ima(t) uts (σ2 , τ2 )b+l |0 g(ρ)

or

+ +

∂t Ust b+ Ust = Ust b+ Ust /2 + ia(t).

t + + t t

Us b Us = e(t−s)/2 b+ + i e(r−s)/2 a(r)dr.

s

One calculates

∞

−t/2

t + + t +

lim e U0 b U0 = b + i e−s/2 a(s)ds.

t→∞ 0

t

t + + t

Us b Us = e|t−s|/2 b+ + i ds e−|s −s|/2 a s .

s

t + + t t

Us b Us = e(t−s)/2 b+ + i e(t−s )/2 a s ds

s

+

t

(s−s )/2

=e (t−s)/2

b +i e a s ds

s

198 9 The Amplified Oscillator

and

t

Ust b+ Ust+ =e (t−s)/2 +

b −i ds e(s −s)/2 a s

s

t

+ (s −t)/2

=e (t−s)/2

b −i ds e a s ds ,

s

and for s > t, upon interchanging the roles of s and t in the last equation,

s

t + + t

Us b Us = e(s−t)/2 b+ − i e(s −s)/2 a s ds

t

|t−s|/2 +

t

−|s −s|/2

=e b +i ds e a s .

s

ar , Ust = 1[s,t] (r)Urt −ib+ Usr ,

and

t +

Us , a (dr) = 1[s,t] (r)Urt (−ib)Usr dr.

Ust = (−i)n Un,s

t

,

and

t

Un,s = utn,s (σ, τ )aσ+ aτ λτ

σ,τ

t

ar , Un,s = ar , aσ+ aτ utn,s (σ, τ )λτ = aσ+\c aτ ε(r, tc )utn,s (σ, τ )λτ

σ,τ σ,τ c∈σ

= 1[s,t] (tc )utn,s (σ + c, τ )ε(r, tc )aσ+ aτ λτ .

σ,τ,c

1 if {tσ +τ , s, r, t}• has a multiple point,

N(tσ +τ ) =

0 otherwise.

9.4 Heisenberg Equation 199

f | ar , Un,s

t

|g

= 1 − N (tσ +τ ) f (π)utn,s (σ + c, τ )ε(r, tc )g(ρ) aπ aσ+ aτ aρ+ λπ+τ

= 1 − N (tσ +τ ) f (π)utn,s tσ + {r}, tτ g(ρ) aπ aσ+ aτ aρ+ λπ+τ .

Since

utn,s tσ + {r}, tτ = utn2 ,r (σ2 , τ2 ) −ib+ urn1 ,s (σ1 , τ1 )

n1 +n2 =n

σ1 +σ2 =σ

τ1 +τ2 =τ

= 1 − N (tσ1 +τ1 +σ2 +τ2 ) f (π)utn2 ,r (σ2 , τ2 ) −ib+ urn1 ,s (σ1 , τ1 )g(ρ)

n1 +n2 =n

× aπ aσ+2 aσ+1 aτ2 aτ1 aρ+ λπ+τ1 +τ2

= f (π)utn2 ,r (σ2 , τ2 ) −ib+ urn1 ,s (σ1 , τ1 )g(ρ)

n1 +n2 =n

× aπ aσ+2 aτ2 aσ+1 aτ1 aρ+ λπ+τ1 +τ2

as the integrals over all commutators of aτ2 and aσ+1 vanish (see Lemma 8.5.1) and

N is again a null function. Finally we have

f | ar , Un,s

t

|g = f |Un,r

t

−ib+ Unr2 ,s |g .

n1 +n2 =n

By the results of Sect. 9.2 the sum over n converges, and we obtain the first equation

of the lemma. The second equation is obtained in a similar way.

We can use the commutator identities to give formulas for the adjoint action of

Ust on a and a + like those above for b and b+ .

t + +

Us a(r)Ust = a(r) + 1[s,t] (r) Usr −ib+ Usr

and

+

Ust a + (dr) Ust = a + (dr) + 1[s,t] (r)Urt (−ib) Urt dr.

With a type of matrix notation we now put all the equations for the adjoint action

together in a succinct form. The index s in the proposition below carries with it an

implicit integration over s .

200 9 The Amplified Oscillator

t + b+ V (V01 )s b+

U0 U = 00

t

a(s) 0 V10 (V11 )ss a(s )

with

V00 = et/2 ,

(V01 )s = i1 0 < s < t e(t−s )/2 δ s − s ,

V10 = −i1{0 < s < t}es/2 ,

(V11 )ss = δ s − s + 1 0 < s < s < t e(s−s )/2 .

Furthermore

+ b Ṽ (Ṽ01 )s b

U0t U = 00

t

a + (ds) 0 Ṽ10 (Ṽ11 )ss a + (ds )

with

Ṽ00 = et/2 ,

(Ṽ01 )s = −i1 0 < s < t e(t−s )/2 δ s − s ,

Ṽ10 = i1{0 < s < t}es/2 ,

(Ṽ11 )ss = δ s − s + 1 0 < s < s < t e(s−s )/2 .

tion.

√ This equation differs from that in Sect. 4.3 and Sect. 8.3.3 by a scaling factor

of 2π .

+

N= a (ds)a(s) = dsa † (s)a(s);

t +

U0 N − bb+ U0t = N − bb+ .

+

At = U0t AU0t .

