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SASMO 2014 Round 1 Secondary 1 Solutions

1. Find the next term of the following sequence: 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, …

Solution

From the third term onwards, the next term is obtained by adding the previous two
terms.
 the next term is 4 + 7 = 11.

Note: These are called Lucas numbers, which is a particular Lucas sequence.

2. Find the product of the highest common factor and the lowest common multiple of 8
and 12.

Solution

Method 1

For any two natural numbers a and b, HCF(a, b)  LCM(a, b) = ab. [It does not work
for 3 or more numbers.]
 HCF(8, 12)  LCM(8, 12) = 8  12 = 96

Method 2

8 = 23
12 = 22  3
HCF(8, 12) = 22 = 4
LCM(8, 12) = 23  3 = 24
 HCF(8, 12)  LCM(8, 12) = 4  24 = 96

3. Solve for x and y in the following equation .

Solution

Since and cannot be negative for any values of x and y, then the only
way for to be equal to 0 is when = 0 and =
0.
 x = 7 and y = 8

4. The last day of 2013 was a Tuesday. There are 365 days in 2014. In what day of the
week will 2014 end?

Solution

365 days = 52 weeks and 1 day


Since the last day of 2013 was a Tuesday, then the last day of 2014 will be
Wednesday.

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5. What is the maximum number of parts that can be obtained from cutting a circular disc
using 3 straight cuts?

Solution

Maximum number of parts = 7

6. A man bought two paintings and then sold them for $300 each. He made a profit of
20% for the first painting, but a loss of 20% for the second painting. Overall, did he
make a profit, a loss or break even? If he did not break even, state the amount of profit
or loss.

Solution

Profit of 20% for first painting = $300 / 120  20 = $50.


Loss of 20% for second painting = $300 / 80  20 = $75.
 the man lost $25.

7. Solve = 2.

Solution

=2
=4
x+2=4
x=2

8. Given that xyz = 2014, and x, y and z are positive integers such that x < y < z, how
many possible triples (x, y, z) are there?

Solution

2014 = 2  19  53, where 2, 19 and 53 are prime numbers.


 2014 = 1  1  2014
= 1  2  1007
= 1  19  106
= 1  38  53
= 2  19  53
 there are 5 possible pairs (x, y, z).

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9. At a workshop, there are 27 participants. Each of them shakes hand once with one
another. How many handshakes are there?

Solution

The first participant will shake hand with 26 other participants;


the second participant will shake hand with 25 other participants;
the third participant will shake hand with 24 other participants; etc.
Thus total no. of handshakes = 26 + 25 + 24 + … + 3 + 2 + 1

Method 1

1 + 26 = 27
2 + 25 = 27
3 + 24 = 27 13 pairs

13 + 14 = 27

 total no. of handshakes = 27  13 = 351

Method 2

Since 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n = , then total no. of handshakes = = 351

10. A perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive
factors. Proper positive factors of a number are positive factors that are less than the
number. For example, 6 = 1 + 2 + 3 is a perfect number because 1, 2 and 3 are the only
proper positive factors of 6. Find the next perfect number.

Solution

By systematic trial and error from 7 to 28, since 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14, the next
perfect number is 28.

11. The dimensions of a rectangle are x cm by y cm, where x and y are integers, such that
the area and perimeter of the rectangle are numerically equal. Find all the possible
values of x and y.

Solution

Method 1

Area = perimeter
xy  2x  y 
2x
y
x2
Since x  2 > 0, then x > 2.
When x = 3, y = 6.
When x = 4, y = 4.

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When x = 5, y = is not an integer.
When x = 6, y = 3.
If x > 6, y < 3.
2y
By symmetry, x  , i.e. y > 2.
y2
So there are no other solutions.
 the dimensions of all the rectangles with integral sides whose area and perimeter are
numerically equal are 3 by 6, 4 by 4, and 6 by 3.

Method 2

Area = perimeter
xy  2x  y 
2x
y
x2
2x  4  4

x2
2x  2  4

x2
4
 2
x2
Since x  2 > 0, then x > 2.
4
For y to be an integer, must also be an integer.
x2
This means that 4  x – 2, i.e. x  6.
So the only possible solutions are when x = 3, 4, 5 and 6.
When x = 3, y = 6.
When x = 4, y = 4.
When x = 5, y = is not an integer.
When x = 6, y = 3.
 the dimensions of all the rectangles with integral sides whose area and perimeter are
numerically equal are 3 by 6, 4 by 4, and 6 by 3.

12. If a and b are positive integers such that a < b and ab = ba, find a possible value for a
and for b.

Solution

By guess and check, a = 2, b = 4.


In fact, this is the only solution.

