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irHii*tAct€€i

= E?

igA;

i; $;ii!$ ErsEg

*

g*IHas;l

ilErrtea;

!P::!{TE*t

E;laa q aE+FE*g*

g$s,il- ;ajEIliBiag

;aEEIETEialIsigaiE;

$EEfrit+3ietgFii;iiE::

ai;ieiil EEe?aBfEE

Fieig$rrsg;giE

B

w2

4"

s

ia

d p

o

rt

0

+r g

G.

HsrNvdssuf,rilrloNvcrrf,NoHdsaNnos

:'::i.I

:

U[IJ['IVdI

[ul

lq1

rdl

Iql

(ruOllt NI

NOTIISOa

HStNVdS

HSINVdS

UAHIO

f,.IdI^[VXT

vdI

ST'IdhMXT

1p ur

suonrsodoueur'en8e

[cueru]'[em,te]

:IslIesef,'or3)

ulernlosqs

uonrsod

reryuu

IspIuI

uIuoppodroparq

oJrrBq

soqruE

Ie'Jslq"q

oilsq

lcaheql

lscqu"l

[c1refia] '[retde]

"uaq:FlI Uq:8uil

eurquror:Sug

bogo3:rag

[ueur$fl uauun/rl{f,s

n'o 'o etogag **f4l

*[g]

aroJeqapve

!

sIIIraO

sunt'Io)Eref,

[e[tese]

[eun1] '[1c4u.ru1]

qurnql'8urqt:8ug

:lslJ'"s?f,'errrof,eIInf,

:Euge{er

, [utyrsas] :{Iullpe3 eqlrelteleroJeq,apuezsrpef,unouordsE?a1du4s'[s] 'eruelrv q,s.--uprl :

eQI**preqa

lsnur [l]

eq'petzrldseun

Lbl

urgesqoppod

r{)nur'ol{t

oroqf,

[crrcJt]'[cJtefinu]

'daururqc :8ug

dueqr

lpl

tpl

tpl

ulernlosqs

uorlrsod

r4!eu

l ralJB

IBpIu[

'rolopugop

Bpler'epln

opuq 'apuop

[erfcp]'Irc1cp]

lepl3gl'[aprp]

lcpuql'[3pucp]

r8ugeruTp'roop

IruurEp :[sll

pepuet:8uu

tuoples:8uI

.!!

o

CL

f

c

.9

.9

IIITTII

LETTER

d

(cont.)

IPA

ldl

[e]

POSITIO\

IN WORD

in interior position (except after nor I)

in

all

positions

tfl

in

all positions

tgl

[x]

tvl

lvl

tgl

in initial position before d, o ,'t before e, i in interior position before a, o, u in other interior positions spelled gue and gui' in initial position

tvl spelled gue and gui in interior position

tSI

after nasal [4]

SILENT

In Latin America, the lxl sound ofjand

SP.NSH

E)({MPLE

nada, los dedos

elefante

t'6bula,refresco

garo, gora, $rsto

genio, gltano haga, luego, agudo desgracia, el gato,la gota g'uerra,guitarra

aguerrido, 6guila

SPANISH

IPA

[nada], flczdeOcs]

Ielefante]

lfagulal,lrefreskc]

[gatc], [gcta], [gustc]

[xenjc],[xitanc]

layal, [weyc],

layudcl

ldezyraOjal

[elYatc],[laYctal

[gena],[gitana]

[averri6c], [avila]

OTHER

EXAMPI.ES

Eng:

this, that

Eng: well

Ital: bella

Eng:fit, frank

Ital: galante, gola Eng: gate, goat' good Ger: Bach,Buch No example available; not used in other languages.

Eng: guess,guilt

Fr: baguette, d6guisement

bilingue, linguistica tbilir1gwel,[liqgwistika]Eng: hunger

hogar, hablar

[cvar], [aPlar]

Ital: ho, hai, hanno

g (before eand i)would be softened to a Pronounced [h]'

I

 

: .t-_'r' '

'

 

,t

[1

in all positions

isla,fila, mani

Lial

asonglide

piano

Liel

as onglide

tiene

Url

as onglide

adi6s

Liul

asonglide

viuda

lajl

as offglide

baile

lejl

as olFglide

peine

tcjl

asoffglide

boina

lujl

asoffglide

cuitada

[x]

initial and interior

JOVen, maJo

lkl

Not really a Spanish

kil6metro,

letter. Usedonly in foreign names and words.

wisky

Ul

in all positions

litro, alto, mil

,:1.!.i::,.

r::1 ti:r:::"li

i

lizlal, Filal, [mani]

Ital: vino, cosi

lpjancl

Eng: bee,seem Ital: pianta

ltjenel

Ital: pieno

Iadjcs]

Ital: piove

[bjuda]

Ital: Iiume

lbajlel

Ital: mai

[pejne]

Ital: lei

lbojnal

Ital: poi

lkujta0al

Ital: lui

[xcBen],[maxc]

Gen Bach. Buch

Ikilcmetrc],

Eng: kill

lwiskil

[itro], [alto], [mil]

Ital: molto,

frla

In Spanish,we use the alveolar [].