Then

t

t

+ t 1 s + s

s 1 + s

bb = bb+ + +

ds b − ia (ds) b + ds b b + ia(s)

0 2 0 2

9.4 Heisenberg Equation 201

and

+ s

Nt = a (ds) + ibs 1{0 < s < t}ds a(s) − i b+ 1{0 < s < t}

t t s t s

=N +i ds b a(s) − i

s

a (ds) b+ +

+

ds bb+ .

0 0 0

t

t + + t (t−s)/2 +

Us b Us = e b +i e(t−s )/2 a s ds

s

and

+

Ust N − bb+ Ust = N − bb+ .

f ∈ Γ ∗ for which

k

f Γk∗ = f | N + bb+ |f < ∞.

want an upper bound on functions, and (N − bb+ ) leaves things invariant. We need

the following theorem only for even k, and formulate it for simplicity just for that

case.

Theorem 9.4.1 The operators Ust , for s, t ∈ R, map each Γk∗ for k = 0, 2, 4, . . .

into itself, and there exist constants Ck such that for f ∈ Γk∗ and s, t ∈ R,

t

U f ∗ ≤ Ck ek|t−s| f Γ ∗ .

s Γ k

k

M = N + bb+ ,

we have

t + +

Us MUst = Ust 2bb+ + N − bb+ Ust

+

= Ust 2bb+ Uts + N − bb+ = e|t−s| A(s, t).

Define

−1/2

f (s, t) s = sign(t − s) i1[s,t] s e−|s−s |/2 1 − e−|t−s| .

Then

2

ds f (s, t) s = 1,

202 9 The Amplified Oscillator

and we consider

1/2 + 1/2

A(s, t) = b + 1 − e−|s−t| a f (s, t) b+ + 1 − e−|s−t| a f (s, t)

+ e−|s−t| N − bb+ .

g= b+k |gk,m ,

the norm

l−1 +

M a (f )b+ M −l g 2 ∗

Γ

= M l−1 a + (f )b+ M −l bk |gk,m 2 ∗

Γ

k,m

2

≤ (k + m + 3)2(l−1) (k + 1)(m + 1)(k + m + 1)−2l bk |gk,m Γ ∗

2l 2

≤ (k + m + 3)/(k + m + 1) bk |gk,m Γ ∗ ≤ 32l g2Γ ∗ .

We have

l−1

M a(f )b+ M −l g 2 ∗

Γ

= M l−1 a + (f )b+ M −l bk |gk,m 2 ∗

Γ

k,m

2

≤ (k + m + 1)2(l−1) k(m + 1)(k + m + 1)−2l bk |gk,m Γ ∗

≤ bk |gk,m 2 ∗ ≤ g2 ∗ .

Γ Γ

Similar inequalities hold if one replaces a(f )b+ by a + (f )b, or by a(f )b, or by

N − bb+ . Hence

l−1

M A(s, t)M −l g ∗ ≤ 4 + 3l g2 ∗ .

Γ Γ

One obtains

Ak M −k g = AM −1 M 1 AM −2 M 2 AM −3 · · · M k−1 AM −k g,

so

k −k

A M g ∗ ≤ (4 + 3) 4 + 32 · · · 4 + 3k gΓ ∗ = Ck gΓ ∗ .

Γ

Hence

M −k A2k M −k ≤ Ck2 1Γ +

9.5 The Hamiltonian 203

or

A2k ≤ M 2k Ck2 .

From there follows the result as K ∗ is dense in Γ ∗ .

We use the same notation and results as in Sects. 8.8.1 and 8.8.2. Define for t ∈ R

0

Θ(t);

diate consequence of Theorem 9.4.1 is

Proposition 9.5.1 The operators W (t) map the space Γk∗ into itself and there exist

constants Ck such that

W (t)f 2 ∗ ≤ Ck ek|t| f 2 .

Γ k

ΓK

∞ izt

−i e W (t)dt for Im z > 0,

R(z) = 0 0

i −∞ eizt W (t)dt for Im z < 0.

Furthermore we set

∞ izt

−i e W (t)a(t) for Im z > 0,

S(z) = 0 0

i −∞ eizt W (t)a(t) for Im z < 0

and

+ /2

−i1{t > 0}eizt−tbb for Im z > 0,

κ(z)(t) = +

i1{t < 0}eizt+tbb /2 for Im z < 0

and

∞ izt −tbb+ /2

−i 0 e e Θ(t)d t for Im z > 0,

R̃(z) = Θ κ(z) = 0 izt tbb+ /2

+i −∞ e e Θ(t)d t for Im z < 0.

Taking into account the a priori estimate Proposition 9.2.2, one proves, as in

Sect. 8.8.3, with a and a+ defined as in Sect. 8.8.2,

204 9 The Amplified Oscillator

R(z)f = R̃(z) f + bS(z)f + a+ b+ R(z)f .

R(z)f = R̃(z) f0 + a+ b+ f1

with

f0 = f + S(z)f

and

f1 = R(z)f.

Again using the a priori estimate Proposition 9.2.2, the same arguments as in

Proposition 8.8.8 establish the following proposition:

D̂ = f = R̃(z) f0 + a+ b+ f1 : f0 ∈ Γ2∗ , f1 ∈ Γ4∗ .

Proposition 9.5.4 Recall the constants Ck of Proposition 9.5.1; then for | Im z| >

C4 the operator R(z) maps K ∗ into D̂.

