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tuoples:8uI lepl3gl'[aprp] Bpler'epln l ralJB tpl

pepuet:8uu lcpuql'[3pucp] opuq 'apuop u r4!e tpl


c uorlrsod
.9 IruurEp :[sll
eruTp'roop r8ug [erfcp]'Irc1cp] ugop 'rolop IBpIu[ ernlosqs ul lpl
.9
f
dueqr 'daururqc :8ug [crrcJt]'[cJtefinu] oroqf, 'ol{t€r{)nur sqoppod ge ur Lbl
o
CL
'petzrldseun eq lsnur [l] a preq eQI** ,
.!!
[utyrsas]ullpe3 :{I '[s] a1du4s? sEpef,unouord sr z pue a eroJeq, reltel eql 'eruelrv uprl q,s.--:
eIInf, 'errrof, '"s?f, :lslJ
e{er :Eug [eun1] '[1c4u.ru1] sunt'Io)Eref, n'o 'o etogag **f4l
qurnql'8urqt:8ug [e[tese] sIIIraO ! pve a aroJeq *[g]
[ueur$fl uauun/rl{f,s
:rag bogo3 [c1refia] '[retde] oilsq Ie'Jslq"q uoppodroparq uI rdl
eurquror:Sug lscqu"l soqruE u reryu Iql
uonrsod
"uaq:FlI oJrrBq IspIuI ernlosqs ul lq1
Uq:8uil lcaheql
esef,'or3) :IslI [cueru]'[em,te] oueur'en8e suonrsod 1p ur [ul
ST'IdhMXT vdI f,.IdI^[VXT (ruOllt NI VdI U[IJ['I
... I :..:' ::i .
UAHIO HSINVdS HStNVdS NOTIISOa
saNnos crrf,NoHd oNv suf,rilrl HsrNvds
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0

Fieig$rrsg;gi
+r
g
o
rt

ai;ieiil
BfEEEEe?a
ia
d
p ii;iiE:: etgF3i€+
t friEE$€
s4"
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IsigaiE;
Eial;aEEIET
g$s,il-
w2 ilErrtea;Biag;ajEIli
g*IHas;l
E;laa
qaE+FE*g*
;$;ii!$ t ! P: : ! {TE *
Er sEg
i
Hii*tAct
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IIITTII

POSITIO\ SP.NSH SPANISH OTHER \9

LETTER IPA IN WORD E)({MPLE IPA EXAMPI.ES

in interior position nada, los dedos [nada], flczdeOcs] Eng: this, that
d ldl g.
(cont.) (except after nor I) f

in all positions elefante Ielefante] Eng: well


[e]
Ital: bella Ol

OJ
in all positions t'6bula, refresco lfagulal,lrefreskc] Eng:fit, frank
tfl

in initial position garo, gora, $rsto [gatc], [gcta], [gustc] Ital: galante, gola
tgl OJ
=
before d, o ,'t Eng: gate, goat' good
before e, i genio, gltano [xenjc], [xitanc] Ger: Bach, Buch J
r
[x]
in interior position haga, luego, layal, [weyc], No example available;
tvl i-'
before a, o, u agudo layudcl not used in other q
in other interior desgracia, ldezyraOjal languages.
lvl 4r-

positions el gato, la gota [elYatc], [laYctal a

spelled gue and gui' g'uerra,guitarra [gena],[gitana] Eng: guess,guilt


tgl
in initial position
spelled gue and gui aguerrido, 6guila [averri6c], [avila] Fr: baguette, d6guisement
tvl
in interior position
tSI after nasal [4] bilingue, linguistica tbilir1gwel,[liqgwistika]Eng: hunger

hogar, hablar [cvar], [aPlar] Ital: ho, hai, hanno


SILENT

In Latin America, the lxl sound ofjand g (before eand i)would be softened to a Pronounced [h]'

: .t-_'r' '...' ,:1.!.i::,.


r::1 ti:r:::"li i
,t

[1 in all positions isla, fila, mani lizlal, Filal, [mani] Ital: vino, cosi
Eng: bee, seem
Lial as onglide piano lpjancl Ital: pianta
Liel as onglide tiene ltjenel Ital: pieno
Url as onglide adi6s Iadjcs] Ital: piove
Liul as onglide viuda [bjuda] Ital: Iiume
lajl as offglide baile lbajlel Ital: mai
lejl as olFglide peine [pejne] Ital: lei
tcjl as offglide boina lbojnal Ital: poi
lujl as offglide cuitada lkujta0al Ital: lui

[x] initial and interior JOVen,maJo [xcBen],[maxc] Gen Bach. Buch

lkl Not really a Spanish kil6metro, Ikilcmetrc], Eng: kill


letter. Used only in wisky lwiskil
foreign names and words.