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1
13. Find the value of .
 1 
1  2 
1 2 1
  
1

Solution

1 1
Let = x. Then = x, i.e. 2x2 + x  1 = 0.
 1  1  2x
1  2 
  
1 2 1 
1 
 (2x  1) (x + 1) = 0, i.e. x = or 1 (rejected because x > 0)
1
 = .
 1 
1  2 
  
1 2 1 
1 

14. Find the last digit of 20142014.

Solution

Since the last digit of a product ab depends only on the last digit of a and of b, then
4=4
4  4 = 16
6  4 = 24
 the last digit repeats with a period of 2.
Since the index 2014 is even, then the last digit of 20142014 is 6.

15. The diagram shows 9 points. Draw 4 consecutive line segments (i.e. the start point of
the next segment must coincide with the endpoint of the previous segment) to pass
through all the 9 points.

Solution

If you try to draw the line segments within the region bounded by the dots, you will
realise that you need at least 5 consecutive line segments.
 you must draw some of the line segments outside the region as shown:

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16. What are the last 5 digits of the sum 1 + 11 + 111 + … + 111…111?
2014 digits
Solution

Last digit: 2014  4


Second last digit: 2013 + 201 = 2214  4
Third last digit: 2012 + 221 = 2233  3
Fourth last digit: 2011 + 223 = 2234  4
Fifth last digit: 2010 + 223 = 2233  3
 the last 5 digits are 34344.

17. What is the least number of cuts required to cut 10 identical sausages so that they can
be shared equally among 18 people?

Solution

Method 1

Fraction of sausage each person will get = =


This means that there must be at least 10 cuts since no one will get one whole sausage.
Cut each of the 10 sausages at the -mark. Then 10 people will get one sausage each.

There are 10 times sausages left. But each person must get of a sausage.
This means that 2 of the sausages must be cut into 4 equal parts each (i.e. 3 cuts
each) so that the remaining 8 people will get one sausage and one sausage each.
 least no. of cuts = 10 + 3  2 = 16

Method 2

Least number of cuts required to cut one sausage so that it can be shared equally
among n’ people = n’  1
If m’ and n’ are relatively prime, it can be proven by putting the m’ identical sausages
end to end in one row that the least number of cuts required to cut them so that they
can be shared equally among n’ people is still n’  1, i.e. the cuts will not coincide
with the gaps between the sausages.
If m and n are not relatively prime, some cuts will coincide with the gaps between the
sausages, and this occurs at the end of every set of m’ identical sausages, where m =
m’  HCF(m, n) and n = n’  HCF(m, n), i.e. where m’ and n’ are relatively prime.
Thus the least number of cuts required to cut m identical sausages so that they can
be shared equally among n people is (n’  1)  HCF(m, n) = n  HCF(m, n).
In general, this formula is true for any positive integers m and n, even if m and n are
relatively prime since HCF(m, n) = 1 in the latter case.
 least no. of cuts required to cut 12 identical sausages so that they can be shared
equally among 20 people = 18  HCF(10,18)
= 18  2
= 16

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18. Divide the following shape into 4 identical parts.

Solution

The shape actually consists of three identical squares.


But 3 and 4 are relatively prime, so it is not easy to divide the three squares into four
identical parts.
So we divide the shape into LCM(3, 4) = 12 parts.
From the 12 parts, we then try to regroup into 4 identical parts as shown below:

19. Solve the following equation: x5 + 2x3  x2  2 = 0.

Solution

x5 + 2x3  x2  2 = 0
x3(x2 + 2)  (x2 + 2) = 0
(x2 + 2) (x3  1) = 0
Since x2 + 2 > 0, then x3  1 = 0, i.e. x3 = 1.
 x = 1.

Note: If participants solve by guess and check correctly, award 0 mark because they
cannot exclude the possibility that there are other solutions.

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20. Find the value of .

Solution

Method 1

1 + 2014 = 2015
2 + 2013 = 2015
3 + 2012 = 2015 There are 1007 pairs of numbers that add up to 2015

1007 + 1008 = 2015


So 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 2014 = 1007  2015
 =
=

=
= 1007.5

Method 2

Using the formula 1 + 2 + 3 + … + n = , 1 + 2 + 3 + … + 2014 = .


 =
=
= 1007.5

21. In the following cryptarithm, all the letters stand for different digits. Find the values of
A, B, C and D.

A 8 B C
 3 D 9 8
2 0 1 4

Solution

Method 1

In the ones column, C  8 < 4 since C  9, so need to borrow from the tens column.
 10 + C  8 = 4 implies that C = 2.
In the tens column, B  1  9 = B  10 < 1 since B  9, so need to borrow from the
hundreds column.
 10 + B  10 = 1 implies that B = 1.
In the hundreds column, 8  1  D = 0 implies that D = 7.
In the thousands column, A  3 = 2 implies that A = 5.
Check: 5812  3798 = 2014

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Method 2

Rephrase as addition:

3 D 9 8
+ 2 0 1 4
A 8 B C

In the ones column, 8 + 4 = 12, so C = 2.