We make at first an Ansatz for the Hamiltonian H . Recall Sect. 8.8.3 and the

space D̂ † of all semilinear functionals D̂ → C. We have in an analogous way

to 8.8.3

D̂ ⊂ Γ ∗ ⊂ D̂ † .

Ĥ = i∂ˆ + a+ b+ + ab,

ˆ

f |Ĥ |g = f |i∂|g + âbf |g + f |âbg .

9.5 The Hamiltonian 205

Proposition 9.5.5 The operator Ĥ exists and is symmetric. One obtains for f =

R̃(z)(f0 + a+ b+ f1 )

i

Ĥ f = i∂ˆ + â+ b+ + âb f = − f0 + b+ â+ f1 + z + bb+ f + â+ b+ f + âbf.

2

∞

∞

f= 1/(l!m!)b+l a + (fl,m )|0 = 1/(l!m!)b+l |fl,m

k,m=0 l,m=0

f 2Γ ∗ = 1/(l!m!)fl,m 2L(m)

and

2

fl,m 2L(m) = dt1 · · · dtm fl,m (t1 , . . . , tm ) .

R̃(z)f = Θ(κ)f = 1/(l!m!)b+l Θ(κl )|fk,m

with

−i1{t > 0}eizt−(l+1)/2 for Im z > 0,

κl (t) =

i1{t < 0}eizt+(l+1)/2 for Im z < 0.

As κl fulfills all conditions for ϕ and η in the lemmata of Sect. 8.8.2, and κl L2 ≤ 1,

we can sum up and obtain that Θ(κ)a+ defines a mapping Γk−1 ∗ → Γ ∗ with

k

Θ(κ)a+ f ≤ 2k/2 f k−1 ,

k

∗ → Γ ∗ with

and aΘ(κ) also defines a mapping Γk−1 k

Θ(κ)a+ f ≤ f k−1 .

k

One establishes by arguments similar to those of Sect. 8.8, that for f ∈ D̂ the ele-

ment âf is well defined. We calculate for f ∈ D̂

ˆ = −i lim Θ ϕn f

i∂f

= −i lim Θ ϕn ∗ κ f0 + b+ a+ f1 = −i lim Θ ϕn ∗ κ f0 + b+ a+ f1 .

206 9 The Amplified Oscillator

Now

1 + i +

−iϕn ∗ κ = −iϕn ∗ −iδ + iz − bb κ = −ϕn + ϕn ∗ z + bb κ

2 2

and

i +

ˆ +

i∂f = − f0 + â f1 + z + bb f.

2

D0 = {f ∈ D̂ : f = f1 };

Ĥ R(z)f = −f + zR(z)f

and R(z)f ∈ D0 .

R(z)f = R̃(z) f0 + a+ b+ f1 ,

f0 = f + S(z)f,

f1 = R(z)f.

Ĥ f = i∂ˆ + â+ b+ + âb f

i

= − f0 + b+ â+ f1 + z + bb+ f + â+ b+ f + âbf

2

+ +

i +

= − f + bS(z)f + â b R(z)f + z + bb R(z)f

2

i

+ â+ b+ R(z)f + bS(z)f − bb+ R(z)f

2

= −f + zR(z)f.

Just as for Theorem 8.8.1, we obtain with the help of Proposition 3.1.9,

Theorem 9.5.1 The domain D of the Hamiltonian H of W (t) contains D0 and the

restriction of H to D0 coincides with H0 , the restriction of

9.6 Amplification 207

9.6 Amplification

The amplified oscillator yields a model for a photo multiplier. Recall the Fourier-

Weyl transform. If ρ is a density operator on Γ , then the Fourier-Weyl transform is

given by

+ (ϕ)+zb+zb+ )

W (ρ)(ϕ, z) = Trace ρei(a(ϕ)+a

for ϕ ∈ K (R) and z ∈ C. The time development of ρ is given by

+

ρ(t) = U0t ρ U0t .

Hence

+

W ρ(t) (z, ϕ) = Trace ρ exp i U0t a(ϕ) + a + (ϕ) + zb + zb+ U0t .

t

t + + t

U0 b U0 = et/2 b+ + i ds e−s/2 a(s) ,

0

t +

+

U0 a(s)U0t = a(s) + 1{0 < s < t} U0s b+ U0s

s

+ −s /2

= a(s) + 1{0 < s < t}e s/2

b +i ds e a s ,

0

t +

+

U0 a(ϕ)U0t = ds ϕ(s) U0t a(s)U0t

s

t

= a(ϕ) + ds ϕ(s)es/2 b+ + i ds e−s /2 a s .

0 0

For t → ∞

∞

+

e−t/2 U0t b+ U0t → b+ + i ds e−s/2 a(s) = b+ + a(ψ)

0

with

ψ(t) = −i1{t > 0}e−t/2

and

+

e−t/2 U0t a(ϕ)U0t → 0,

since

t

e−t/2 ds es/2 ϕ(s) → 0.

0

So

+ +

W ρ(t) e−t/2 z, e−t/2 ϕ → Trace ρeiz(b+a (ψ))+z(b +a(ψ)) .

208 9 The Amplified Oscillator

As

b + a + (ψ) , b+ + a(ψ) = 0,

the last expression can be understood as the Fourier transform of a classical proba-

bility measure p on the complex plane given by

+ +

p(dξ )eizξ +izξ = p̂(z) = Trace ρeiz(b+a (ψ))+z(b +a(ψ)) .