[]1, which cannot be used in Spanish. Therefore, only Italian examplesare given.

English examplesare not given, becausein American speech,we use the "dark"

\9

g.

f

Ol

OJ

OJ

=

J

r

i-'

q

4r-

a

a' :r

c-

:

d'

=L

:J

uf,,Lttrt

I{OIIISOd

VdINI

(nIOA\

I{SINVdS

HSINVdS

TIdhIvXU

VdI

USHIO

strIdIlIVxa

iltYIIEpIq

pus

rolretuleilI^es'ftroll

[eyflas]'[rercy]

:pr1elltour'o118g

.spunos "r"tggf"

uIr,{l

[[p]"ro1ep1

uIqneT

[ll eqr 'ecuoury

lsoru

stdpsoturo'pasnsllesolJ

eql 'saluurolp

Jo1znue3

,as72q eqlrtolpro

pporn 'onoqw

aqpaf,unouo,rduI

I

olpalpu

ufrraurvs?

.tclederl]

e^ .?ruoury uF".I Jo r*i

toueae

.tc"teCel]

aag)

ro [cfpe$u4] reoq

-up"'Iu"f,Lreurv('srue!:en

ds{l'tctpptrBweql

DIreal?Idlrentsaeuqua8rygopue

[cgeflq] 'iun8nrn

-radeq311

[tu]IEpIul

pue

ropatqraJaueure'ouetu

[ragauuuu]'[cueru]

:8ux'uEruuauro

,1

u

[u]leug'rorralul'Iepltq

urJ'otreur'eu?u

[u]

[u]

aroJaq

unoluetuour *uoll"IFrrrsss Aq

tn FIqBItq aroJeq

'alqerouraurur.

JaqlosIEIqEIIqtmun'osaqorod

tful

t01

*uoPEIIruIsse /,q(q Pwe 4)

ituoEeIIIuIssB Aq

oloJeq

/pruaporqel

rm'outogiurror\"J

eJoJeq.relaA

[x]'[6] 'Hl

$u?uosuo)'of,url'aJBuEs

srqurefue

'[Bueu]'[cusu]

llnJl

:tugrreur'etueu

lc{cduml '[cs3qum]

:[sll

uof,oloru'

Icpaurcrurun] 'Ialflercuraurun]

:1zll

unun'eureodorf,Eg

[rcfeytun] '[cua[tr4]

'[c{ttg]'[ar6tres]

Iarqutexfta]

:1ut1un'preJt4oIrJ

anSues 'enburc :pl1 Sueq lurqr:8uX

'i:u?Ilal1IseoplournfJouIualods-gern'qqlEuX

eos*:jroldeq3

6

'uopeltrrrssv -

ue5ellsaldurexaele

'uarr8esnetreqerpuonellurrsse

uoueurouaqdoslgsrnf,f,our

[dt1ep1ul

puerorJelw

logedse'oteg'[ctefj

[lcrfedsa]

uo/uer:8ug

ou8os:1u11

oqf::rqsruedg

b

:l

"

.'

[c]

u1gesuoFrsodolod'ono

[cacd]'[crc]

tdlIBpIq

pue

rolretulrapuerde'oged'[ciled]

[rapuarde]

d

t{

e{{sll

us1"tl'ursnol

sr'palerldszun

lPrlrur ur

palledsmbpueanb

prrsrouelr4

suoDrsod

'1enbz'osrnb

ouqmbur

'rulrnb'-ra-ranb

'[csg4]'[1a1e]

lr3r3{l'[J?lH]

lcqrqtrl

[.rl

lrI

lrl

lrI

[.r]

uIuonpodpplq

(pe11or)

te$e

(pa1lor) I'u's

aroJaqluet:osuof

n" relrFe

s

(pa11or)

(pe11or) IEug

Jeqloslu?uosuo)

tdarxatou's

(padd$) 7

'ofol

ourer

'Iesrsl'Jopepeqe

'.racaforue

ueoqr[nJ

olror'olred

rglugc'.reure

'reerl'rslsard

'epaJpe'ret^arqB

'apue-rE'ou;