I Ul in all positions litro, alto, mil [itro], [alto], [mil] Ital: molto, frla a'
:r
In Spanish,we use the alveolar []. English examples are not given, becausein American speech,we use the "dark"
c-
[]1,which cannot be used in Spanish. Therefore, only Italian examples are given. :
d'
=L
:J
rO Elqen
IsJuIen]
'[apue.r6]'[cu;] 'apue-rE'ou;
'[re[fla$e] 'fsprg€l 'ret^arqB 'epaJpe (padd$) 7 tou's tdarxa
c a118e-rJ'luasard
:qspFg '[rEaq] '[rerardl 'reerl'rslsard slu?uosuo) Jeqlo n" relrFe
.9 lrI
Jof,:lsu Futus{l'[retu€] rglugc'.reure (pe11or)IEug s€ [.r]
c (pa11or)
ulreJ'elJod :[stl [suc{]'[3u€d] olror'olred luet:osuof aroJaq lrl
Icqumrua] oqr[nJ ue
.g
'[ragaxcrua] '.racaforue
ro par uo'rqEg s1:qsqug '[rce3e3{u]'[I3e.|zI] 'Jopepeqe 'Iesrsl (pa1lor)I'u's te$e lrI
q
r/l or88er:pt1 (pe11or)
per:qsllJg [cuur]'[cxcr] ourer 'ofol uonpodpplq uI [.rl
.' :l
a11anbe1'a11aranb
:.rg lcqrqtrl ouqmbur suoDrsod "
orpbsour lr3r3{l'[J?lH] '-ra-ranb'rulrnb rouelr4 prrs lPrlrur ur
'ter1'aqcpb:3ug '[1a1e] '[csg4] '1enbz'osrnb anb pue mb palleds t{ b
'palerldszun sr 'ursnol us1"tl sll e{{ d qsruedgoqf::r
otsodsrp'erelod :1v11
:aded'r1d:8ug [rapuarde] '[ciled] rapuerde'oged rolretul pue IBpIq tdl
esods'esoo:1u11
ro8'rod :qsp-rJg [cacd]'[crc] olod'ono suoFrsodge u1 [c]
ou8os:1u11
uo/uer:8ug [lcrfedsa] '[ctefj logedse'oteg rorJelw pue 1ep1ul [dt
'qqlEuX ualods-gern uI rnfJo lou seop 1I :u?Ilal 'i
ur srnf,f,o oslg uoueurouaqd uonellurrsseerp esnetreq'uarr8 ele saldurexa ue5ell 'uopeltrrrssv - 6 roldeq3 eos*:j
,1
anSues'enburc :pl1 Iarqutexfta] srqurefue [x]'[6] 'Hl
Sueq lurqr:8uX '[ar6tres]'[c{ttg] 'aJBuEs'of,url $u?uosuo).relaAeJoJeq t01
ituoEeIIIuIssBAq
oIrJ un'preJt4 :1ut1 [rcfeytun]'[cua[tr4] ror\"J rm'outogiur /pruaporqel oloJeq tful
.F
.9 *uoPEIIruIsse/,q(q Pwe4)
orf,Egun'eureod un :1zll lc{cduml '[cs3qum] orod un'osaq tm sIEIqEIIqJaqlo aroJaq [u]
.9
Icpaurcrurun] oluetuour un *uoll"IFrrrsss Aq
J
' oloru uof, :[sll 'Ialflercuraurun] 'alqerouraurur. tn FIqBItq aroJeq [u]
rreur'etueu :tug leug'rorralul'Iepltq [u] u
ro
llnJl '[cusu] '[Bueu] urJ'otreur'eu?u
v'l
uauro'uEru:8ux [ragauuuu]'[cueru] raJaueure'ouetu ropatq pue IEpIul [tu]
h
('srue!:en u"f,Lreurv up"'I - 11 -radeq3 aag)
C
rE .tc"teCel] ueae to w ptrB 'tctp€ds{l ro [cfpe$u4]reoq
[cgeflq] 'iun8nrn pue euqua8rygo lrentsa al?Id re DI eql
.tclederl] s? ufrraurv 1znue3 Jo lsoru pu€ olpal I uI paf,unouo,rd aq pporn 'onoqw
e^ .?ruoury uF".I Jo r*i r,{l uI
6 ,as72qtolpro r eql .spunos eqr 'ecuoury qneT uI
1ep1"ro [[p] eql 'saluurolp esolJ sll ro'pasn dpsotu st [ll
"r"tggf"
r/1
:pr1
elltour'o118g [eyflas]'[rercy] eilI^es'ftroll rolretul pus IEpIq tYI il
strIdIlIVxa VdI TIdhIvXU (nIOA\ NI VdI uf,,Lttrt
.+{ I{SINVdS I{OIIISOd
USHIO HSINVdS
rtttltlr rrul

