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8 visualizações20 páginasThis file is helpful for students in taking entrance and employment tests.

Jan 17, 2018

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This file is helpful for students in taking entrance and employment tests.

© All Rights Reserved

8 visualizações

This file is helpful for students in taking entrance and employment tests.

© All Rights Reserved

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Words that translate into “equals” (=)

IS; WILL BE; ARE; EQUALS; RESULT; YIELDS; COSTS; AMOUNTS

Words that translate into “multiplication” (×)

PRODUCT; TIMES; OF; BY; MULTIPLIED BY

Words that translate into “division” (÷)

RATIO; QUOTIENT; “TO”

Words that translate into “addition” (+)

SUM; TOTAL; INCREASED BY; MORE; GREATER THAN; LARGER

THAN

Words that translate into “subtraction” (-)

DIFFERENCE; THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN; DECREASED

BY; LESS; SMALLER; FEWER THAN

EXAMPLES

1. Two-thirds of X decreased by one-third is twenty-five.

2 1

x - = 42

3 3

2. Fifteen is six less than twice the X value.

15 = 2X – 6

J = M – 15

2(M + N) = 42

1. From wording ad given facts, identify the type of problem (i.e. mixture, work,

distance, etc.)

2. Set up the guiding structure (i.e. chart, diagram, table) used for this type of problem.

3. Go back to problem; reread it; identify specifically what you are asked to find.

a) If you are being asked to find ONE thing, call this quantity “x.”

b) If you are being asked to find more than one thing, let “X” designate the one

you know the least about, OR let “X” designate either one of the unknown if

you know about them.

c) If you do not mind dealing with the system of equations let the other variable

be equal to “Y”, but remember the objective in this section is to solve word

problems using one equation and one unknown. If you decide to choose only

one variable, express the other unknowns in terms of “X” using information

1

given in the problem. Note: Letters always represent measurements or

quantities about people and things; they do not represent people or things.

4. Fill in the chart, table or diagram using the given information for the “X”, the other

quantity in terms of “X”. Certain memorized formulas (known math formula such as

D = RT, I = PRT, etc. are very useful.

5. Using the completed chart and the other relationship information in the problem set

up an equation and solve it for X.

6. Go back to the problem and answer the question asked.

Note: There is no absolute law about the best way to solve word problems.

These outlined procedures have been found helpful by many students

because they provide clear-cut ways to get at the information and use it to

solve the problem. If you prefer to use intuition or trial and error (which are

always good in mathematics, but sometimes inefficient), you may certainly

do so. Now, try the above steps in the following problems.

NUMBER PROBLEM

can be represented by N, N+1, N+2 , etc. Consecutive odd or even integers

can be represented by N, N+2, N+4, etc. The square of the number N is N2;

the cube of the number N is N3

EXAMPLE

1. Find two numbers whose sum is 18 if one number is 8 more than the other.

Solution:

! Read the problem carefully.

! Recognize that you are dealing with a number problem.

! There is NO guiding chart, table or diagram for this type of problem.

! Go back and reread the problem.

! You are asked to find two numbers and you know less about the first one (since

the second is 8 larger). Therefore, write

“Let the first number be x.”

Express the second number in terms of X (clue: it is 8 larger); write: “Let

the second number be X + 8.”

The addition sign is the translation for more than.

The relationship between the numbers in the problem is that their sum is

18.

X + X+ 8 = 18

Now solve the equation and you will find X = 5. Since the second number is 8

more than first one, the second number is X + 8 or 5+8 which is 13.

2

AGE PROBLEMS

EXAMPLES

1. Gus is ten years older than his brother, and six years from now he will be twice his

brother’s age then. How old is Gus now?

Solution:

! Read the problem carefully.

! Recognize that you are dealing with age problem.

! The chart for age problems looks like this:

Now Then

Name

Name

Gus

His Brother

! Go back and reread the problem and determine what you know and what you must

find.

! You are asked to find Gus’ age now. You know less about his brother’s age

now (since Gus is 10 years older than his brother is now). “Let his brother’s

present age be X.”. Express Gus’ age in terms of X: “Let Gus’ present age be

X + 10.” We use addition sign because Gus is 10 years older than his brother

is.