There is a carryover of 1 from the ones column to the tens column, so 1 + 9 + 1 = 11,
i.e. B = 1.
There is a carryover of 1 from the tens column to the hundreds column, so 1 + D + 0 =
8 or 1 + D + 0 = 18.
If 1 + D + 0 = 18, then D = 17, which is not possible. So 1 + D + 0 = 8, i.e. D = 7.
In the thousands column, 3 + 2 = A, so A = 5.
Check: 5812  3798 = 2014

22. Find the sum of the terms in the nth pair of brackets:

(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6), (7, 8), …

Solution

The sums of the terms in each pair of brackets form the following sequence: 3, 7, 11,
15, …

Method 1

Common difference between consecutive terms, m = 4


Term before the first term, c = 3  4 = 1
 sum of the terms in the nth pair of brackets = mn + c = 4n  1

Method 2

Common difference between consecutive terms, d = 4


First term, a = 3
 sum of the terms in the nth pair of brackets = a + (n  1)d
= 3 + (n  1)  4
= 4n  1

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23. In the diagram, PQ is parallel to RS, PA = PB and RB = RC. Given that BCA = 60,
find BAC.

P A
Q

B
60
R S
C
Solution

Method 1

Let PAB = x. Then PBA = x (base s of isos. ABP)


APB = 180  2x ( sum of ABP)
BRC = 180  APB (corr. s; PQ // RS)
= 180  (180  2x)
= 2x
RBC = (base s of isos. RBC)
= 90  x
ABC = 180  PBA  RBC (adj. s on a str. ln)
= 180  x  (90  x)
= 90
 BAC = 180  90  60 ( sum of ABC)
= 30

Method 2

Let PAB = x. Then PBA = x (base s of isos. ABP)


APB = 180  2x ( sum of ABP)
BRC = 180  APB (corr. s; PQ // RS)
= 180  (180  2x)
= 2x
RCB = (base s of isos. RBC)
= 90  x
Now BAC + PAB + APB + BRC + RCB + 60 = 360 ( sum of quad APRC)
BAC + x + (180  2x) + 2x + (90  x) + 60 = 360
 BAC = 30

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24. Find the remainder when 22014 is divided by 7.

Solution

Method 1

Observe the following pattern: when divided by 7,


21 leaves a remainder of 2,
22 = 4 leaves a remainder of 4,
23 = 8 leaves a remainder of 1,
24 = 16 leaves a remainder of 2,
25 = 32 leaves a remainder of 4,
26 = 64 leaves a remainder of 1, …
This means that the remainder will repeat with a period of 3.
Since 2014 = 671  3 + 1, then 22014, when divided by 7, will leave a remainder of 2.

Method 2

When divided by 7, 21 leaves a remainder of 2.


If 2k leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 7, it means 2k = 7p + 2 for some integer
p. Then 2k+1 = 2(7p + 2) = 14p + 4 = 7(2p) + 4, i.e. 2k+1 will leave a remainder of 4
when divided by 7.
Let 2k+1 = 7q + 4 for some integer q. Then 2k+2 = 2(7q + 4) = 14q + 8 = 7(2q + 1) + 1,
i.e. 2k+2 will leave a remainder of 1 when divided by 7.
Let 2k+2 = 7r + 1 for some integer r. Then 2k+3 = 2(7r + 1) = 14r + 2 = 7(2r) + 2, i.e.
2k+3 will leave a remainder of 2 when divided by 7.
This means that the remainder will repeat with a period of 3.
Since 21 leaves a remainder of 2 when divided by 7, and 2014 = 671  3 + 1, then
22014, when divided by 7, will leave a remainder of 2.

25. The diagram shows a triangle ABC where AB = AC, BC = AD and BAC = 20. Find
ADB.
A

20

B C

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Solution

Draw AE perpendicular to BC. Then AE bisects BAC, i.e. BAE = 10 ----- (1)
Draw the point F on AE such that BCF is an equilateral triangle [diagram not drawn
to scale], i.e. FBC = 60.
Draw the line DF.

20

G
F

B C
E

ABC = (base  of isos. ABC) = 80


ABF = ABC  FBC = 80  60 = 20 = BAD (given)
BF = BC (sides of equilateral ) = AD (given)
Since ABF = BAD and BF = AD, then ABFD is an isosceles trapezium [diagram
not drawn to scale].
Let G be the point of intersection of the two diagonals, AF and BD, of the isosceles
trapezium ABFD.
In an isosceles trapezium, AG = BG (by symmetry), i.e. ABG is an isosceles triangle.
ABD = ABG = BAG (base  of isos. ABG) = BAE = 10 from (1)
 ADB = 180  BAD  ABD = 180  20  10 = 150

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