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Exercise 13.

3 Dielectrics

1. If the gap between the capacitor plates is filled with a material such as polythene, the capacitance is
increased. Any ___________________ material which has this effect is called a dielectric.
2. Placing the dielectric in between foil have three functions:
(a) to make sure the plate do not actually ___________________ with each other,
even though the gap is very ____________________.
(b) Increasing the potential different between capacitor plates. Insulting material can withstand larger
electric field without experiencing the ____________________.
(c) the ratio of the capacitance with dielectric and capacitance without inserting dielectric is constant, the
constant named as ___________ _____________. dielectric constant

 0 A C  C0
C
d

3. A capacitor parallel plate with surface area is 0.40 m2 and separated by 0.20 cm
1. Calculate the capacitance if the space between plates is filled with
i. vacuum
ii. insulator with dielectric constant 2.3
(a) When there is insulator (dielectric) inside the plates, the insulation is decrease, electric field become 1.8 x 10 5 V cm
What is the maximum PD can be supplied to the capacitor?

4. Take a parallel plate capacitor whose plates have an area of 2 m2 and are separated by a distance of 1mm.
The capacitor is charged to an initial voltage of 3 kV and then disconnected from the charging source.
An insulating material is placed between the plates, completely filling the space, resulting in a decrease in
the capacitors voltage to 1 kV.
Determine
(a) the original and new capacitance,
(b) the charge on the capacitor, and
(c) the dielectric constant of the material.

Formulae for effective capacitance


Capacitor in series Capacitor in parallel

Exercise 13.4 Capacitor in series and parallel


1. C1 = 10 F and C2 = 5 F.
a. Determine the effective capacitance for C1 and C2 connected in series and in parallel
b. If the two capacitors in question (a) were connected to a 50 volt battery determine the voltage
across the capacitors for each connection type.
2. Evaluate the circuit shown below to determine the effective capacitance and then the charge and voltage
across each capacitor.
(a) (b) (c)
Energy stored by a capacitor

Energy stored by the capacitor

Exercise 13.5
1. Calculate the charge and energy stored in a l0 F capacitor charged to a potential difference of:
2. A 50k F capacitor is charged from a 9 V battery then discharged through a light bulb in a flash of light lasting 0.2s.
Calculate:
a) the charge and energy stored in the capacitor before discharge,
b) the average power supplied to the light bulb

Charging and discharging of a Capacitor


1. In DC circuits, capacitors just charge or discharge. No ____________ flows after a capacitor is fully charged or
discharged.

2. Discharge of a capacitor:
(a) The current in the circuit, I =

(b) This voltage also flow through the capacitor, V =

(c) The Charge, Q on the capacitor =

(d) The current, I in the circuit =

3. Τ (tau) is called the “RC time constant”


(a) When Τ is big, capacaitor charge and discharge _____________.

(b) If R is large, not much _________ flows, Τ is ________

(c) If C is large, there is a lot of _______ flow, so Τ is _______.


4. Charging the capacitor
(a) the charge stored in the capacitor and the potential difference across the capacitor are ____________
exponentially but
(b) the current and potential difference across the resistor are ____________ exponentially as shown in the graphs
below.

Exercises 13.6
1. A Capacitor 2 F charged with PD 1.5 V , then it is discharge through a resistor 60k .
(a) What is the time constant for the discharge circuit.
(b) Determine time for the charge to decrease into :
1
i. from initial
e
1
ii. from initial
100
2. The circuit shows a 3F charged by a battery of e.m.f 6V with the switch at P. The switch is then connected to Q.
The charge is the shared with 6F capacitor with the switch at Q.

What is the charge remains in the 3F ?


Answers

Exercises 13.3

Dielectric breakdown

Solution:
(a) Capacitance of the capacitor when the gap between plates

(i) Filled with vacuum, C 0

0A 8.55  10 12 (0.4m 2 )


C0   2
 1.77  10 9 F
d 0.20  10

(ii) Filled with insulator with dielectric constant, C

C  C0  2.3(1.77  10 9 F )  4.07  10 9 F

(b) The maximum PD can be supplied the Electric Field inside the capacitor is

1.8 x 105 V cm-1

V
E
d
V  Ed
 1.8  10 5Vcm 1 (0.2cm)
 3.6  10 4 V

Exercises 13.4

1a. (easy) C1 = 10 F and C2 = 5 F. Determine the effective capacitance for C1 and C2 connected in series and in
parallel.

In series:

1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2

1/C = 1/10 + 1/5

C = 3.3 F

In parallel:

C = C1 + C2

C = 10 + 5 = 15 F
1b(moderate) If the two capacitors in question #1 were connected to a 50 volt battery determine the voltage across
the capacitors for each connection type.
For the series connection:

The charge on each capacitor is the same as the charge on the effective capacitance.