Examples

• Assume ρ = ρ0 ⊗ |∅ ∅|, where ρ0 is the initial density matrix of the oscillator

and |∅ is the ground state of the heat bath,

+

p̂(z) = e−|z| Trace ρ0 ei(zb+zb ) = e−|z| /2 ρ̂0 (z),

2 /2 2

p(dξ ) = (2/π) Wigner(ρ0 )(η)e−2|ξ −η| dηdξ,

2

of ρ0 smeared out with a Gaussian distribution.

• Assume ρ = |0 0| ⊗ |∅ ∅|, the ground state of both oscillator and heat bath;

then

p(dξ ) = (1/π)e−|ξ | dξ.

2

+

ψ = e−|β|

2 /2

eβb |0 ,

then

p(dξ ) = (1/π)e−|ξ −β| dξ,

2

the translated probability measure for the vacuum. So we recover β with an addi-

tional uncertainty.

The Yule process is a pure birth process. Individuals live forever. For each indi-

vidual living at time t, during the period from t to t + dt there is a chance equal

dt of having a child. Thus each individual gives birth at rate 1. The state space is

N0 = {0, 1, 2, . . .}. If Z(t) is the random number of individuals at time t, then the

conditional probability

pm,l (t − s) = P Z(t) = m|Z(s) = l

9.7 The Classical Yule-Markov Process 209

dpm+1,l (t − s)

= −(m + 1)pm+1,l (t − s) + mpm,l (t − s).

dt

Hence

pm+1,l (t − s) = ··· ds1 · · · dsm−l

s<s1 <···<sm−l <t

× e(s2 −s1 )(l+1) (l + 1)e−(l+1)(s1 −s) .

ηm = 1/m! b+m |0 .

√

b+ ηm = m + 1ηm+1 ,

√

bηm = mηm−1 .

Consider

Ust ηl Φ = (1/j !)ηm fj m (s1 , . . . , sj )a + (ds1 ) · · · a + (dsj )Φ,

j,m

where Φ is the vacuum state of the heat bath, and note that m = l + j , so we have

fj m (s1 , . . . , sj ) = ηm |uts {s1 , . . . , sj }, ∅ |ηl

+ +

= (−i)j ηm |e−bb (t−sj )/2 b+ · · · b+ e−bb (s2 −s1 )/2 b+ e−(s1 −s) ηl

√ √

= (−i)j e−(m+1)(t−sj )/2 m · · · l + 2e−(l+2)(s2 −s1 )/2

√

× l + 1e−(l+1)(s1 −s)/2 .

2

(1/j !) fj m (s1 , . . . , sj )a + (ds1 ) · · · a + (dsj )Φ

Γ

2

= (1/j !) ds1 · · · dsj fj m (s1 , . . . , sj )

2

= ds1 · · · dsj ηm |uts {s1 , . . . , sj }, ∅ ηl = pl,m (t − s).

s<s1 <···<sj <t

210 9 The Amplified Oscillator

Xn = ηn ηn+ ,

+

Xn (t) = U0t Xn U0t = Ut0 Xn U0t .

Φ|Uts Xm Ust |Φ = pm,l (t − s)Xl

l

Proof We have

+ +

Φ ⊗ ηn |Uts Xm Ust |ηl ⊗ Φ = Φ ⊗ ηn | Ust ηm ηm Ust |ηl ⊗ Φ

and

ηm Ust |ηl ⊗ Φ = ηm |uts (σ, ∅)|ηl aσ+ Φ.

σ

Hence

Φ ⊗ ηn |Uts Xm Ust |ηl ⊗ Φ = ηm |uts (τ, ∅)|ηn ηm |uts (σ, ∅)|ηl Φ|aτ aσ+ |Φ λτ .

σ,τ

We continue with

2

= λσ ηm |uts (σ, ∅)|ηl |ηl ηl |δln = pm,l (t − s)δln .

σ

Tr ρ0 ⊗ |Φ Φ|Xm (t1 ) · · · Xm (tp−1 ) Xmp (tp )Xmp−1 (tp−1 ) · · · Xm1 (t1 )

1 p−1

= δm1 ,m1 · · · δmp−1 ,mp−1 Pπ Z(t1 ) = m1 , . . . , Z(tp ) = mp

= δm1 ,m1 · · · δmp−1 ,mp−1 pmp ,mp−1 (tp − tp−1 ) · · · pm2 ,m1 (t2 − t1 )pm1 ,l (t1 )πl

l

πl = P Z(0) = l = ηl |ρ0 |ηl .

Tr ρ0 ⊗ |Φ Φ|Xm (t) = Tr ρ0 Φ|Ut0 Xm U0t |Φ

9.7 The Classical Yule-Markov Process 211

= Trρ0 pm,l (t)Xl

= pm,l (t)Trρ0 Xl = πl pm,l (t).