! Fill in the chart with expressions that represent Gus and his brother’s age now

and 6 years from now.

Gus X + 10 X+ 10 + 6

His brother’s X X+6

age

! Putting “X” in a specific place on the chart means you don’t have to write a

sentence that starts: “Let X be...”

! Using the 6-years-from-now- idea fills in the second column of the chart. To

find someone’s age six years from now you would add 6 to their present age.

3

So you can fill in the rest of the chart by doing that (without referring to the

problem).

! The chart is completed.

! We now use the relationship given in the problem for their ages 6 years from

now (i.e. “6 years from now Gus will be twice his brother’s age).

! Gus’ age 6 years from now equals (=) twice his brother’s age 6 years from

now. Now you can solve the equation!

X + 10 + 6 = 2(X + 6)

Solving we get:

X + 16 = 2(X + 6)

X + 16 = 2X + 12

16 - 12 = 2X - X

4=X

! Gus’ brother is four years old. Hence Gus’ age is X + 10 or 4+ 10= 4.

! Gus is 14 years old.

PROBLEM SOLVING

EXAMPLES

1. Jack is now 14 years older than Bill. If in 10 years Jack will be twice as old as Bill, how old will Jack

be in 5 years

a) 9

b) 19

c) 21

d) 23

e) 33 Answer: D

2. If Sam were twice as old as he is, he would be 40 years older than Jim. If Jim is 10 years younger than

Sam is, how old is Sam?

a) 20

b) 30

c) 40

d) 50

e) 60 Answer: B.

4

MONEY (COIN) PROBLEMS

EXAMPLE

$1.90. If there were half as many quarters as nickels, and three more nickels

than dimes, how many coins of each kind are in the bag?

! Read the problem carefully.

! Recognize that you are dealing with a coin problem. Note: Not every problem

involving dollars and cents is a money (coin) problem. This type always deals

with the number of coins, bills, or tickets. And the value of each type.

! The chart for coin problems looks like this

Dimes 0.10

Nickels 0.05

Quarters 0.25

! Go back and reread the problem. You are asked to find how many of

each kind of coin are there. Since you know the least about the number

of dimes, you let the number of dimes be X. The number of nickels is

three more than number of dimes, so it is represented by “X+3.” The

number of quarters is half as many as the number of nickels, so in terms

of X is ½(X+3)-- the grouping symbol is essential.

! Fill in the chart.

Amount Of Money

X

Dimes 0.10 0.10 X

! The “Amount Of Money Column” column is filled in using your common sense.

If you have five dimes, each worth ten cents, you have 5*10 or 50. What we’re

saying is that the “Amount Of Money” equals the “# of coins” times “the value of

one coin”. You multiply left-to-right in the rows of the chart.

! After completion of the chart we return to the problem and look for clues to set

the equation

! Since the sum of money is $1.90. Your equation is:

0.10X + 0.05(X + 3) + 1/2(0.25)(X+3) = 1.90

! Solving the equation:

0.10X + 0.05X +0.15 + 0.125X + 0.375 = 1.90

0.275X + 0.525 = 1.90

5

! Multiply both sides by 1000 to move each decimal point 3 places to the right.

275X + 525 = 1900

275X = 1375

X= 5

! We are asked to find how many of each coin we had. Since X = 5

Number of dimes (X) is 5

Number of nickels (X+3) is 8

Number of quarters 1/2(X+3) is 4

INVESTMENT PROBLEMS

ADDITIONAL HINT If you know the whole amount, but neither of the individual parts,

call one of the parts “X”. Then the other part may be represented by “the whole amount”

minus “X”. For example, if the whole inheritance of $ 20,000 is divided into two parts,

one part is X and the other part is $ 20,000 - X.

EXAMPLE

1. A man invests a total of $24,000. Part is invested at 4% simple annual interest rate

while the remainder is invested at 6% simple annual interest rate. His total yearly

interest is $1040. Find the amount invested at 4%.