Elqen

[cuur]'[cxcr]

'[I3e.|zI]'[rce3e3{u]

Icqumrua] '[ragaxcrua]

d][suc{]'[3u

]Futus{l'[retu

'[rerardl'[rEaq]

l'fsprg'[re[fla$e]

'[cu;]'[apue.r6]

IsJuIen]

:qsp-rJgro8'rod

:1u11esods'esoo

:aded'r1d:8ug

:1v11otsodsrp'erelod

'aqcpb:3ug'ter1

orpbsour

:.rga11anbe1'a11aranb

per:qsllJg

:qsqugs1uo'rqEgpar

or88er:pt1

:[stlulreJ'elJod

:qspFga118e-rJ'luasard

Jof,:lsu

.+{

6

r/1

rE C

v'l

h

ro

.9

J

.F

.9

r/l

ro

q

.g

c

c

.9

rO

rtttltlrrrul

I"ETTER

r

(conL)

IPA

lrl

[rrl

lsl

lsl

Izl

ttl

POSITION

n; WORD

SP-{\-ISH

EXA\{PLE

between vowels

(fiipped)

era, carar llura

interior posidons only

carro, horror

initial. interior, final between vowels

before voiced consonan8 mismo, desde,

solo, salsa, jamis

casa. cosa

in aword or word group

by assimilation

muslo,losbesos,

mis labios

initial and interior

tonto, batata

SPA'\IISH

IPA

[era], [kara], [mira]

[karrc], [crrcr]

[sclc], [salsa], [xamas] lkasal, [kcsa] lmizrnc], ldezde],

[lczpescs]'

!*Yt".]:

[mizlapjcs]

[tcntr], [batata]

OTHER

EXAMPIJS

Ital: amore

Ital: terrore

Eng: soul, salad Eng: case ItaL sdegno, smania

Ital: tutto, tanto

Thespanish'mustbeunaspirated'Forthatreason,noEnglishexarnpleisgiven.

u tul

[wa]

[we]

[wi]

[wa]

Ibl

,,:,i

tbl

initial and interior

asonglide

asonglide

asonglide

asonglide

in absolute initial position

'j,, .rr.a.i.:

after n

:

i.i:.'

::'i. :

I

:

.l

F] in interior position in a word, word group or breath phrase

uno, fortuna

cuatro

truevo

huida

quota

vrno, vaso

envejecer,un vaso

[unc], [fcrtuna]

[kwatrc]

lweFcl

Iwidal

lkwctal

[binc], lbasc]

ltal: luna, mula Eng: boom, zoom

ItaL quasi

Ital: questo

Ital:

Ital: cuore Eng: quote

Eng: quart

Eng: quest

Eng: quit

qui

Eng: book

lembexeOer],[umbascl

lavar, calzr [apar], tkaparl Colloq Ger: Schwester

los vinos, los vasos

ftczpincs], llczpascs]

[Jpester]

gl

=

(D

a-

0

Ol

C

oJ

lr1

f,.

q

=.

a]

6'

4.

The letter u is mostly pronounced tbl or tFl. The [v] sounds survivesin Ladino (seeChapter 12) and is heard

occasionallyin Latin American speech.

[w]

[s]

[ksl

i Lil

ldrl

Not really a Spanish letrcr. Used only in foreign names and words

wisky,Walter

lwiskil, [walter]

in initial position

xenofobia,

lsencfcPjal,

 

xerocopia

[serckopja]

in interior position

taxi, examen

ltaksil,Ieksamen]

initial, interior, final

yo,vaya,lray

[ic],

[baja],

[aj]

after nor I

inyectar, ei yemo

[indrektar],

[eldserncl

Eng: water, west

Eng: tax, lax

Eng: yes,crayon Eng: judge, algae

One hearsin Spain and in Latin America,tor yo raya,fd3c-badSal. Those in Argentina and Uruguay, in the River Plateestuary,will pronounce it [3c-Ba3al, and the trend to unvoice thesesounds is ever more evidenL asin tJc-BaJaJ. The final y, however, is pronounced [j] everywhere'

z [0]

tzl

initial, interior, final

zarza, caqaa

[Oar8a],[kapaO]

before voiced consonants hazlo, feliz dia

[azlc], [felizdia]

In Latin America, the interdental [0] sound hasgiven way to a simple [s] (seeChapter

Eng: thumb, thing Eng: his love, has done

11).

(n
E

.o

-

=

a.

+.

-I