We calculate

Tr ρ0 ⊗ |Φ Φ|Xm1 (t1 ) · · · Xmp−1 (tp−1 ) Xmp (tp )Xmp−1 (tp−1 ) · · · Xm1 (t1 )

t t t

= Tr ρ0 Φ|Ut01 Xm1 Utt21 · · · Utp−1

p−2

Xmp−1 Utpp−1 Xmp Utp−1p

· · · Utt12 Xm1 U0t1 |Φ

t t

= Tr ρ0 u0t1 (∅, τ1 )Xm1 utt12 (∅, τ2 ) · · · utp−2

p−1

(∅, τp−1 )Xmp−1 utp−1 p

(∅, τp )

t

× Xmp utpp−1 (σp , ∅) · · · utt21 (σ2 , ∅)Xm1 ut01 (σ1 , ∅)

Uts = ust (σ, τ )aσ+ aτ λτ

and

+ +

ust (σ, τ ) = uts (σ, τ ) = uts (τ, σ ) .

As tτ1 +···+τp−1 ⊂ [0, tp−1 ] and tτp ⊂ [tp−1 , tp ], and tσ1 +···+σp−1 ⊂ [0, tp−1 ] and

tσp ⊂ [tp−1 , tp ], we may, under the integral, replace (see Lemma 8.5.1)

by

Φ|aτ1 +···+τp−1 aσ+1 +···+σp−1 |Φ λτ1 +···+τp−1 Φ|aτp aσ+p |Φ λτp .

We split the integral, and perform first the integral over the second factor to obtain

(∅, τp )Xmp utpp−1 (σp , ∅)Φ|aτp aσ+p |Φ λτp

t t

utp−1

p

t t

= Φ|Utpp−1 Xmp Utp−1

p

|Φ = Xl pmp ,l (tp − tp−1 ).

l

t

= pmp ,l (tp − tp−1 ) Tr ρ0 u0t1 (∅, τ1 )Xm1 utt12 (∅, τ2 ) · · · utp−2

p−1

(∅, τp−1 )

l

t

Xmp−1 Xl Xmp−1 utp−1

p−2

(σp−1 , ∅) · · · utt21 (σ2 , ∅)Xm1 ut01 (σ1 , ∅)

212 9 The Amplified Oscillator

Using

Xmp−1 Xl Xmp−1 = δmp ,mp−1 δmp−1 ,l Xmp−1

one finishes the proof.

Corollary 9.7.1 We have by the result above, that for t1 < · · · < tp

Xm (tp ) · · · Xm (t1 )|ηl ⊗ Φ 2 = Pl Z(tp ) = mp , . . . , Z(t1 ) = m1 ,

p 1 Γ

Chapter 10

Approximation by Coloured Noise

by coloured noise using the singular coupling limit.

(QSDE)

U (0) = 1

where Ai (i = −1, 0, 1) and B are in B(k). Assuming that U (t) is a power series in

a and a + , we write

K(t) = A1 a † (t) + A0 a † (t)a(t) + A−1 a(t) + B,

where :· · ·: stands for normal ordering, and is also denoted by Oa · · · . This is Ac-

cardi’s normal ordered form of the QSDE. The solution was given by an infinite

series in Sect. 8.2:

∞

U (t) = 1 + ··· dt1 · · · dtn :K(tn ) · · · K(tn ):.

n=1 0<t1 <···<tn <t

Recall

K = Ks (R, k).

If f, g ∈ K , then f |U (t)|g is well defined, as the infinite sum on the right-hand

side contains only finitely many terms.

Quantum white noise is called “white”, because the correlation function

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2_10,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

214 10 Approximation by Coloured Noise

and the δ-function has a white spectrum, i.e., its Fourier transform is constant.

“Coloured” noise means, that the spectrum of the correlation function is not white.

We will understand by coloured noise that we make the replacements

a(t) ⇒ a ϕ t ,

a † (t) ⇒ a + ϕ t ,

a + (dt) ⇒ a + ϕ t dt,

Then we define

a ϕt = dsϕ t (s)a(s),

+

a (ϕt ) = dsϕ (s)a (s) =

t †

dsϕ t (s)a + (ds).

So

t

a ϕt : K → K , a ϕ f (t1 , . . . , tn ) = dt ϕ t (t0 )f (t0 , t1 , . . . , tn )

+ t

a+ ϕt : K → K , a ϕ f (t1 , . . . , tn ) = ϕ t (t1 )f (t2 , . . . , tn ) + · · ·

+ ϕ t (tn )f (t1 , . . . , tn−1 ).

The quantities a(ϕ t ) and a + (ϕ t ) are called coloured noise operators. The correla-

tion function is

∅|a ϕ s a + ϕ t |∅ = dr ϕ(r − t)ϕ(r − s) = k(t − s)

2

dt eiωt k(t) = dt ϕ(t)eiωt ,

a function vanishing at ∞.

We want to perform the singular coupling limit limit already used in Chap. 4,

and put

1 s −t

ϕε (s) = ϕ

t

.

ε ε

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation 215

a ϕεt → γ a(δt ) = γ a(t),

a + ϕεt → γ a + (δt ) = γ a + (t),

γ = ϕ(s) ds.

∅|a ϕεs a + ϕεt |∅ = kε (t − s),

kε (t − s) = dr ϕ tε (r)ϕεs (r)dr = kε (t − s),

1 t −s

kε (t − s) = k → dr k(r) δ(t − s),

ε ε

dr k(r) = |γ |2 .

Uε (0) = 1,

Hε (t) = M1 a + ϕεt + M0 a + ϕεt a ϕεt + M−1 a ϕεt .