C = Q/V

3.3 = Q/50

Q = 165 C

For the 10F capacitor:

10 = 165/V

V = 17 volts

For the 5 F capacitor:

5 = 165/V

V = 33 volts

For the parallel connection:

The voltage is the same (50 v) across each capacitor.


The equivalent capacitance is 4 μF. The voltage across the equivalent capacitor is 20 volts.
This voltage is also across both of the 2 μF capacitors that were created by the series
combinations in each branch.
Find the charge on each 2 μF capacitor:
C = Q/V
2 μF = Q/20
Q = 40 μC
The 4 μF capacitors in each branch have the same charge as the 2 μF capacitors. Use this
to find the voltage across each:
C = Q/V
4 μF = 40 μC/V
V = 10 volts
In summary, each of the original 4 μF capacitors have a charge of 40 μC and a voltage of 10
volts
The effective capacitance is 6 μF with a voltage of 100 v.

The voltage across the 4 μF and the 2 μF capacitors is also 100 v

The charge on the 4 μF capacitor:

C = Q/V

4 μF = Q/100

Q = 400 μC

The charge across the 2 μF capacitor:


C = Q/V

2 μF = Q/100

Q = 200 μC

All three 6 μF capacitors also have 200 μC of charge.

Find voltage for the 6 μF capacitors:

C = Q/V

6 μF = 200 μC/V

V = 33.3 v
The equivalent capacitance is 6 μF. The voltage across the equivalent capacitance is 40 v as is the voltage across the
3 μF capacitors and is
the same as the 1 μF and 2 μF capacitors.

Find the charge on the 1 μF capacitor:

C = Q/V

1 μF = Q/40

Q = 40 μC

Find the charge on the 2 μF capacitor:

C = Q/V

2 μF = Q/40

Q = 80 μC

Find the charge on the 3 μF capacitors:

C = Q/V

3 μF = Q/40

Q = 120 μC

This is the same charge on each of the 6 μF capacitors.

Find the voltage on each of the 6 μF capacitors:

C = Q/V

6 μF = 120 μC/V

V = 20 v

Exe 1.5
1. 45 microJ, 180microJ
2. . a) = .45 C b) = 10 W
1.6
Current

E 1.6
Solution:

(a) The time constant,  for this capacitor is:

  RC  60k(2F )  0.12s

(b) Time for the charge to decrease into :

1
i. from initial
e

1
The charge to decrease into from initial would mean :
e

t
Q 1 
 from the equation Q  Q0e RC
we can rearrange the equation into:
Q0 e

t
Q 
 e RC
Q0
t
1 
e 
e
t
 1
ln e   ln( )
e
t 1
  ln( )
 2.718281828
t  [ln(0.367879441)]( 0.12s )
 1( 0.12s )
 0.12s

1
ii. from initial
100

1
The charge to decrease into from initial would mean :
100

t
Q 1 
 from the equation Q  Q0e RC we can rearrange the equation into:
Q0 100
t
Q 
 e RC
Q0
t
1 
e 
100
t
 1
ln e 
 ln( )
100
t
  ln( 0.01)

t  [ 4.605170186 ](0.12s )
 0.553s

Example 18.8

The circuit shows a 3F charged by a battery of e.m.f 6V with the switch at P. The switch is then connected to Q. The charge is the
shared with 6F capacitor with the switch at Q.

What is the charge remains in the 3F ?

Solving Problem strategy

1. when P is connected, the 3F is charged by 6V potential different, the charge inside the 3F is Q0.

2. then the switch is connected to Q, the positive charge of Q0 (+Q0) is distributed over the upper plate of both capacitor 3F and
6F, together with the negative charge of Q0 (-Q0) is distributed over a lower plates of both capacitor. This is the chemical process
and it’s known as the Conservation of the charge.

3. In the final state, when the charge are no longer moving, both upper plate are the same potential, because they are connected
with the same wire, so they form a single equipotential surface. Both lower plates are also at the same potential, different from that
of the upper plate. The final potential difference V between the plates is therefore the same for both capacitors. So this is a parallel
connection.

Solution:

1. The charge, Q0 on 3F is

𝑄0 = 𝐶𝑉0 = 3𝜇𝐹(6𝑉) = 18𝜇𝐶

2. Both capacitor will have the sum of charges as Q0.

Q 0 = Q1 + Q 2
3. Both capacitor will form the same potential different, V (this is the parallel connection)

𝑄1 = 𝐶1 𝑉 And 𝑄2 = 𝐶2 𝑉

From these three concept we can solve the problem given :

𝐶1
𝑄1 = ( )𝑄
𝐶1 + 𝐶2 0

3𝜇𝐹
𝑄1 = ( ) 18𝜇𝐶 = 6𝜇𝐶
3𝜇𝐹 + 6𝜇𝐹