! Read the problem carefully.

! Recognize that you are dealing with investment problem (clue words: investment,

principal, interest, income).

! The chart for an investment problem looks like this:

Investment # 1

Investment # 2

! Remember this investment is only for one year so you don’t need an additional column for the

number of years. Go back and reread the problem.

! For this particular problem you are asked to find the amount invested at 4% call that “X”. The

remaining amount invested at 6% is (24000 - X).

! Fill in the chart:

X 0.04 0.04X

24000 - X 0.06 0.06(24000 - X)

! Interest = Principal * Rate * Time.

! In this case we can ignore time because the rate of interest is an annual rate.

We also ignore it in the computation. Thus, the INTEREST is computed by

multiplying across the rows of the chart.

6

! After the chart is completed, we return to the problem for the relationship that

gives us our equation.

! It reads “total yearly interest is $1040.” So, our equation is

! 0.04X + 0.06(24000 - X) = 1040

! Solving: Multiply each term by 100 to remove decimals.

4x + 6(24000 – x) = 104000

4x + 144000 - 6x = 104000

14400 - 2X = 104000

-2X = -40000

X = 20000

! We were asked to find the amount invested at 4%. Since we represented that

amount by “x”, we conclude: the amount invested at 4% is $20,000 and the

amount invested at 6% is $4000.

DISTANCE PROBLEMS

Many students find these hardest of all, but if you follow the steps you can master them.

ADDITIONAL HINTS (FOR DISTANCE PROBLEMS)

! Traveling with the current (down stream) or wind increases the speed of the

vehicle by the speed of the current or wind. (E.g. If you travel 40 mph in still air

and there is 30 mph wind, moving with the wind means you actually travel 70

mph.)

! Traveling against the current (upstream) or wind decreases the speed of the

vehicle by the speed of the current or the wind. (E.g. In the previous example,

moving against the wind means you actually travel 10 mph.)

! The basis of all distance problems is the formula: D = r * t (Distance = rate X

time);

! Rate is the same as speed.

EXAMPLE

1. At a given time a man on a bicycle is 10 miles ahead of a car. Both are traveling in

the same direction. The bike is traveling at 15 mph and the car at 35 mph. How many

hours has each traveled when they meet?

! Read the above very carefully.

! You are dealing with a DISTANCE (MOTION) PROBLEM.

! It is best to make a diagram as well as a chart for these problems

! The chart for a distance problem looks like this

First Vehicle

Second Vehicle

7

! For this particular problem the chart would look like this:

Bike 15

Car 35

! The rates are specifically given, so they are filled in immediately. The rate, time,

or distance put in the chart must for be that particular vehicle only (NO totals or

averages of them).

! Now, a diagram helps you get your bearings. Use arrows to represent

the situation

10 MILES BIKE

CAR

! The arrows go the same way to represent “the same direction.” The ‘start’ of the

arrows is not the same; the bike is 10 miles out in front (from the given

information). Note how we mark that on the diagram. The ‘stop’ of the arrows is

the same because we’re talking about when they meet.

! Reread the problem. It asks us to find how many hours each has traveled, i.e.

time. The start and stop times in the problem are the same. It is the distances that

aren’t the same. Each vehicle travels the same amount of time. We can represent

that time by X.

! We put that information on the chart:

Bike 15 X 15X + 10

Car 35 X 35X

! The third column (in this case, distance) is filled in using the formula, D = R * T. This formula can

be solve in terms of R or T and these forms are used when your third column to be filled in is time

or rate.

d

t=

!

r

d

r=

t

! For this problem, we multiply across the rows of the chart to use the formula:

! Once the chart is completed we direct our attention to the equation.

! From the reading we can see the distance traveled by the car is 10 more

miles than the distance traveled by the bike. So we can write the

equation:

8

35X = 15X +10

Distance the car travels Is equal Distance the bike travels when they meet

to

! Solve the equation: 35X = 15X + 10

20X = 10

X = 1/2

The problem asked us to find the time each traveled and we called that X. So,

our conclusion is that each traveled one half hour when they meet.

