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Mathematical Achievement is the competency shown by the student in the subject mathematics. Its measure is the score on an achievement test in mathematics. The present study is based on the mathematical achievement of X class students of Secondary School in Bageshwar District. A sample comprised of 200 students studying in class X was selected randomly from Secondary schools of Bageshwar district. The research tool developed and standardized by Dr. Ali Imam and Dr, Tahira Khatoon was administered to the students. A descriptive research method was used in the present research. Statistical techniques Mean, S.D., and t-test were used to analyze the data. The result of the study shows that there is a significant difference between the mathematical achievements of class X students of secondary schools on the basis of their sex and social belongingness, however, it is interesting to know that rural male and urban male students are almost similar in their mathematical achievement scores.

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5(12), 1951-1954

Article DOI:10.21474/IJAR01/6165

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/6165

RESEARCH ARTICLE

A STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.

Research Scholar, Kumaun University, S. S. J. Campus, Almora, Uttarakhand.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………....

Manuscript Info Abstract

……………………. ………………………………………………………………

Manuscript History Mathematical Achievement is the competency shown by the student in

the subject mathematics. Its measure is the score on an achievement

Received: 25 October 2017 test in mathematics. The present study is based on the mathematical

Final Accepted: 27 November 2017 achievement of X class students of Secondary School in Bageshwar

Published: December 2017

District. A sample comprised of 200 students studying in class X was

Keywords:- selected randomly from Secondary schools of Bageshwar district. The

Mathematical achievement, Social research tool developed and standardized by Dr. Ali Imam and Dr,

belongingness, Parental education, Tahira Khatoon was administered to the students. A descriptive

Secondary School Students. research method was used in the present research. Statistical techniques

Mean, S.D., and t-test were used to analyze the data. The result of the

study shows that there is a significant difference between the

mathematical achievements of class X students of secondary schools on

the basis of their sex and social belongingness, however, it is

interesting to know that rural male and urban male students are almost

similar in their mathematical achievement scores.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………....

Introduction:-

In the 21st century, mathematics has become the backbone for the prosperity in each and every field of life.

Mathematics is well known as a father of all sciences. It is impossible to think about any scientific study without

mathematics. Mathematics is the knowledge of 3R‟s i.e. reading, writing and arithmetic. Each student in his day to

day life has to achieve certain vital goals and objectives. Mathematics works as a base-camp to achieve these

objectives.

Every stage of education has its own importance. Secondary education lays the basic foundation for all types of

higher education. Successful achievement in mathematics at Secondary stage, especially X grade is prerequisite for

better academic achievement in higher stage.

Mathematics achievement is an essential part of the academic achievement in the modern era. It is the key to success

in many professions.

Mangal (2008):-

Defined that, “An achievement test is essentially a tool or device of measurement that helps in ascertaining the

quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject of study or group of subject after a period of instruction by

measuring the present ability of the individual concerned.”

1951

Corresponding Author:-BhairabDattPandey.

Address:-Research Scholar, Kumaun University, S.S.J. Campus, Almora, Uttarakhand.

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(12), 1951-1954

Mathematical achievement is the competency shown by the student in mathematics. It is the result of acquired

knowledge or information, understanding, skills and techniques developed in the subject of mathematics in a

particular stage. Its measure is the score on the achievement test in mathematics.

“A study of mathematical achievement of Secondary School Students of Bageshwar District.”

To study the mathematical achievement of class X students of Secondary Schools on the basis of their sex and social

belongingness.

Research hypotheses:-

1. There is no significance difference in mathematical achievement of class X students on the basis of sex.

2. There is no significance difference in mathematical achievement of class X students on the basis of their social

belongingness.

3. There is no significance difference in mathematical achievement of class X male students on the basis of social

belongingness.

4. There is no significance difference in mathematical achievement of class X female students on the basis of their

social-belongingness.

Method:-

The descriptive or survey research method was used for present research work.

All the students studying in class X of government and private Secondary schools of Bageshwar District.

For the present study a representative sample of 243 students of class X from government and private Secondary

Schools in Bageshwar district was selected randomly.

Research tool:-

The research tool developed and standardized by Dr. Ali Imam and Dr. Tahira Khatoon was administered to the

students in the present study.

Statistical methods:-

In order to attain the objectives of the study, the investigators used Mean, S.D., and t-test‟ technique.