2

M0 dt ϕ(t) /2 < 1.

such that U (t) satisfies a QSDE with right-hand side K(t) of standard form, which

can be explicitly give as

216 10 Approximation by Coloured Noise

with

γ |γ |2 M0 γ

A1 = M1 , A0 = , A−1 = M−1 ,

1 − κM0 1 − κM0 1 − κM0

κ

B = M−1 M1

1 − κM0

and

∞ ∞

γ= dt ϕ(t), κ= k(t)dt = dt ds ϕ(s − t)ϕ(s).

0 0

We use a trick common in quantum field theory and introduce artificial time

dependence in the Mi , and so we write Mi (t) instead of Mi . Then we define

Hε (t) = M1 (t)a + ϕεt + M0 (t)a + ϕεt a ϕεt + M−1 (t)a ϕεt .

Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 ) = Ot :L(I1 ) · · · L(Im ):.

{I1 ,...,Im }∈Pn

L {t1 } = Hε (t1 ),

and, for l ≥ 2,

L {t1 , . . . , tl }

= M0 (tl ) · · · M0 (t2 )M1 (t1 )a + ϕεtl + M0 (tl ) · · · M0 (t1 )a + ϕεtl a ϕεt1

+ M−1 (tl )M0 (tl−1 ) · · · M0 (t1 )a ϕεt1 + M−1 (tl )M0 (tl−1 ) · · · M0 (t2 )M1 (t1 )

× kε (tl − tl−1 ) · · · kε (t2 − t1 ).

Ot is the time-ordering operator for the Mi and the k(tj − ti ), i.e., all monomials in

Mi are ordered in such a way that the first factor is dependent on tn and so on down

to the last one on t1 , and similarly k(ti − tj ) becomes k(tmax (i,j ) − tmin (i,j ) ).

t

from n − 1 to n. For simplicity we drop the indices ε and write a(ϕεj ) = aj and

a + (ϕεj ) = aj+ . Remark, that the ai and aj+ inside normal ordering :· · ·: commute.

t

Then

= M1 (tn )an+ + M0 (tn )an+ an + M−1 (tn )an Ot :L(J1 ) · · · L(Jp ):

{J1 ,...,Jp }∈Pn−1

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation 217

= Ot : M1 (tn )an+ + M0 (tn )an+ an + M−1 (tn )an L(J1 ) · · · L(Jp ):

{J1 ,...,Jp }∈Pn−1

+ M0 (tn )an+ + M−1 (tn ) an , :L(J1 ) · · · L(Jp ):

= Ot :L {n} L(J1 ) · · · L(Jp ):

{J1 ,...,Jp }∈Pn−1

+ M0 (tn )an+ + M−1 (tn )

p

× :L(J1 ) · · · L(Jj −1 ) an , L(Jj ) L(Jj +1 ) · · · L(Jp ): .

j =1

Now

M0 (tn )an+ + M−1 (tn ) an , L {t1 , . . . , tl }

= M0 (tn )an+ + M−1 (tn ) M0 (tl ) · · · M0 (t2 )M1 (t1 )

+ M0 (tl ) · · · M0 (t2 )M0 (t1 )a1 k(tn − tl )k(tl − tl−1 ) · · · k(t2 − t1 )

= L {tn , tl , . . . , t1 } .

So

= Ot :L {n} L(J1 ) · · · L(Jp )

{J1 ,...,Jp }∈Pn−1

p

+ L(J1 ) · · · L(Jj −1 )L Jj + {n} L(Jj +1 ) · · · L(Jp ): .

j =1

element of a partition of [1, n − 1], one obtains the result.

t

1

P (I )(t) = Ot dt1 · · · dtl L(I )(tl , . . . , t1 )

l! 0

then, if #Ii = ni ,

dt1 · · · dtn Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 )

0<t1 <···<tn <t

n1 ! · · · np !

= Ot :P (Ip )(t) · · · P (I1 )(t):.

n!

{I1 ,...,Ip }∈Pn

218 10 Approximation by Coloured Noise

Proof As

Ot :L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ): = Ot : Ot L(I1 ) · · · Ot L(Ip ) :

{I1 ,...,Ip }∈Pn {I1 ,...,Ip }∈Pn

is symmetric in t1 , . . . , tn we obtain

dt1 · · · dtn Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 )

0<t1 <···<tn <t

1 t t

= ··· dt1 · · · dtn Ot :Ot L(I1 ) · · · Ot L(Im ) :.

n! 0 0

{I1 ,...,Ip }∈Pn

We split partitions as

P = Pn + Pn ,

where Pn is the set of non-overlapping partitions, and Pn is the set of overlapping

partitions.

:L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

= ds1 · · · dsp :Fnp (sp , sp−1 )

n1 +···+np =n 0<s1 <···<sp <t

with

Fl (s, r) = dt1 · · · dtl−1 L {s, tl−1 , . . . , t1 } .

r<t1 <···<tl−1 <s

Put

tn1 +1 = t2,1 , . . . , tn1 +n2 −1 = t2,n2 −1 , tn1 +n2 = s2 ,

..