PROBLEM SOLVING

1. If Jack walked 5 miles in 1 hour and 15 minutes, what was his rate of walking in

miles per hour

a) 4

b) 4.5

c) 6

d) 6.25

e) 15 Answer A

2. Car X and car Y traveled the same 80-mile route. If car X took 2 hours and car Y

traveled at an average speed that was 50 percent faster than the average speed of car

X, how many hours did it take car Y to travel the route?

a) 2/3

b) 1

c) 4/3

d) 5/3 e) 3 Answer C

3. A car travels from Mayville to Rome at an average speed of 30 miles per hour and

returns immediately along the same route at an average speed of 40 miles per hour.

Of the following, which is closest to the average speed, in miles per hour, for the

round trip?

a) 32.0

b) 33.0

c) 34.3

d) 35.5

e) 36.5 Answer C

MIXTURE PROBLEMS

EXAMPLE

1. A hospital needs 82.5 liters of a 20% disinfectant Solution. How many liters

of a 60% and a 15% solution could be mixed to obtain this 20% solution?

! Read the above carefully.

! Recognize that this represents a mixture problem.

! The best diagram for solving these is

9

+ or - = =

% % %

!

!

!

! Go back and reread the problem. We are asked to find how many liters of each

solution (60% and 15%) we need to mix. We don’t know any more about one of

them than the other. So we call the number of liters of the 60% solution “X”. To

represent the numbers of liters of the 15% solution we use the WHOLE-PART

hint at the end of the investment problems. We want to end up with 82.5 liters.

This represents the whole. We denote one part by “X”. The other part is 82.5 - X.

! Now we can complete more of the diagram.

82.5 - X X 82.5

15 + 60% = 20%

%

Note that the sum of 60% and 15% DOES NOT EQUAL 20%. But the sum of “X”

and “82.5 - X” DOES EQUAL 82.5. This should always be true on your diagram.

(Remember that a 50% acid solution means that 50% of the liquid is acid.)

Remember, too, that “of” means multiply. In the case at hand, then, we are speaking

of 60% of X liters, 15% of 82.5 - X liters and 20% of 82.5 liters. So, we translate this

into an equation:

.60X + .15(82.5 - X) = .20(82.5)

! Solve the equation. First multiply each term by 100 to get rid of the decimals.

60X + 15(82.5-X) = 20(82.5)

60X + 1237.5 – 15X = 1650

45X + 1237.5 = 1650

45X = 412.5

X = 9.17 or 9 1/6

! The problem asked for the number of liters of each solution. We let X = the

number of liters of the 60% solution, so we need 9.17 liters of that solution. We

let 82.5 - X = the number of liters of the 15% solution. Substituting X in the

equation we get 82.5 – 9.17 = 72.33 liters of that the 15% solution.

PROBLEM SOLVING

1. A tank contains 10,000 gallons solution that is 5 percent sodium chloride by

volume. If 2,500 gallons of water evaporate from the tank, the remaining

solution will be approximately what percent sodium chloride?

a) 1.25%

b) 3.75%

c) 6.25%

d) 6.67%

e) 11.7% Answer D

10

2. A glucose solution contains 15 grams of glucose per 100 cubic centimeters of

solution. If 45 cubic centimeters of the solution were poured into an empty container,

how many grams of glucose would be in the container?

a) 3.00

b) 5.00

c) 5.50

d) 6.50

e) 6.75 Answer E

3. If 3 pounds of dried apricots that cost X dollars per pound are mixed with 2 pounds of

prunes that cost Y dollars per pound, what is the cost, in dollars, per pound of the

mixture?

a) (3X+2Y)/(X+Y)

b) (3X+2Y)/5

c) (X+Y )/5

d) 5(3X + 2Y)

e) 3X + 2Y Answer B

f)

WORK PROBLEMS

Rate Of Work * Time Worked = Amount Done.

The amount of work is expressed as a part (fraction or decimal) of the whole job, where

the whole job is represented by the number 1 (the whole thing 100% = 1). The rate of

work is usually given in a hidden way. Rate will always be expressed as “so much of the

job per a certain amount of time.”