Table 1:- Comparison of mean mathematical achievement scores of class X from government and private

Secondary Schools of Bageshwar district on the basis of sex.

Sex N M S.D t-ratio d.f. Level

Sig.

Male 116 38.95 6.26 3.45 241 .01

Female 127 36.35 5.4 Significant

Data presented in Table 1 reveal that there exists statistically significant difference between mathematical

achievement mean scores of male and female students class X from government and private Secondary Schools of

Bageshwar district. It means that male students have better achievement in mathematics than female students.

Table 2:- Comparison of mean mathematical achievement scores of class X from government and private

Secondary Schools of Bageshwar district on the basis of their social belongingness.

Social N Mn S.D t-ratio d.f. Level of

belongingness significance

Rural 180 36.86 5.21 2.22 241 0.05

Urban 63 39.05 7.18 Significant

1952

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(12), 1951-1954

Data represented in the Table 2 reveals that there exists a statistically significant difference (t=2.22) between rural

and urban students mathematical achievement mean scores of class X from government and private Secondary

Schools of Bageshwar district. It means that urban students have more or less similar achievement in mathematics

than rural students. However the mathematical achievement mean scores of urban students (M=39.05) were founded

higher than rural students (M=36.86).

Table 2.1:- Comparison of mean mathematical achievement scores of male students of class X from government

and private Secondary Schools of Bageshwar district on the basis of their social belongingness.

Social Belongingness N M S.D. t-ratio d.f. Level of significance

Rural male 89 38.24 5.54 1.21 114 Not significant

Urban male 27 41.15 7.84

Data represented in the Table 2.1 reveals that there exist no significant difference between the mathematical

achievement mean scores of rural male and urban male (t-=1.21). It means that rural male and urban male students

class X from government and private Secondary Schools in Bageshwar district have more or less similar in their

mathematics achievement. However the mathematical achievement mean scores of urban male students (M=41.15)

were founded higher than rural male students (M=38.24).

Table 2.2:- Comparison of mean mathematical achievement scores of class X female students on the basis of their

social belongingness.

Social Belongingness N M S.D. t-test d.f.. Level of significance

Rural females 91 35.47 4.47 2.104 125 0.05

Urban females 36 37.78 5.95 Significant

Data presented in the Table 2.2 reveals that there exists statistically significant difference (t=2.22) between the

mathematical achievement mean scores of rural female and urban female students of class X from government and

private Secondary Schools in Bageshwar district. It means that urban female students have better achievement in

mathematics than rural female students.

Discussion:-

As a conclusion to this research, it can be said that since the female students, rural students and rural female students

of class X have low mathematical achievement than their counterparts. It shows that there are still possible rooms

for improvement in achievement level of female students by changing the attitude of parents and teachers towards

female student‟s mathematical learning. This can be done by abolishing gender discrimination at school and home

environment and to aware both teachers and parents about their female student‟s performance in the subject of

mathematics. It is recommended that rural parents should provide more or equal learning opportunities to their girl

students as they were providing to their boys so that they can learn mathematics at their fullest capacities. However,

it is interesting to know that social belongingness of urban male and rural male students is almost similar in their

mathematical achievement scores in Bageshwar District. However, this study cannot be conclusive as to the size of

the sample is small.

The present study shows that:

There exists a significant difference at 0.01 levels of significance between mathematical achievement of male and

female students of class X from government and private Secondary Schools in Bageshwar district. Male students of

class X standard were found better in their mathematics achievement than female students of X class. This finding

is similar to the finding of Pattison and Grieve (1984), Thomas (1991), Wajiha (2000), Patel (2002), Patel

(2012) and Olof et al. (2003) that male students are significantly better in their mathematical achievement than

female students. But it contradicts the finding of Roach (1979) that girls scored significantly higher than boys on a

mathematics achievement test. However, Mehra (2004) found no sex wise difference in the achievement of

students in mathematics and Sood (1999) found that girls achieved somewhat higher than boys, still no significant

(insignificant) differences exist in their mathematical achievement.