.

tn1 +···+np−1 +1 = tp,1 , . . . , tn−1 = tp,np −1 , tn = sp ,

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation 219

Lemma 10.2.4 Assume, that the Mi are independent of the ti , then for ε ↓ 0

:L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

→ ds1 · · · dsp :Gnp (sp )Gnp−1 (sp−1 ) · · · Gn1 (s1 ):

n1 +···+np =n 0<s1 <···<sp <t

with

Gl (s) = κ l−1 M0l−1 M1 γ a + (s) + M0l |γ |2 a + (s)a(s)

+ M−1 M0l−1 γ a(s) + M−1 M0l−2 M1 1{l ≥ 2}

and

∞ ∞

γ= dt ϕ(t), κ= k(t)dt = dt ds ϕ(s − t)ϕ(s).

0 0

Proof

Fl (s, r) = dt1 · · · dtl−1 L {s, tl−1 , . . . , t1 }

r<t1 <···<tl−1 <s

= dt1 · · · dtl−1 M0l−1 M1 a + ϕεs + M0l a + ϕεs a ϕεt1

r<t1 <···<tl−1 <s

l−1 t1

+ M−1 a ϕε

+ M−1 M0l−2 M1 1{l ≥ 2} kε (s − tl−1 )kε (tl−1 − tl−2 ) · · · kε (t2 − t1 ).

Gl (s) = κ l−1 M0l−1 M1 γ a + (s) + M0l |γ |2 a + (s)a(s)

+ M−1 M0l−1 γ a(s) + M−1 M0l−2 M1 1{l ≥ 2} .

:L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ): → 0.

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

order to simplify the notation, let us assume that the Mi ≥ 0 and ϕ ≥ 0. We have

γ ≥ 0, and κ = γ 2 /2. In Lemma 10.2.1 we need the operators Ot only to arrange

the Mi . As the Mi commute, we may forget the Ot and can assume that the Mi are

independent of t. We put, for #I = l,

Pl (t) = P (I )(t).

220 10 Approximation by Coloured Noise

Then

dt1 · · · dtn Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 )

0<t1 <···<tn <t

1

= :Pn (t) · · · Pn1 (t):

p! p

(n1 ,...,np ):n1 +···+np =n

n!

.

p!n1 ! · · · np !

t

Pl (t) = dt1 · · · dtl L(t1 , . . . , tl ) → ds Gl (s)

0<t1 <···tl <t 0

and

dt1 · · · dtn Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 )

0<t1 <···<tn <t

= dt1 · · · dtn :L(I1 ) · · · L(Im ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I1 ,...,Ip }∈Pn

1

= :Pn (t) · · · Pnp (t):

p! 1

(n1 ,...,np ):n1 +···+np =n

t t t

1

→ : dsp Gnp (sp ) dsp−1 Gnp−1 (sp−1 ) · · · dt1 Gn1 (s1 ):.

p! n 0 0 0

1 +···+np =n

Hence

:L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

= :L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

− :L(I1 ) · · · L(Ip ):

0<t1 <···<tn <t {I ,...,I }∈P

1 p n

→ 0.

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation 221

∞

Uε (t) = 1 + dt1 · · · dtn Hε (tn ) · · · Hε (t1 ).

n=1 0<t1 <···<tn <t

∞

1

f |Uε (t)|g = f |1 + :Pn (t) · · · Pnp (t):|g

p! 1

n=1 ni ≥1:n1 +···+np =n

∞

1

= f |1 + :P (t)p :|g

p!

p=1

with

∞

∞

1 t

P (t) = Pl (t) = dt1 · · · dtl L(t1 , . . . , tl )

l! 0

l=1 l=1

∞

l−1

= M0 M1 a + ϕεtl + M0l a + ϕεtl a ϕεt1

l=1 0<t1 <···tl <t

+ M−1 M0l−1 a ϕεt1 + M−1 M0l−2 1{l ≥ 2}M1

× kε (tl − tl−1 ) · · · kε (t2 − t1 ).

Recall

∞ ∞

γ= dtϕ(t), κ= k(t)dt = dt ds ϕ(s − t)ϕ(s).

0 0

continuous functions of compact support with 0 ≤ f, g ≤ 1, and denote by e(f ) the

function

e(f ) : R → C, e(f ) (t1 , . . . , tn ) = f (t1 ) · · · f (tn ).

Then

∞

e(f )Uε (t)e(g) = ef |g 1 + Pfg (t)p

p=0

where Pfg (t) arises from P (t) by replacing a + (ϕεt ) by f, ϕεt and a(ϕεt ) by ϕεt |g .

So

∞

Pfg (t) =

l=1 0<t1 <···tl <t

l−1

M0 M1 f |ϕεtl + M0l f |ϕεtl ϕεt1 |g + M−1 M0l−1 ϕεt1 |g

222 10 Approximation by Coloured Noise

+ M−1 M0l−2 1{l ≥ 2}M1 kε (tl − tl−1 ) · · · kε (t2 − t1 )

∞

≤t κ l−1 γ M0l−1 M1 + γ 2 M0l + γ M−1 M0l−1 + M−1 M0l−2 1{l ≥ 2}M1

l=1

1

=t γ M1 + γ 2 M0 + γ M−1 M0l−1 + κM−1 M1 .

1 − κM0

So for κM0 = M0 dt ϕ(t)2 /2 < 1,

e(f )Uε (t)e(g) < ∞.

Remark that any continuous function ≥ 0 with compact support on R can be ma-

jorized by a function of the type e(f ).