Examples of the language used are:

! “ A person can do a job in 3 hours”; this means the rate of work is “1/3 of the

job per hour”.

! If you can paint a room in 2 hours, your rate of work is ½ of the job per hour.

! If a machine can sort 6000 cards in an hour, that IS the rate: “6000 cards per

hour”.

You realize, of course, that both people and machines can do work.

EXAMPLE

1. If you and a man can build, in 20 days, a house that would take the man 30 days to

build alone, how long would it take you to build the house alone? (Assume you know

how!)

! Read the above carefully.

! Identify that this is a work problem.

! The chart for organizing work problems looks like this

11

!

Rate of Work Time Amount of Work

First Person

Second Person

Combined

! You are asked to find how long it would take you to build the house alone

! Call that time “X”. If you can build a house in “X” hours, your rate would be

1/X.

! The man’s rate is 1/30. Since he can build the house in 30 days, his rate is 1/30

per day.

! The “combined” rate is 1/20.

! To build it together in 20 days means your combined rate is 1/20 of the job per

day

! For this particular problem the completed chart would look like.

First Person 1/X Y (1/X)Y

Second Person 1/30 Y (1/30)Y

Combined 1/20 Y (1/20) Y

! What this amounts to is ignoring time when the time of each person or machine is

the same AND when there already is another unknown.

! Solve fractional equations by multiplying each term by the least common

denominator of all the fractions. (Here that is 60x). This gets rid of fractions.

60 + 2X = 3X

60 = X

! The problem asked “how long would it take you to build the house;” this you

represented by X. Therefore it would take you 60 days to build it alone.

! A “write-up” of the problem is shown below. We need a statement about X at the

beginning of this problem write-up since x, by itself, is not in the chart.

! Let X = the number of days it takes you to build the house alone.

--------------------WORK-------------------------------------

Rate Time Amount

Man 1/30 Y (1/30X) * Y

Combined 1/20 Y (1/20X) * Y

1 1 1

y+ y = y

x 30 20

1 1 1

+ =

x 30 20

12

60 + 2X = 3X

60 = X

It takes you 60 days to build the house alone.

EXAMPLE

1. One pipe can fill a tank in 18 minutes and another pipe can fill it in 24 minutes. The

drainpipe can empty the tank in 15 minutes. An inefficient worker leaves the

drainpipe open. With all pipes open, how long will it take to fill the tank?

Solution:

! Let X = time it takes to fill the tank. Each pipe will “work” that length of

! time.

! The first pipe has rate 1/18 of the tank per minute

! The second pipe has rate 1/24 of the tank per minute

! The drainpipe has rate -1/15 of the tank per minute. Since the drainpipe is

undoing the job, it is given a negative rate.

Pipe 1 1/8 X (1/18) X

Pipe 2 1/24 X (1/24) X

Drain -1/15 X (-1/15) X

! Since the problem does not address the idea of combined rate, we do not have a

combined” row in the chart.

! These three pipes are going to do the whole job of filling the tank.

! Work of pipe 1 + work of pipe 2 - work of drain = whole or 100%

1 1 1

x+ x − x = 1

18 24 15

! You can do the rest of this problem.

! Answer: 32 8/11 hr.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

NUMBER PROBLEMS

1. Four times a number decreased by 12 is three times the number. Find the number.

Let x=number

4x-12=3x

4x-3x=12

x=12

Let x=number

x-5=2x

x-2x=+5

13

-x=+5

x=-5

3. Are there two consecutive odd integers whose sum equals 174? (HINT: Assume that

there are and try to find them.)

x+x+2=174

2x+2=174

2x=174-2

2x=172

x=86

No, because the first number must be equal to 86 which is even.

AGE PROBLEMS

1. Doreen is 5 years younger than her brother is and three years ago the sum of their

ages was 23 years. How old is each now?

Now Then

Doreen’s X x-3

her brother x+5 x+5-3

Sum then

x-3+x+5-3=23

solve for 2x=24

x=12

her brother=12+5=17

2. Linda’s mother is three times as old as Linda and 14 years from now she will be twice

as old as Linda was then. How old is each now?