There exists a significant difference at 0.05 levels of significance between mathematical achievement of rural and

urban students of class X standard. This finding is in agreement with the finding of.Mehra (2004), Baskaran

(1991), Prakash (2000) and Dr. Sunil Sumar Singh, Shaheen Malik, Dr.A.K.Singh (2003) who found that urban

students were better in their mathematical achievement in compared to the rural students. However, this finding is

1953

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(12), 1951-1954

not in the line with the finding of Patel (2012), Balasubramanian and feroze (1966) who found that there was no

significant difference in achievement of boys and girls of urban localities. However, Balasubramanian and feroze

(1966) found that there exists a noticeable significant difference in the achievement of rural boys and girls.

There was found no significant difference between the mathematical achievement of rural male and urban male.

There was found a significant difference at 0.05 levels of significance between the mathematical achievement of

rural females & urban females.

Suggestions:-

1. The present study focuses on only government and private schools. It can be done in government, government-

aided, government-unaided, private, missionary and charitable schools of Bageshwar district.

2. Similar type of study can be done in the higher secondary level of education.

3. An experimental study can also be done in this area.

4. A Co relational and comparative study can also be done between the student‟s mathematical achievement and

other independent variables.

References:-

1. Balasubramanian, T. and Feroze, M. (1966): "A Comparative Study of the Academic Achievement in

Mathematics of Urban and Rural Students of Standard X in the High Schools of Coimbatore", Journal of

Educational Research and Extension, Vol. 3, No.1, p. 25.

2. Baskaran, K. (1991): Achievement motivation, attitude towards problem-solving and achievement in

mathematics of standard X students in Devekottai Educational District. In NCERT, Fifth Survey of Educational

Research (p. 1863). New Delhi: NCERT.

3. Gakhar, S.C. (1982): "A Study of Acquisition of Mathematical concepts among 8 th Grader of different types of

schools experiments in education, Vol.11, N0.9, pp. 164-167.

4. Mangal, S.K. (2008): Educational Psychology, New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., Eds.2008, pp. 393-

398.

5. Mangal, S.K. (2009): Teaching of mathematics, Arya Book Depot: New Delhi, Eds. 2009, pp 3-11.

6. Olof Bjorg Steinthorsdóttir, Bharath Sriraman (2003): Iceland and rural/urban girls- PISA examined from an

emancipatory viewpoint The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, Monograph 1, pp. 169-178

7. Panda, B.N. (2002): "A study of Factors Affecting Pupils Achievement in primary schools of Orissa". Research

project. RIE, Bhubaneswar, (N C E R T, ERIC funded): Indian Educational Abstracts: Vo1.2, No.2, July 2002,

Abstract No: 185, PP 52-53.

8. Patel, B. C. (2012). A Study of academic achievement of students in mathematics of Std-IX in relation to some

psycho-social factors (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ganpat University, GanpatVidyanagar (Kherva).

9. Patel, V. S. (2002): An investigation into the proficiency in the subject of mathematics of the primary school

teachers. In NCERT, Sixth Survey of Research in Education. New Delhi: NCERT.

10. Pattison, P. and Grive, N. (1984): "Do spatial skills contribute to sex differences in different types of

mathematical problems"; Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, P. 678-689.

11. Prakash, S. (2000) : A study of mathematical creativity and achievement of elementary school students in

relation to problem solving ability, anxiety and socio demographic variables. In NCERT, Sixth Survey of

Research in Education. New Delhi: NCERT.

12. Roach, D.A. (1979): "Effects of conceptual style Preference, Related cognitive variables and sex on

Achievement in Mathematics" British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 49, pp. 79-82.

13. Sood, S. (1999): "A study of creativity, Problem solving Ability and personality characteristics as correlates of

Mathematical Achievement of students of Residential and Non-Residential schools" Ph.D. in Education,

Punjab, University; Chandigarh.

14. Suneel Sumar Sing, Shaheen Mali. and Dr. A.K. Sing (2003): "Achievement difference in class II students in

Maths, with regard to Area, Gender, and social grounds during B.A.S and M.A.S in Gonda District". The

Educational Review, March, Vol. 46, No. 3, PP 55-57.

15. Thomas, K.J. (1991): A Study of Attitude Towards and Achievements Among Secondary School Students in

Aizawl in Mathematic Town. Aizwal: North Eastern Hill State. Unpublished M.A. (Education) Dissertation

16. Wajiha, A.H. (2002): „Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of IX Standard Students in Mathematics‟,

Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis Submitted To Karnatak University, Dharwad- 580 003.

1954

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