SP-{\-ISH SPA'\IISH OTHER


POSITION
EXA\{PLE IPA EXAMPIJS
I"ETTER IPA n; WORD

era, carar llura [era], [kara], [mira] Ital: amore gl


r lrl between vowels
=
(conL) (fiipped) (D
a-

carro, horror [karrc], [crrcr] Ital: terrore 0

[rrl interior posidons only


Ol

initial. interior, final solo, salsa,jamis [sclc], [salsa], [xamas] Eng: soul, salad C
lsl Eng: case
oJ

lsl between vowels casa. cosa lkasal, [kcsa]


lmizrnc], ldezde], ItaL sdegno, smania
Izl before voiced consonan8 mismo, desde, lr1

in a word or word group muslo,los besos, !*Yt".]: [lczpescs]' f,.

by assimilation mis labios [mizlapjcs] q

Ital: tutto, tanto



=.
ttl initial and interior tonto, batata [tcntr], [batata] a]

6'
4.
Thespanish'mustbeunaspirated'Forthatreason,noEnglishexarnpleisgiven.

uno, fortuna [unc], [fcrtuna] ltal: luna, mula


u tul initial and interior
Eng: boom, zoom
cuatro [kwatrc] ItaL quasi Eng: quart
[wa] as onglide
truevo lweFcl Ital: questo Eng: quest
[we] as onglide
Iwidal Ital: qui Eng: quit
[wi] as onglide huida
quota lkwctal Ital: cuore Eng: quote
[wa] as onglide

vrno, vaso [binc], lbasc] Eng: book


Ibl in absolute initial
position

,,:,i 'j,,.rr.a.i.:..:..i.i:.' ::'i. : I : .l

tbl after n envejecer,un vaso lembexeOer],[umbascl


in interior position lavar, calzr [apar], tkaparl Colloq Ger: Schwester
F]
in a word, word group los vinos, los vasos ftczpincs], llczpascs] [Jpester]
or breath phrase

The letter u is mostly pronounced tbl or tFl. The [v] sounds survivesin Ladino (see Chapter 12) and is heard
occasionallyin Latin American speech.

[w] Not really a Spanish wisky, Walter lwiskil, [walter] Eng: water, west
letrcr. Used only in
foreign names and words

[s] in initial position xenofobia, lsencfcPjal,


xerocopia [serckopja]
[ksl in interior position taxi, examen ltaksil, Ieksamen] Eng: tax, lax

(n
Lil initial, interior, final yo,vaya,lray [ic], [baja], [aj] Eng: yes, crayon E
i
ldrl after nor I inyectar, ei yemo [indrektar], [eldserncl Eng: judge, algae
.o
One hears in Spain and in Latin America,tor yo raya,fd3c-badSal. Those in Argentina and Uruguay, in the River
Plate estuary,will pronounce it [3c-Ba3al,and the trend to unvoice these sounds is ever more evidenL as in -
=
tJc-BaJaJ.The final y, however, is pronounced [j] everywhere' a.
+.
z [0] initial, interior, final zarza, caqaa [Oar8a],[kapaO] Eng: thumb, thing
tzl before voiced consonants hazlo, feliz dia [azlc], [felizdia] Eng: his love, has done

In Latin America, the interdental [0] sound has given way to a simple [s] (see Chapter 11). -I

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