We proceed now to the general case. Consider for f, g ∈ K , the expression

f |Uε (t)|g . It can be majorized by replacing Mi by Mi , and ϕ by |ϕ|, f by

f and g by g. The preceding discussion implies that, for

2

M0 dt ϕ(t) /2 < 1,

we may take ε ↓ 0 behind the sum and the integrals and obtain, by Lemmata 10.2.4

and 10.2.2,

∞

f |Uε (t)|g = f |1 + ds1 · · · dsp

n=1 ni ≥0,n1 +···+np =n 0<s1 <···<sp <t

∞

= f | ds1 · · · dsp :K(sp )K(sp−1 ) · · · K(s1 ):|g

p=0 0<s1 <···<sp <t

with

∞

K(s) = Gl (s)

l=1

∞

= κ l−1 M0l−1 M1 γ a + (s) + M0l |γ |2 a + (s)a(s)

l=1

+ M−1 M0l−1 γ a(s) + M−1 M0l−2 M1 1{l ≥ 2}

γ |γ |2 M0 + γ

= M1 a + (s) + a (s)a(s) + M−1 a(s)

1 − κM0 1 − κM0 1 − κM0

κ

+ M−1 M1 .

1 − κM0

10.2 Approximation of the Hudson-Parthasarathy Equation 223

Mi ⇒ −iMi ,

γ ⇒ 1,

κ ⇒ 1/2

partitions have been performed in an old paper by P.D.F. Ion and the author [26].

References

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2. L. Accardi, Y.-G. Lu, N. Obata, Towards a non-linear extension of stochastic calculus, in

Publications of the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto, ed. by N. Obata.

RIMS Kôkyûroku, vol. 957 (1996), pp. 1–15

3. L. Accardi, Y.-G. Lu, I.V. Volovich, White noise approach to classical and quantum stochastic

calculus. Preprint 375, Centro Vito Volterra, Università Roma 2 (1999)

4. L. Accardi, Y.-G. Lu, I.V. Volovich, Quantum Theory and Its Stochastic Limit (Springer,

Berlin, 2002)

5. G.E. Andrews, R. Askey, D. Roy, Special Functions (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

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9. N. Bourbaki, Intégration, chap. 6 (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1959)

10. N. Bourbaki, Intégration, chap. 1–4 (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1965)

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12. N. Bourbaki, Algebra I (Springer, Berlin, 1989)

13. N. Bourbaki, Lie Groups and Lie Algebras. Chapters 1–3 (Springer, Berlin, 1989)

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metric boundary problem in Fock space. Infin. Dimens. Anal. Quantum Probab. 1, 175–199

(1998)

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(1953)

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575 (1997)

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Phys. 113(N2), 276–284 (1997)

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Commun. Math. Phys. 222(1), 181–200 (2001)

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

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Thesis, Milano, 2000

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Wiener process, in Random Fields, Vols. I, II, Esztergom, 1979. Colloq. Math. Soc. Janos

Bolyai, vol. 27 (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 551–568

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sen Quantenrauschens, in Probability Measures on Groups. Proceedings, Oberwolfach, 1981.

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28. L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifschitz, Lehrbuch der theoretischen Physik IV. Quantenelektodynamik

(Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1986)

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32. L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press,

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Index

Symbols E

A† , 38 Exponential function, 33

E(1; 2, 3), 99 Exponential measure, 33

W (t), 161

Λ(1, . . . , k), 111 F

Θ(t), 68 Fock space, vi, 25

E|, 62 Formal time, 68

B (F ), ix, 125 Free algebra, 1

O (F ), 125

L∗ , 64 G

L† , 64 Gaussian functional, 11

ε(υ, α), 102 Gelfand-Vilenkin, 74

εx , viii Generalized eigenvector, 55, 73

a † , 38

|E , 62 H

Γk , 145 Hilbert transform, 76

B (F, G), 126 Hudson-Ion, 180

C 1 , 117, 129 Hudson-Parthasarathy, 139, 152, 213

Hudson-Parthasarathy equation, xiv, 139, 213

A

Accardi, 139, 213 I

Admissible, 105 Ito’s theorem, 131

Amplified oscillator, xiii, 88, 144

K

B Krein’s formula, 55

Berezin, ix, 180

L

C Lorentz-distribution, 68

Cauchy-distribution, 68

Coloured noise, x, 214 M

Maassen, vi, 27

D Maassen-Meyer-kernels, vi, 27

Damped oscillator, xi, 57, 61 Mandel-Wolf, 180

Delta-function, viii Meyer, vi, 27, 127

Diffusion, 97 Multisets, 12

Lecture Notes in Physics 878, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-45082-2,

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

228 Index

N Right shift, 68

Normal ordered, v, ix, 16, 139, 213 Rotating wave approximation, xi, 59

Number operator, ix

Number process, 144 S

Schwartz derivative, 120

O Semilinear, 64

Obata, vi Semilinear functional, 62

One-parameter group, 41 Singular coupling limit, x, 61, 63, 213

generator, 43 Spectral Schwartz distribution, 48, 71, 87, 92,

Hamiltonian, 44 95

resolvent, 42 Sum-integral lemma, 26, 28

unitary, 43

T

P

Test function, 47

Point measure, viii

Two-level atom, xi, 57, 141

Polarized radiation, xi, 143

Pseudoresolvent, 39

Pure number process, xiii V

Vague convergence, 27

Q

Quantum white noise, viii W

Weyl algebra, v, 1

R White noise, 213

Resolvent, 39 Wick’s theorem, xiv, 5, 17, 20, 107, 181

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