Você está na página 1de 54

Introdução à Neurociência

Timing e eletrofisiologia:
uma introdução

Prof. Dr. Marcelo S. Caetano


marcelo.caetano@ufabc.edu.br
Outline

• Timing

• Técnicas comportamentais

• Eletrofisiologia
– Single-unit recordings
– Exemplo de estudo com eletrofisiologia em timing
Timing
Definição de discriminação temporal
“Discriminação baseada em propriedades temporais dos estímulos”

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_light www.centurylink.com
Timing
Técnicas comportamentais

Input: 1. Light
2. Clicker
3. Food

Output: 1. Left press


2. Left release
3. Right press
4. Right release
Técnicas comportamentais

Input

Output

Interface

Computer

Box
Técnicas comportamentais

• Esquema de intervalo fixo


Técnicas comportamentais

• Esquema de intervalo fixo

Respostas por minuto


(luz) S1 I1 (30 s)
(tom) S2 I2 (60 s)
(click) S3 I3 (120 s)

Tempo desde o início do estímulo

Figura retirada de: Caetano et al., 2007, Behavioural Processes, 75, 176-181.
Timing
Time marker Response
“S” Food

Interval

Interval

Session n

Session 1

Figura adaptada de Guilhardi & Church, 2005, Learning & Behavior, 33, 399-416.
Técnicas comportamentais

• Peak procedure
Técnicas comportamentais

• Peak procedure

Figura retirada de: Lake & Meck, 2013, Neuropsychologia, 51, 284-292
(Canulação)
Psicofarmacologia
• Relação entre drogas e alterações psíquicas/
comportamentais
• Humor
• Cognição
• Comportamento

• Efeitos de substâncias específicas no desempenho


de animais treinados com diferentes técnicas
comportamentais
• Injeções intraperitoneais – efeitos sistêmicos
• Infusões cerebrais
• Implante de cânulas
Técnicas comportamentais

• Peak procedure

Figura retirada de: Lake & Meck, 2013, Neuropsychologia, 51, 284-292
Técnicas comportamentais

• Peak procedure

Figuras adaptadas de: Guilhardi et al., 2010, Behavioural Processes, 84, 476-483.
Técnicas comportamentais

• Bisection procedure (bissecção partida)

Figura retirada de: de Castro et al., 2013, Temas psicol. vol.21 no.1
Técnicas comportamentais

• Bisection procedure (bissecção partida)

Figura retirada de: de Castro et al., 2013, Temas psicol. vol.21 no.1
Técnicas comportamentais

• Modelos teóricos Modular Theory of Timing

Figura retirada de: Guilhardi et al., 2007, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 543-559
Técnicas comportamentais

• Modelos teóricos

Figura retirada de: Guilhardi et al., 2007, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 543-559
Técnicas comportamentais

• Modelos teóricos

Figura retirada de: Machado, 1997, Psychological Review, 104, 241-265


Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo

en.wikipedia.org
Figura adaptada de: Maren & Quirk, 2004
Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo


– Histologia e localização dos eletrodos
Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo – Spike sorting


Eletrofisiologia
Eletrofisiologia
Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo


Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo


– Perievent histograms

Figura adaptada de: Gawad et al., 2009, Frontiers in Neuroscience


Eletrofisiologia

• Single-unit recordings in vivo

Figura retirada de: Caetano et al., 2012, The Journal of Neuroscience


Eletrofisiologia e timing
Motivation

 Importance of cortico-subcortical loops


Motivation

 Importance of cerebellum, basal ganglia, posterior parietal and prefrontal cortex


Motivation

 Main question: What is the role of medial motor area neurons in interval timing?

 SMA and preSMA

 Time production task (as opposed to time perception)

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Subjects and behavioral task

Two Japanese monkeys


Subjects and behavioral task

25 trials
Lights flash
25 trials

25 trials

25 trials
Behavioral data

 > 80% correct trials for both monkeys;

 Scalar property (SD/mean)


Neural recordings

 in vivo single-cell recordings from preSMA and SMA (microdrives)


 Magnetic resonance imaging & Nissl-stained brain sections

Task-related cells = 200 preSMA + 119 SMA

Comparison of discharge rate in blocks of 500 ms:


Control period = 500 ms before cue
Early period = 500 ms after cue
Late period = 1000 ms before movement
Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

preSMA
75 visual instruction neurons
 26 time-specific cells
Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

preSMA
75 visual instruction neurons
 26 time-specific cells
Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

preSMA
75 visual instruction neurons
 26 time-specific cells

 35 time-graded cells
Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

preSMA
75 visual instruction neurons
 26 time-specific cells

 35 time-graded cells

* Two-way ANOVA (interval / color):

79% of cells (53/67): selectivity to interval only

 2 cells: selectivity to color only

 4 cells: selectivity to both interval and color


Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

preSMA
75 visual instruction neurons
 26 time-specific cells

 35 time-graded cells

* Two-way ANOVA (interval / color):

79% of cells (53/67): selectivity to interval only

 2 cells: selectivity to color only

 4 cells: selectivity to both interval and color

SMA
4 visual instruction neurons (3.3%)

 No neurons selective to interval or color


Neural data: Instruction responses selective for the interval time

Key points:

 Evindence for the involvement of preSMA neurons (but not SMA) in retrieving information from the cue

 Most task-related preSMA neurons showed selectivity to the interval and not color
 preSMA involved in retrieving information about the duration of the interval to structure the
forthcoming motor behavior

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

preSMA
125 preparatory neurons
 41 time-specific cells
Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

preSMA
125 preparatory neurons
 41 time-specific cells

 71 time-graded cells
Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

preSMA
125 preparatory neurons
 41 time-specific cells

 71 time-graded cells

 0 cells were selective to color only

 13 nonselective cells
Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

preSMA
125 preparatory neurons
 41 time-specific cells

 71 time-graded cells

 0 cells were selective to color only

 13 nonselective cells

SMA
115 preparatory neurons
 2 time-specific cells

 55 time-graded cells
Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

preSMA
125 preparatory neurons
 41 time-specific cells

 71 time-graded cells

 0 cells were selective to color only

 13 nonselective cells

SMA
115 preparatory neurons
 2 time-specific cells

 55 time-graded cells

 58 nonselective cells
Neural data: Selective preparatory activity before motor initiation

Key points:

 Most preSMA (and some SMA) neurons showed selective activity depending on the lenght of the
preparatory period
 preSMA involved in signaling motor initiation in a time interval-dependent manner

 More time-selective neurons in preSMA than in SMA


 preSMA contributes more to the development of time-selective activity than the SMA

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Neural data: Population analysis during the interval

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Neural data: Population analysis during the interval

Does the activity during the interval provides the basis for coding the interval?

Normalization of activity by max and min


preSMA

Time-specific cell

Time-graded cell
Neural data: Population analysis during the interval

Key points:

 During the timed interval, preSMA and SMA neurons showed continuous changes in activity

 Contribution to coding the development of time

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons


Final conclusions

General summary:

 preSMA involved in cognitive control of interval timing

 It decodes time information as a categorical signal

 It generates an appropriate interval by parametric coding

 Contribution of SMA cells seems to be modest

Search for:

 Neuronal activity reflecting retrieval of time-interval information from instruction signals

 Neuronal activity leading to interval-selective action initiation

 Coding of time intervals by a population of neurons