Now Then

Linda X x+14

Her mother 3x 3x+14

3x+14=2(x+14)

solve for x

x=14

her mother =3(14)=42

14

3. The sum of the ages of Joe and Jamie is 35. Joe is 5 years older than twice Jamie’s

age. How old are they? (NOTE: There is no “then” column in this problem, but the

idea is the same)

Joe’s age=x

Jamie=2x+5}older

x+2x+5=35

3x+5=35

x=10

Jamie=2(10)+5=25

MONEY PROBLEMS

1. A man withdrew $75 in $1 bills and $5 bills from the bank. There were 3 more $1

bills than $5 bills. How many were there of each kind?

x=number of $1 bills

Number value

$1 bills X 1*x

$5 bills x-3 5(x-3)

total 75

1*x+5(x-3)=75

x=15 number of $1 bills

15-3=12 number of $5 bills

2. In a collection there are twice as many nickels as dimes and the value is $8.40. How

many of each kind are there?

x=number of dimes

Number value (cents)

dimes X 10x

nickels 2x 2(5x)

840

10x+2(5)x=840

x=42 and 84 nickels

3. Tickets for the school play sold for $1.00 and $2.50. How many tickets of each kind

were sold if they took in $575.00 for 350 tickets? (HINT: the tickets are like “bills” or

“coins” of different value)

15

x=number of $1 tickets

350-x=number of $2.50 tickets

Number value

$1 X 1*x

$2.50 ticket 350-x 2.5 (350-x)

575

1*x+2.5(350-x)=575

Solve for x. x=200

And number of $2.50 tickets=150

INVESTMENT PROBLEMS

1. A man borrows a certain sum at 5 1/2% interest and a sum that is $5,000 greater at

7%. How much does he borrow if the interest for one year is $1,850?

5 1/2%x+7%(x+5000)=1850

.055x+.07(x+5000)=1850

.055x+.07x+350=1850

.125x=1500

x=12000

and amount at 7%=17000

2. A man invests a certain sum at 3 1/2%, twice that sum at 4%, and twice the

second sum at 5%. The total income from the investments is $5,040. How

much does he invest at each rate?

2(2x)=amount invested at 5%.

3 1/2%x+4%(2x)+5%(2)(2x)=5040

.035x+.08x+.2x=5040

x=16000, 32000, 64000

3. A man has $8,000 invested at 5% and $2,000 invested at 7%. How much must he

invest at 8% to make an average of 6% on his investment? (HINT: the average of 6%

will be based on the total amount of money he is investing at all three of the other

percents.)

8000(5%)+2000(7%)+8%x=6%(8000+2000+x)

16

Solve for x. x=$3000

DISTANCE PROBLEMS

1. Two boats start from the same place on a lake but go in opposite directions.

The first boat travels at a constant speed of 15km/hr, and the second at a

constant speed of 12km/hr. How far apart are the two boats after 3 hours?

(HINT: Draw a diagram)

Let X1=distance traveled by the first boat

Let X2=distance traveled by the second boat

X1=15(3)

X2=12(3)

Total distance traveled X1+X2 = 45 + 36 = 8

2. An airplane made a trip of 680 miles in 4 hours. Part of the trip was made at 150mph

and the remainder at 180mph. How many miles were traveled at each rate? (HINT:

You have only one vehicle, but there are two parts to its journey. You also need the

‘whole-part’ hint from the end of the investment problems section for your time

column.)

Let x = number of miles traveled at 150 mph

680 – x = number of miles traveled at 180 mph

150 T x= 150t

180 4-t 680-x=180(4-t)

4 680

680 = 150t + 180(4-t) solve for t. t = 4/3 hours.

Distance traveled at 150 mph = (4/3)(150)= 200 miles traveled at 150 mph

and 680-200 = 480 miles traveled at 180 mph

3. Two friends leave two towns at the same time and start travelling toward each other

in Autos. One averages 40mph and the other 50mph. How far does each travel before

meeting if the towns are 270 miles apart?

x = 40t x = 50t

x + x = 270 since the distance between towns is 270.

40t + 50t = 270 t = 3 hours

4. Mike can row his boat from the hunting lodge upstream to the park in 5 hours. He can

row back to the lodge in 3 hours. If the stream is flowing at 2km per hour, how fast is

Mike rowing in still water?

Let r = speed in still water

x upstream t = 5 hours

r–2

x t=3 r + 2

17

downstream

x = 5(r-2) x = 3(r+2) Since x = x

5r – 10 = 3r + 6

r=8

5. A plane flying with a tailwind flew 600 mi in 4 hours. It took the plane 5 hours to fly

the same distance against the wind. Find the rate of the wind.

a. 30 mph

b. 20 mph

c. 135 mph

d. 15 mph

6. Traveling with the current, a motorboat went 45 mi in 3 hours. Traveling against the

current the boat went 45 mi in 5 hours. Find the rate of the motorboat in calm

water.

a. 12 mph

b. 15 mph

c. 3 mph

d. 9 mph

MIXTURE PROBLEMS

1. A nurse must administer 5oz. of a 12% solution of medicine. In stock there are a

25% solution and a 5% solution of the same medicine. How many oz. of each should

she mix to obtain the 5oz. of the 12% solution?

then 5 – x = # “ “ 5% “

25% solution x .25 .25x

5% solution 5–x .05 .05(5-x)

Final solution 12% 5 .12 .12(5)

Solve for x

x = 1.75 ozs. of 25% solution

18

2. How many pounds of nuts at 63¢ per lb. should be mixed with 20 lbs. of nuts at 90¢

per lb. to give a mixture worth 78¢ per lb.? (HINT: The principle is the same; the cost

per lb. replaces the percent in the diagram.)

63 X 63 63x

90 20 90 1800

mixture 78 20 + x 78 78(20 + x)

x = 16

3. A druggist needs 20ml. of a 30% solution. To obtain this he mixes an 80% stock of

the solution with a diluent (0% solution). How many ml. each, of the stock and the

diluent should be mixed? (HINT: Don’t let the 0% confuse you. Use it and the

problem will work!)

Amount rate concentration

80% X .80 .8x

diluent 20-x 0 0

final solution 30% 20 .30 20(.3)=6

.8x+0=6

.8x=6

x=7.5ml.

7.5 ml. of 80% solution must be mixed by 12.5 (20-7.5) ml. of diluent to obtain 20ml.

of 30% solution.

WORK PROBLEMS

1. JoAnn requires 20 hours to complete a certain job and Wanda will require 30 hours to

do the same job. How long will it take JoAnn and Wanda working together to do the

job?

Rate time part done

Joann 1/20 x x/20

Wanda 1/30 x x/30

1

x/20+x/30=1 LCD=60

60(x/20)+60(x/30)=60(1)

3x+2x=60

x=12

19

2. Two pipes feed water into a storage tank. One of them acting alone will fill the tank

in 8 hours; both together will fill the tank in 6hours. How long will it take the second

pipe to fill the tank if it is acting alone?

Let x=number of hours it takes to fill the tank using the second pipe.

Rate time part done

pipe#1 1/8 6 6/8

pipe#2 1/x 6 6/x

1

6/8+6/x=1 LCD=8x

8x*6/x+8x*6/x=8x*1

6x+48=8x

48=2x x=24.

3. Carlos can pick all the oranges in a grove in 18 days; Alvin can do the same job in 12

days. Carlos and Alvin started together picking the oranges, but after the sixth day

Carlos quit. How much longer did it take Alvin to finish the job? (HINT: Figure out how much

work they got done together in six days; then Alvin will have to do the rest of the work in the unknown

time asked for.)

Rate time part of job done

Carlos 1/18 6 6/18

Alvin 1/12 6+x (6+x)/12

1

6/18+(6+x)/12=1 LCD=36

36*6/18+36*(6+x)/12=36*1

12+3(6+x)=36

12+18+3x=36

3x=6

x=2

20

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